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2013高考英语二轮复习考能特训语法精讲课件8--动词的时态和语态


语法专题八

动词的时态和语态

语法精讲

1.一般现在时 一般现在时由动词原形构成,如果主语是第三人 称单数,则在动词原形后加s或es,即用动词的单数

形式。一般现在时主要有以下用法:
(1)表示经常发生的动作、习惯性的动作。常用的 时间状语有:often,usually,always

,sometimes, every day,seldom,in the afternoon,on Sunday,

twice a week,every Friday afternoon等。
David usually goes to school by school bus. 大卫通常乘坐校车去上学。 It seldom snows here,but often rains. 这儿很少下雪,但经常下雨。

(2)表示现在存在着的状态或主语常带有的特征或
性格。 The main course tastes really good. 这道主菜尝起来真的很好吃。 (3)表示客观真理、科学事实、格言及其他不受时 间限制的客观存在。

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
太阳东升西落。 (4)在含有宾语从句的复合句中,尽管主句用过去 时态,但如果宾语从句所述的内容是客观真理或事 实,从句的谓语动词仍用一般现在时。

My teacher once told me the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is made up of four countries.

我的老师曾经告诉我,大不列颠岛由四个部分组
成。 (5)在时间或条件状语从句中,表示将来的动作或 状态。

I will not go to the party unless I am invited.
除非受到邀请,否则我不会去参加这个晚会。 (6)表示已经安排或计划好的,将来必定会发生的, 或不易改变的动作或存在的状态,如根据飞机、火 车、汽车时刻表而来的班次、车次时间等。常用

be,come,go,arrive,leave,start,fall,return等动词。
His plane takes off at 8∶00 a.m.. 他乘坐的飞机早晨8点起飞。

(7)用于图片说明、电影剧情解释或体育实况报道
中,表示正在进行的动作。 Tom passes the ball to Henry,Henry shoots and the goalkeeper leaps for it.

汤姆把球传给享利,享利一脚射去,守门员跳起
来去接。 (8)有几个由here,there开头的句子,表示现在正 在发生的动作或存在的状态。 Here comes the bus!汽车来了。

There goes the bell.Let?s hurry!铃响了,我们
快点! 2.一般过去时

一般过去时主要表示过去某时发生的动作或情况,
常常与表示过去的时间状语连用,如yesterday,last month,in 2005,a few minutes ago,before liberation,just now,last week等。如果

句中没有明确的时间状语,那么在上下文中就一
定有表明过去的时间状语或可以体现“动作情况” 的概念。一般过去时的主要用法: (1)表示在过去时间里发生的动作或存在的状态。 Dinosaurs died out about 65 million years

ago.
恐龙在约6 500万年前灭绝了。 (2)表示过去经常或反复发生的动作。可以用

“used to+动词原形”或“would+动词原形”来表
示。 When I was a little girl,I used to play in the park.

3.一般将来时
(1)表示将来发生的动作或将来存在的状态,常与 表示将来的时间状语连用,如tomorrow,next week,in a few days,next Saturday等。 There will be a film in our school tomorrow

evening.
明天晚上我们学校有一场电影。 (2)表示某个时刻或某段时间内将要发生的动作,

更多地用于带有条件从句的主句中。
I?ll ask her about it the moment she arrives. 她一来我就向她询问这件事。 (3)表示一种倾向或固有特性。

A lion will never attack an elephant.
狮子不会攻击大象的。 (4)现在对将来的事情作出决定。 4.将来进行时 将来进行时由“shall be/will be+现在分词”构

成。主要有以下用法:
(1)表示在将来某一时刻或某一段时间正在进行的 动作,常常带有时间状语或时间状语从句。 I will be waiting for you there at three tomorrow afternoon. 明天下午3点我将在那儿等你。

He will be working abroad this time next year.
明年的这个时候他将在国外工作。 (2)表示按计划将来要发生的动作。 They will be having their holidays in June. 他们将于6月份度假。

5.现在完成时
现在完成时由“have/has+过去分词”构成,主 要有以下用法:

(1)表示从过去某时开始一直延续到现在(也许还
将继续延续下去)的动作或状态。常与for或since表 示时间段的状语连用;也可与表示到目前为止的时 间状语连用,如in the past/last few weeks,so far,

up to now,ever since等。
I have worked as a teacher in this school since I graduated from university. 自从大学毕业以来,我一直在这所学校当老师。 They have finished the work so far.

