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句法专题 一.句子的分类 1. 英语句子按结构可分为三类:简单句,并列句和复合句 1) 简单句 只包含一个主谓结构的句子,有时主语,谓语或宾语可以是并列的。如 We help and learn from each other. Zhang Hua and Zhang Li are twins. 2) 并列句 由两个或两个以上相互关联又相互独立的简单句构成的句子, 常用并列连词

连接 and ,or ,but ,so 等连接的句子。如 I can speak English ,but I cannot write. He got up late this morning ,so he was late for school. Hurry up ,or you will be late for the meeting. 3) 复合句 一个句子的某个成分如主语,宾语,定语或状语是由一个句子来充当的,而 不是词或词组来充当的,那么这个充当成分的句子就叫从句,且充当什么成分就叫什 么从句,而整个句子就叫复合句。如 I wish I could fly to the moon in a spaceship some day. What I want is a computer. He didn’t go to bed until his wife came back from work yesterday evening . 2. 英语句子按使用的目的可以分为四类:陈述句,疑问句,祈使句和感叹句 1) 陈述句 用肯定或否定两种形式来说明事实或看法。句末用句号,朗读用降调。如 He has gone to Shanghai . You mustn’t play football in the street. 2) 疑问句 用来提问的句子。可分为四种:一般疑问句,特殊疑问句,选择疑问句和反 意疑问句。如 Are you a native here ? Do you like the food in Beijing? How long have you been here? Does your girl friend work in the bank or in the hospital? He is sleeping now ,isn’t he ? 3) 祈使句 用来表达命令,请求的句子。有肯定和否定两种形式。通常省略主语。如 Shut up ! It is none of your business. Be careful ! A dog is coming at you. Don’t hang there ! Go and do your homework ! 4) 感叹句 用来表达喜,怒,哀,惊讶等强烈感情的句子。常省略主谓成分。如 What a fine day( it is) ! How beautiful the flower is! 二.句子的成分 构成一句话的词,词组或句子 在句子中都各自起到一定的语法作用,或者说在句子 中担当一定的角色,这就是句子的成分。它们有主语,谓语,宾语,定语,补语,同位语和 状语等。 1 主语 表示句子说的是谁或是什么。它是句子的主体,一般由名词,代词或相当于名词 的词,短语或从句等充当。如 Fred is an American boy. We study in No.1 Middle School. Seeing is believing .

Whether they are to have a meeting has not been decided. 2 谓语 说明主语的动作,状态或特征。一般由动词来表示。如 They work hard . I like football. My shirt is white. 3 宾语 表示动作的对象。一般由名词,代词(宾格)或相当于名词的词,短语或从句等 来充当。如 My friend often helps me . The little monkey is eating a banana now. I want to go abroad . He enjoys hiking alone. The works believe that their boss is very bossy and mean. 4 表语 说明主语的性质,特征,身份等。一般由名词,代词 ,形容词,短语,从句等 来充当。如 Mr. Zhang is an English teacher. The sky is blue. My job is to repair computers. That cap is yours. My suggestion is that we should stop working at once. The boy is behind the tree. 5 定语 用来修饰名词或代词,起到描述,说明,限定的作用。一般由名词,形容词, 数词,介词短语,从句或相当于形容词或短语来充当。如 This is a green jeep. We have four lessons in the morning and three in the afternoon. There are more men doctors than women doctors in this hospital. The apples on the tree remain green. The man who is reading under the tree is my Chinese teacher. I have a lot of work to do today. 6 状语 用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或句子。一般说明行为发生的时间,地点,目 的,结果,方式,程度,条件等,通常由副词,介词短语,从句等来表示。如 Li Ming speaks English very well. We have sports in the afternoon. The virus of SARS can quickly spread among people. He got up very early so that he could catch the early bus. You will not pass the exam unless you work hard. 7 补语 通常是用来补充说明宾语的动作, 状态和特征的词或词组。 常被称为 宾语补 足语,当宾语变为主语时,则被称为主语补足语。用做补语的可以是名词,形容词,介词短 语,分词或不定式等。如 They call their monitor “ Big Potato”. I always find it interesting to talk with her . Frank heard the birds singing in the woods. He asked me to post the letter for him. The enemy cut his boots open. 8 同位语 通常是把一个名词或代词或相当于名词的短语或从句放在另外一个名词或