到目前为止他们已经完成了那份工作。
注意 come,go,leave,arrive,join,die,marry等 瞬间动词,不能与for,since等表示一段时间的状语

连用。而应该用与它们相应的可持续的动词或状态
来表达。 My brother has joined the army for three years.(错)

My brother has been in the army for three
years.(对) She has left Shanghai for two weeks.(错) She has been away from Shanghai for two weeks.(对)

(2)表示过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或
结果。现在完成时把过去的动作和现在的结果联系 起来,常与不确定的时间状语连用,如

already,just,yet,ever,never,recently,lately,once,
twice等。 He has visited Beijing several times. 他去过北京好几次了。

注意

have/has gone to与have/has been to的

用法不同。 (1)He has gone to Paris. 他已经去巴黎了。(说明他已前往巴黎,或在途中, 或已到达) (2)He has been to Paris. 他曾去过巴黎。(说明他以前到过巴黎,但现在已 经不在巴黎了) (3)现在完成时在时间和条件状语从句中表示在将 来某时要做完的动作。 I?ll return the book to you as soon as I have

finished it.
我一看完就把这本书还给你。

6.过去完成时
by,by the end of,by the time,until,before,since后接表示过去某一时间的短 语或从句,表示在此之前发生的动作。 By the end of last year,we had produced

20,000 cars.
到去年年底,我们已生产了20 000辆车。 The train had left before we reached the station. 我们到车站前火车就走了。 注意 (1)intend,mean,hope,want,plan,

suppose, expect,think等动词的过去完成时可
用来表示一个本来打算做而没有做的事。这种用法 也可表示过去未曾实现的设想、意图或希望等,含 有惋惜的感情色彩。 (2)过去完成时常用在有

hardly,scarcely,barely,no sooner...than等副词的
句子中,这种结构表示“不等……就……;刚 刚……就……”。 We had scarcely (hardly) left the house when it began to rain. 我刚刚离开家,天就开始下雨了。

7.现在完成进行时
(1)表示一个从过去某时开始发生,一直延续到现 在并可能延续下去的动作。 I?ve been waiting for an hour but she still hasn?t come.

我已等了一个小时,但她还没有来。
(2)表示重复(指断断续续,而非一直不停) —Which T?shirt will you want?——你想要哪

件T恤衫?
—I?ll take the blue one.——我要那件蓝色的。 8.一般将来时 其主要有以下表现形式:

(1)“shall/will+动词原形”表示单纯的将来。当主
语是第一人称时,用will或shall;当主语是第二、三 人称时,用will。 I shall/will be twenty years old next year.我明 年20岁。

注意

在条件、时间、让步状语从句中,应该用

一般现在时代替一般将来时,即will一般不用于以 when,if引导的状语从句中。

I?ll help you with your English this evening if
I am free. 如果今晚我有空的话,我将帮助你学习英语。 但will表示“决心,意愿”时,可以用在条件状

从句中,此时它是情态动词。
If you won?t listen to us,just do as you please. 如果你不愿意听我们的,那就请便吧。 (2)“be going to+动词原形”表示打算、计划、 准备做的事,或即将发生或肯定要发生的事。

I?m going to write to my parents this
afternoon. 我打算今天下午给我的父母写信。

注意

对于不受人们意志控制的将来动作,也就

是非人们主观所能安排的将来动作,只能用be going to表示。 It?s going to rain.要下雨了。

(3)be+动词不定式,表示按计划将发生的动作,
或表示职责、义务、意图、可能性等。 We are to meet at the entrance to the theatre. 我们约定在剧院的入口处见面。 (4)be about to do something(when...)表示即将 做某事,句中一般不用时间状语,when从句表示突 发性动作。有时也用be on the point of doing something(when...)句型。 I was about to leave when the telephone rang. 我正要出门,电话铃声响了。 The ship was on the point of setting off when

the captain got the warning message.
轮船正要起航,船长就接到了警告信息。

(5)英语中有些表示移动的动词,如
go,come,leave,start,stay,fly,arrive,move,return,s ail,drive,meet,begin等,可用进行时态表示将来时 态,有时会与一个表示将来时间的状语连用。 I don?t know when they are leaving for Paris.