代词之后,用来说明前者的身份,国籍,年龄,地位或具体内容等。如 We Europeans enjoy your tea very much. We Chinese people are determined to make still greater contribution to the world people. They wish to be teachers ,every one of them. The old woman has not known the bad news that her son was killed in the battle. 三.重点难点解析 1 复合句 指一个主句和一个或几个从句合成的句子。 主句是全句的主要部分, 可以单独存 在。从句是主句中的一部分,不能单独存在,但从句自身必须是机构完整的,即要有主 语和谓语等成分。从句有:主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句,同位语从句,定语从句和 状语从句 1) 主语从句 在复合句中做主句主语的句子,它的作用相当于名词。引导主语从句的 连 词 有 that ,whether; 连 接 代 词 有 who ,what, which; 连 接 副 词 有 when, where ,how ,why 等。如 That she will go is certain. Whether he is coming or not doesn’t matter too much. Who will go makes no difference. What we need is more time . Which team will win the match is still unknown. When they will start has not been decided yet. Where she has gone is not known yet . How he became a great scientist is known to all. Why he did it wasn’t quite clear. 要点(1)主语从句通常不放在句首,一般是把它移到句子后面,前面用 it 来作形 式主语。如 It is certain that she will go. It wasn’t quite clear why he did it . 要点(2)引导主语从句的关联词不可省略。 要点(3)that 和 whether 在从句中不担当任何成分。 2) 表语从句 在复合句中作主句的表语的句子,它的作用相当于形容词和名词。引导 表语从句的连词有 that ,whether, as if; 连接代词有 who ,what, which;连接副词有 when, where, how, why 等。如 That is what we are worrying about. The question is not who will go, but who will stay. The question is whether it is worth doing. It looked as if it was going to snow. The trouble is that I have forgotten her address. This is how he did it . Now is when I need her most. That is why she was late. That is where he was born. 要点(1)引导表语从句的关联词通常不可以省略。 要点(2)that 和 whether 在从句中不担当任何成分。 要 点 ( 3 ) 如 果 主 语 是 idea ,advice, instruction, motion, order, plan, proposal,

recommendation, request, requirement 等名词时,从句谓语动词要用动词原形或 should+动词原形。 3) 宾语从句 当句子的宾语是一个主谓结构的分句时,就称之为宾语从句。宾语从句 可以作及物动词和介词的宾语。常由连词 that ,whether ,if; 连接代词 who ,whom, whose, which, what 或连接副词 when, where, how, why 等引导。如 I hope (that) you can come tomorrow. How dare you say (that ) it is unfair. He asked me whether/if I knew Zhang Hua. I don’t know whether or not he will come back soon. I don’t know who is there. He didn’t know whose pen it was. He asked me which man I had seen the night before. Tell me what he said. Do you know when he came back? He told me where they would have the volleyball match. I am interested in how he did it . Tell us how many books you have read. We don’t know why they haven’t come yet. 要点 1 that 在引导宾语从句时不充当任何成分,而且在口语和非正式文体中常常省 略。 要点 2 whether 后可以直接接 or not ,但 if 不可以。 要点 3 主句谓语动词如果是表示命令,要求,决定,建议,主张等概念,如 advise, ask, command, decide, demand, desire, direct, insist, move, order, propose, recommend, request require, suggest 等词汇,宾语从句的谓语动词须 用动词原形或 should + 动词原形 4) 同位语从句 用来充当同位语的句子,叫同位语从句。它一般跟在名词 fact, idea, news, hope, belief, thought, doubt, promise, order, possibility 等后面,用来说明或解释 前面的名词。引导词有连词 that,连接副词 how, when, where, why 等。如 I have no idea when he will come back. We heard the news that our team had won. The fact that the transport of the goods costs too much was not discussed. Sydney kept his promise that he would always do anything he could for Lucie to make sure of her happiness. The possibility that the majority of the labor force will work at home is often discussed. You have no idea how worried I was! 要点 1 that 在引导同位语从句时,没有任何意义,但不能省略。 要点 2 有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面, 而被其他词语隔开。 如 The thought came to him that maybe he got lost in the woods. 5) 定语从句 用来做定语的句子,叫定语从句。定语从句是对其前面的名词或代词进 行说明或限定的,被说明或限定的名词或代词叫先行词,在先行词与从句之间起连 接作用的词叫关系代词或关系副词,而且关系代词和关系副词在从句中要充当一定 的成分。定语从句起限定作用,且所提供的信息是必要的,就称为限定性定语从句; 定语从句起补充说明作用,且所提供的信息是额外的,不是必要的,就称为非限定 性定语从句;非限定性定语从句与先行词用逗号隔开。如

I want this man, who can speak English.(for he can speak English .) He gave up the plan, which was a very good one.(though it was a very good one.) She was away from her home on Christmas ,when all the families got together. The village where I was born has changed a lot. The man who speaks perfect English is my co-worker. 要点 1 关系代词的作用和分类 (1)连接作用:关系代词引导从句,把它和主句连接起来; (2)替代作用:关系代词在从句中替代它前面的先行词; (3)成分作用:关系代词:关系代词在从句中总是充当句子成分 关系代词的用法与分类有三点依据: (1) 根据所引导的从句的限制性和非限制性; (2) 根据所替代的先行词是指人还是指物; (3) 根据它在从句中所充当的成分----主语、宾语、表语或定语 要点 2 关系代词 that 和 which 的用法 1.限制性定语从句中,必须用关系代 that 的情况 (1) 当先行词是不定代词 all, much, little, something, everything, anything, nothing, none, the one 时。如: Do you have anything that you want to say for yourself? You should hand in all that you have. (2)当先行词前面被 the only, the very(恰恰,正好),any, few, little, no, all 等词修饰时。如: This is the bus that I am waiting for. The only thing that we can do is (to)give you some money. (3) 当先行词是形容词最高级或先行词的前面有形容词最高级修饰时。如: This is the best measure that has been used against pollution. This is the most interesting film that I’ve ever seen. (4) 当先行词是序数词或它前面有序数词修饰时。如: This train is the last that will go to Suzhou. What is the first American film that you have seen? (5) 当先行词既有人又有物时。如: Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about? (6) 当主句的主语是疑问词 who 或 which 时。如: Which is the bike that you lost? Who is the boy that won the gold medal? (7)有两个定词从句时,其中一个关系代词宜用 which,另外一个宜用 that。如: They secretly built up a small factory, which produced things that could cause pollution. (8) 当先行词在主句中作表语,而关系代词也在从句中作表语时。如: Shanghai is no longer the city that it used to be . 2 .定语从句中,必须用 which 的情况: (1) 在非限制性定语从句中,只用 which,不用 that。如: Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, which , of course, made the others envy him. (2) 当动词短语中的介词提前时,只用 which , 不用 that。如:

This is a house in which lu Xun once lived. 注意:在一些固定搭配的动词短语中,由于动词和介词不可分割,因此不能把介词 置于关系代词之前。如: This is the pen which/that I’m looking for. 不可以说:this is the pen for which I’m looking. [题组训练] 用关系代词 that 或 which 填空: (1) Is there anything_______ you don’t understand about the problem? (2) The worst matter ________ I’m afraid of happened in the end . (3) All the presents_________ your friends gave you on your birthday should be put away. (4) This is the very book_______ I have been looking for. (5) He was late for the opening ceremony, ______ was very surprising to me . 要点 3 关系代词 who, whom 和 whose 的用法 当先行词指人: 1. 在定语从句中作主语时,用 who,不可省略; 2. 在定语从句中作宾语时,用 whom/that,可以省略; 3. 在定语从句中作定语时,用 whose,不可省略。如: She is the girl who/that lives next door.(先行词在定语从句中作主语) 她就是住在隔壁的女孩。 That’s the girl(whom/who/that) I teach( 先 行词 在 定 语 从 句 中 作 宾 语 ) 那就是我教的女孩。 This is the scientist whose achievements are well known(先行词在定语 从句中作定语)这就是那位成就卓著的科学家。 This is the house whose window broke last night. =this is the house, the window of which broke last night. =this is the house, of which the window broke last night. 这就是昨晚窗子被打坏的那所房子。 [题组训练] 用关系代词 who, whom, that 或 whose 填空: (1) Luxun , ________ real name was Zhou Shuren, wrote many political novels and essays. (2) The man ______ you met just now is my old friend. (3) The man _______ is walking on the playground is my old friend. (4) A child ________ parents are dead is called an orphan. 要点 4 “介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 介词+关系代词”引导定语从句时,关系代词只能用 which(指物) 或 whom (指人),即:介词+which/whom。 1、 当介词放在关系代词的前面时,关系代词只能用 which 或 whom,关系代词 不能省略。如: (1) Is this the house in which Shakespeare was born? (2) He paid the boy $10 for washing ten windows, most of which hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year. (3) In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person to whom she could turn for help.