我不知道他们什么时候前往巴黎。
(6)一般现在时表示一般将来时。 The meeting starts at five o?clock.会议五点钟

开始。
9.现在进行时 表示说话时正在发生着的一个动作;表示现阶段 但不一定是发生在讲话时的动作;表示近期特定的

安排或计划;go,come等起止动作可用进行时代
替将来时。 He is teaching English and learning Chinese. 他正在教英语并且学汉语。 The girl is always talking loud in public. 这位女孩总是当众大声说话。(进行时与 always,often等频度副词连用,表示经常反复的行 动或某种感情色彩) 10.过去进行时 (1)表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或某一阶段 内发生或频繁发生的动作。

(2)某一动作发生时另一动作正在发生,其中一个
在由when或while引导的时间状语从句中。

英语中的语态分主动语态和被动语态两种,是根 据主语与谓语动词之间的关系划分的,如果主语是 动作的执行者,谓语动词就用主动语态;如果主语 是动作的承受者,就用被动语态。

1.构成
被动语态的构成:be+及物动词的过去分词,be 本身无词义,但有时态、人称和数的变化。下表是 不同情况下被动语态的形式。

类别

构成形式

例句

一般现在时 am/is/are+done English is widely used in the world.
一般过去时 was/were+done We were asked to help them. 一般将来时 will/shall+be done 时 态 过去将来时 should/would+ be done 现在进行时 is/am/are+bein g done A class meeting will be held next Monday. She said those flowers should be watered. The blackboard is being painted now.

过去进行时 was/were+bein g done 现在完成时 have/has+been done

Those flowers were being watered when I left. All these flowers have been watered.

过去完成时 had+been done The building had been completed before I arrived.

含情态动词

情态动词+be done

These books may be kept for two weeks.

谓 含双宾语 语 动 词

变其中一个,大 多把表示人的间 接宾语变为主语 其中构成短语动 词的介词或副词 不可以丢掉,如 look after/call on/take care of/pay attention to等

He was given some books./Some books were given to him.

短语动词

The old woman was often aughed at. Time must be made full use of.

一般情况 复 合 用不带to 宾 的不定式 语 作宾补的 感官动词 和使役动 词

宾语变主语, 宾补就成了主 补

He was seen sitting there without doing anything. He was made our monitor.

感官动词和使 役动词在被动 The children were made 语态中的宾语 to work 12 hours a day. 补足语to要带上, She was heard to play the 常用动词有: see/hear/have/ piano in her room last watch/notice/h night. elp/feel等

2.被动语态的用法
以下几种情况须用被动语态: (1)不知道动作的执行者或没必要指明谁是动作的 执行者。 Printing was introduced into Europe from

China.
印刷术是从中国引入欧洲的。 All the work has been finished by now.

所有的工作现在都已经完成了。
(2)强调动作的承受者。 Health is valued above everything.健康高于一 切。

The injured were allowed home after
treatment. 受伤者在治疗后获准回家。 (3)动作的执行者是无生命的事物时。 The window glass was broken by a stone.

窗户玻璃是被石头打碎的。
We were shocked by the news of his death. 我们听到他的死讯极为震惊。

(4)在文章标题、广告、新闻等中。
Girls wanted.招女工。(广告标题,省略了助动 词are) The destroyer is reported to have been sunk.

据报道,这艘驱逐舰被击沉。
注意 但是当宾语是反身代词、同源宾语、表示 地点/处所/团体的名词、不定式、动词的?ing形式 时,句子不可以用被动语态。 3.主动形式表被动意义

(1)系动词
look,sound,feel,smell,taste,appear,seem,go,pro ve,turn,stay,become,fall,get,grow,keep+形容词/

名词构成系表结构。
The steel feels cold. His plan proved(to be) practical. It has gone bad.

(2)表示开始、结束、运动的动词,如
begin,finish,start,open,close,stop,end,shut,run, move等。 Work began at 7 o?clock this morning. The shop closes at 6 p.m. every day.