(4) Recently I bought an ancient vase, the price of which was very reasonable. (5) The gentleman about whom you told me yesterday proved to be a thief. 2、 在限制性定语从句中, 当介词位于定语从句的末尾时, 可用 that/which (指 物),that/whom/who(指人)作介词的宾语,而且作介词宾语的关系代词可 以省略。如: that This is the hero who we are proud of . whom (可省略) that This is the pen I wrote the letter with. which (可省略) 3、 “复合介词短语+关系代词 which” 引导的定语从句,这种结构引导的定语 从句常与先行词用逗号分开,定语从句常用倒装语序。如: He lived in a big house, in front of which stood a big tall tree. 4、介词+ which/whom + 不定式结构 The poor man has no house in which to live. =The poor man has no house to live in. =The poor man has no house in which he can live. The beggar has no money with which to buy food. = The beggar has no money to buy food with. = The beggar has no money that he can buy food with. [题组训练] 单项填空: ( 1 ) . Mrs.Lee will move into the new house next Monday, ________ it will be completely finished. A. by which time B. by that time C. by this time D. by the time (2). Have you seen the book ______ is yellow? A. the cover of it B. which cover C. the cover of which D. which ’s cover (3). Frank’s dream is to have his own garden ________ many beautiful flowers. A. in it to produce B. which produce C. it produces D. in which to produce 要点 5 关系代词 as 引导的定语从句 关系代词 as 既可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句, as 在从句中作主语、宾语或表语。 引导限制性定语从句常用于下列句式: 1 Such + 名词 + as ?像??一样的,像??之类 The same + 名词 + as …..和……同样的 其中关系代词 as 在从句中担当主语、宾语或表语。如: We have found such materials as are used in their factory.

我们已经找到了像他们工厂里用的那种材料。 (as 作主语) These houses are sold at such a low price as people expected.( as 作宾语) He is not the same man as he was. 他和过去不同了。 (as 作表语) 注意:such……as …引导的定语从句与 such……that……引导的状语从句的区 别: 1、 He is such a clever boy as everyone likes 2、 He is such a clever boy that everyone likes him. 第一个句子为定语从句,因为从句中缺成分;而第二句的从句不缺任何成分。 2、...such as ... Such 为代词,意为“这样的人或物” ,as 在从句中作成分,修饰先行词 such。 如: This book is not such as I expect. 这不是我想要的书。 (as 作宾语) 要点 6 关系代词 as 和 which 的区别 1、as 引导的非限制性定语从句,既可在主句前,又可在主句后,有时还可插 入主句中,而 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只能置于主句之后。相同的是两 者都可替代主句的整个内容,而不是主句中的某一个词,如: The weather turned out to be very good, which was more than we could expect. 2, 当 非 限 定 定 语 从 句 放 在 主 句 前 面 时 , 只 能 用 as. 如 As is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. = The moon travels round the earth once every month, as/which is known to everybody. = It is known to everybody that the moon travels round the earth once every month. = What is known to everybody is that the moon travels round the earth once every month. 后两句属名词性从句范畴。 另外,as 多用于下列习惯用语中:as anybody can see 正如人人都能看到的那样; as is well-known = as is known to all 众所周知;as we expected 正如我们所预料的那 样;as often happens 正如经常发生的那样;as has been said before 如一所述;as is mentioned above 正如上面提到的。 3,当定语从句放在主句后面时,也并不是 as 就永远等于 which . (1) 当非限制性定语从句是否定句或表示否定时只能用 which。 如: He came here very late, which was unexpected (not expected) (2) 当 as 在从句中作主语时,后面常接动词的被动语态。如: be known, be said, be reported, be announced 等。如果从句中行为动词是主动语态,一般用 which 作 主语。如: She has been absent again, as is expected. 她又缺席了,这在预料之中。 Tom has made rapid progress, which makes me very happy. 汤姆进步很快,这使我很高兴。 (3) As 常用在 as (it) seems likely, as (it) often happens, as (it) was printed out , as (it) was said earlier, as I remember(it), as I understand (it) , as (it) appears 等结构中.如: Jack has won the first prize, as it often happens. 像往常一样,杰克得了一等奖.

She has read widely in Romantic literature, as it appears from her essay 她 广 泛 涉 猎了 浪 漫主 义 文 学 , 这从 她的 文 章 中 可以 看 出来。 (4)As 仍然保持作连词时常有的某种含义。如: David is tall, as are my brothers 戴维很高,我的兄弟也一样。 He opposed the idea, as could be expected. 不出所料他反对这个意见。 (5)当非限制性定语从句的谓语是一个复合结构时,只能用 which 引导定语从句。 如: Betty always tells a lie, which her parents find strange. (6) 当非限制性定语从句为否定句时,常用 which。如: Mr. Smith usually praises his student Rose in public, which she doesn’t like at all. [题组训练] 用 as, which, it, what, that 填空: (1).He is such a lovely student________ everyone likes. (2) He is such a lovely student ________ everyone likes him. (3) ______ is known to us all is that China has the largest population in the world. (4) _______ is known to us all that China has the largest population in the world. (5) _______ is known to us all, China has the largest population in the world. (6) That student that the teacher thinks best played truant( 逃 学)yesterday,______ made the teacher very disappointed. 要点 7 关系副词 1 当先行词在定语从句中作状语时,要用关系副词。其中 when = 表时间的介词 ( 如: in, at, during 等) + which; where = 表地点的介词( 如:in, at, on, under 等)+ which; why = 表原因的介词( 如:for )+ which; how = 表方式的介词(如: in)+ which。 如: I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing. ( when = on which ) Can you tell me the office where he works? (where = in which ) Do you know the reason why he is absent? (why = for which) That’s the way how I learn English. ( how = in which) 2 介词+关系代词(which) = where/when。 有时为表达清楚,还可以在关系 副词 where/when 前加介词 from, to 等。 如: China is the birth place of kites, from where kite flying spread to Japan, Korea, Thailand and India . 3 dc\对关系副词 where 的考查趋于复杂,从先行词为明显的“地点”转为“地 点的模糊化”。事实上,对于 where 这个词,考生不能只理解为表地点。当先行词表示 某人/物的 situation ,或某事所发展的 stage,或表达某事的某个方面时都可用 where 这个关系副词。如: They have reached the point where they have to separate with each other.他们

已经到了必须彼此分手的地步。 这种用法不是仅仅限于定语从句, 特殊疑问句中的 where, 名词性从句中的 where 都有 这种用法。如: Where will all this trouble lead? 这个麻烦事会惹出什么结果? That is where you are mistaken. 这就是你的错误所在。 [题组训练] 用适当的关系词填空: (1)We are living in an age ______ many things are done on computer. (2)We are living in an age _______ we have a lot of things to learn about. (3)I can think of many cases _______ students obviously know a lot of English words and expressions but couldn’t write a good essay. (4)I can think of many cases ______ you know nothing about. 要点 8 关系代词和关系副词的比较 引导定语从句的关系代词及关系副词除了起连接先行词和从句的作用外,它们 还有一个最重要的作用,那就是它们分别在定语从句中作成分。具体地说,关系代词在 定语从句中作主语、宾语或表语,而关系副词在定语从句中作状语。因此,在选择关系 语词时,最重要的是分析一下定语从句中的成分,若从句中缺主语、宾语或表语,那么 必须用关系代词;若从句中不缺主语、宾语或表语,那么必须用关系副词。 试比较下面的句子: (1) Do you still remember the days that/which we spent in Qingdao? 你还记得我们一起在青岛度过的日子吗? (2) Do you still remember the days when spent the summer holidays in Qingdao? 你还记得我们在青岛过暑假的日子吗? [题组训练] 用 that, when, why, where, which 真空: (1) I want to know the date ____ you were born. (2) I have remembered the date _____ I forgot just now. (3) Do you know the reason _______ he is absent today?

(4) That is the reason ________ I want to know. (5) This is the factory ________ his father works. (6) This is the factory _______ his father built. 要点 9 定语从句其他用法 1, 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,不可省略 2, 定语从句中的谓语动词与先行词保持一致 当引导定语从句的关系代词在从句中作主语时,那么定语从句中的谓语动词在人 称、数的方面,应该与先行词保持一致。 (1)One of + 复数名词 + 关系代词 + 复数动词。如: The Great Wall is one of the world-famous buildings that draw lots of visitors. 长城是吸引大批游客的世界著名的建筑之一。 Titanic is one of the most wonderful movies that have been produced in Hollywood. 《泰坦尼克号》是好莱坞生产的最精彩的电影之一。 (2)the only one of + 复数名词 + 关系代词 + 单数动词。如: The Great Wall is the only one of the buildings on the earth that is seen from the moon. 长城是地球上唯一一个能从月球上看到的建筑物。 Titanic is the only one of these wonderful movies that has been produced in Hollywood. 在这些精彩的电影中,《泰坦尼克号》是唯一由好莱坞制作的电影。 注意:not the only one of ...= one of... 如: Tom isn’t the only one of the boys who have passed the exam. = Tom is one of the boys who have passed the exam. 汤姆并非是唯一通过考试的男孩。 = 汤姆只是通过考试的男孩中的一个。 (3)当关系代词 as 与 which 引导非限制性定语从句, 修饰主句内容时, 若 as 与 which 作主语,则从句的谓语动词用单数形式。如: Great changes have taken place in China, as is known to all.

He has passed the college entrance examination, which makes his parents quite happy. (4) 其它情况: I, who am your teacher, will try my best to help you. To own a computer in families, which we thought was impossible twenty years ago, now becomes true. Have you heard of the persons and things that are being talked about? [题组训练] 用动词的适当形式填空: (1) He is one of the students who _______ (have) passed the exam. (2) He is the only one of the students who _______ (have) passed the exam. (3) He is not the only one of the students who _____ (have) passed the exam. (4) I, who _______ ( be ) very busy, can’t help them at the moment. (5) As ________ ( be ) known to everybody, Taiwan is a part of China. We must unify it. (6) The idea, which I think ______ ( be ) reasonable, was brought up by Professor Li yesterday. (7) I still remember the teachers and the school that ______ ( be ) talked of yesterday evening. 3, 注意 way 和 time 后接定语从句的情况 (1) 当先行词是 way 意为“方式、方法” 时,引导定语从句的关系词有下列三 种形式。如: in which What surprised me was not what he said but the way that 不填 he said it

注意下面两个句子中关系词的不同,试比较: that The way which he explained to us was quite simple. 不填 他向我们解释的那种方法很简单。 that The way in which he explained the sentence to us was not difficult to understand.

他向我们解释句子的那种方法不难理解。 先行词是 time 时,若 time 作“次数”讲时,应用关系代词 that 引导定语从 句,that 可省略;若 time 作“一段时间”讲时,应用关系副词 when 或介词 at/during + which 引导定语从句。如: This is the second time( that ) the President has visited the country. I could hardly remember how many times ( that )I’ve failed. This was at a time when/during which there were no radios, no telephones or TV sets. [题组训练]用适当的关系代词或关系副词填空: (1) I don’t like the way _______ you laugh at her. (2) This is the second time ________ I have been here. (3) Can you still remember the time _______ we spent together in our childhood? (4) The first time ______ he saw her, he fell in love with her. 定语从句专项练习题 1.The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace. A. Which B. where C. what D. in which 2.Do you know the man _______? A. whom I spoke B. to who spoke C. I spoke to D. that I spoke 3.This is the hotel _______last month. A. which they stayed B. at that they stayed C. where they stayed at D. where they stayed 4.Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded? A. which B. that C. when D. on which 5.That is the day ______I'll never forget. A. which B. on which C. in which D. when 6.The factory ______we'll visit next week is not far from here. A. where B. to which C. which D. in which 7.Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working. A. where B. that C. which D. there 8.This is one of the best films _______. A. that have been shown this year B. that have shown C. that has been shown this year D. that you talked 9.Can you lend me the book ______the other day? A. about which you talked B. which you talked C. about that you talked D. that you talked 10.The pen ______he is writing is mine. A. with which B. in which C. on which D. by which 11.They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy. A. whom B. who C. which D. that 12.The engineer ______my father works is about 50 years old. A. to whom B. on whom C. with which D. with whom

13.Is there anyone in your class ______family is in the country? A. who B. who's C. which D. whose 14.I'm interested in ______you have said. A. all that B. all what C. that D. which 15.I want to use the same dictionary ______was used yesterday. A. which B. who C. what D. as 16.He isn't such a man ______he used to be. A. who B. whom C. that D. as 17.He is good at English, ______we all know. A. that B. as C. whom D. what 18.Li Ming, ______to the concert enjoyed it very much. A. I went with B. with whom I went C. with who I went D.I went with him 19.I don't like ______ as you read. A. the novels B. the such novels C. such novels D. same novels 20.He talked a lot about things and persons ________they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom D. what 21.The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing. A. which B. that C. whom D. who 22.In our factory there are 2,000 workers, two thirds of ____are women. A. them B. which C. whom D. who 23.You're the only person ______I've ever met ______could do it. A. who;/ B./; whom C. whom;/ D./; who 24.I lost a book, ______I can't remember now. A. whose title B. its title C. the title of it D. the title of that 25.Last summer we visited the West Lake, ______Hangzhou is famous in the world. A. for which B. for that C. in which D. what 26.I have bought such a watch _______ was advertised on TV. A. that B. which C. as D. it 27.I can never forget the day _______ we worked together and the day ______ we spent together. A. when; which B. which; when C. what; that D. on which; when 28.The way ______he looks at problems is wrong. A. which B. whose C. what D./ 29.This is the reason ______he didn't come to the meeting. A. in which B. with which C. that D. for which 30.This machine, ______for many years, is still working perfectly. A. after which I have looked B. which I have looked after C. that I have looked after D. I have looked after 31.The reason ______he didn't come was ______he was ill. A. why; that B .that; why C. for that; that D. for which; what 32.He is working hard, ______will make him pass the final exam. A.that B. which C. for which D. who 33.That is not the way ______I do it. A. / B. which C. for which D. with which 34.I have two grammars, ______are of great use.

A. all of which B. either of which C. both of that D. both of which 35.I want to use the same tools _______used in your factory a few days ago. A. as was B. which was C. as were D. which 36.My neighbours used to give me a hand in time of trouble, _______ was very kind of them. A. who B. which C. that D. it 37.This is the magazine _______ I copied the paragraph. A. that B. which C. from that D. from which 38.He is not such a man _______ would leave his work half done. A. that B. which C. who D. as 39. You can depend on whatever promise _______ he makes. A. / B. why C. when D. whose 40. Smoking, _______ is a bad habit, is, however, popular. A. that B. which C. it D. though 41. --- Did you ask the guard _______ happened? --- Yes, he told me all _______ he knew. A. what; that B. what; what C. which; which D. that; that 42. I shall never forget those years _______ I lived on the farm with the farmers, _______ has a great effect on my life. A. when; who B. that; which C. which; that D. when; which 43. The number of the people who _______ cars _______ increasing. A. owns; are B. owns; is C. own; is D. own; are 44. During the days ________, he worked as a servant at the Browns. A. followed B. following C. to follow D. that followed 45. Is oxygen the only gas _______ helps fire burn? A. that B. / C. which D. it 46. The clever boy made a hole in the wall, _______ he could see _____ was going on inside house. A. which; what B. through which; what C. through that; what D. what; that 47. Is _______ some German friends visited last week? A. this school B. this the school C. this school one D. this school where 48. John got beaten in the game, _______ had been expected. A. as B. that C. what D. who 49. I have bought two ballpens, _______ writes well. A. none of them B. neither of them C. neither of which D. none of which 50. All that can be eaten _______ eaten up. A. are being B. has been C. had been D. have been



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