(3)表示主语的某种属性或特征的动词,如
read,write,act,iron,cut,draw,drive,sell,wash,clea n,wear,open,cook,lock,shut,dry,eat,drink。这类 动词一般不单独使用,常有一个修饰语与之搭配。 This coat dries easily.这种外衣容易干。 Nylon cleans easily.尼龙容易洗干净。

Food can keep fresh in a fridge.食物在冰箱里
能保鲜。 Your speech reads well.你的演说讲得好。 This material has worn thin. 这个材料已经磨薄了。

The match won?t catch.火柴擦不着。
The plan worked out wonderfully.这个计划制 定得很好。

The engine won?t start.引擎发动不起来。
(4)少数动词用于进行时,其主动形式表示被动含 义,如print,cook,fry,hang,build,make。 The books are printing.这本书正在排印中。

The meat is cooking.肉在煮。
(5)介词in,on,under等+名词构成介词短语表示被 动意义。表示方位的介词与含动作意义的名词合用, 有被动之意,其意义相当于该名词相应动词的被动 形式,名词前一般不用冠词。常见的有:under

control(受控制);under treatment(在治疗中);
under repair(在修理中);under discussion(在讨 论中);under construction(在施工中);beyond

belief(令人难以置信);beyond one?s reach(鞭长莫
及);beyond one?s control(无法控制);beyond our hope(我们始料不及);for sale(出售);for rent(出 租);in print(在印刷中);in sight(在视野范

围内);on sale(出售);on show(展出);on trial(受
审);out of control(控制不了);out of sight(超出 视线之外);out of one?s reach(够不着);out of fashion(不流行)。 The rumor is beyond belief(=can?t be

believed).
His honest character is above all praise.(=His honest character cannot be praised

enough.)
Today some treasures are on show (=are being shown) in the museum. (6)不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语:

fit,have,wish,cost,agree with,arrive at/in,shake
hands with,succeed in,suffer from,happen to,take part in,walk into,belong to等。 This key just fits the lock. Your story agrees with what had already

been heard.
1.一般过去时和现在完成时的用法区别

(1)一般过去时所表示的一个或一段过去时间是可
以具体确定的,与其他时间没有牵连。它所表示的 事情纯属过去,与现在情况没有联系。现在完成时 表示的事情发生在不能具体指出的与现在有联系的

过去某个或某段时间。它所表示的事情与现在情况
有关系,是过去事情对现在产生的结果或对现在的 影响。 (2)比较下面几组句子,体会两种时态的不同: He served in the army from 1952 to 1954.

(这是过去的一件事)
He has served in the army for 5 years. (现在他仍在军中服役,他仍是军人)

He wrote many plays when he was at college.
(写剧本是他过去做的事情) He has written many plays. (这意味着他是剧作家)

I saw Hero last year.
(看《英雄》的时间是去年,与现在无关) I have seen Hero before. (强调现在知道这部电影的内容。以前看过,但 “以前”是表示一个与现在有联系的过去时间,


不是一个确定的与现在无关的过去时间) 2.一般过去时和过去完成时的用法区别

(1)一般过去时是对现在说话时刻而言的,过去完
成时则是对过去某一时刻而言。两种时态建立的时 间参照点不同,对过去完成时来说,这个时间参照 点十分重要,它是过去完成概念赖以建立的基础,

(2)过去完成时的时间状语常用by和before引导的
短语表示,如by that time,by the end of,before 2000,by the time等。 3.过去完成时与现在完成时的用法区别 (1)两种时态都常与表示一段时间的状语连用,但

现在完成时表示的是延续到现在或同现在有关的动
作(句中不可以有表示过去特定时间的状语);而过去 完成时表示的是在过去某时之前已经完成或延续到 过去某时的动作(句中有表示过去特定时间的状语)。

(2)比较下面的说法
She had been ill for a week before she came back. (回来发生在过去某一时间,生病发生在过去的 过去)

She has been ill for a week.
(现在仍然病着)

语法精练
1.This company is closing up,so lots of workers will be A.laid down . B.laid out

C.laid off
答案 解析 C

D.laid aside

考查同一动词与不同介词、副词搭配的不

同含义。lay down放下,丢弃;lay out摆出,摊开;
lay aside贮存;把……放置到一旁;lay off(因不景 气)暂时解雇。依据上句“公司要倒闭”可知C项 正确。

2.(2009· 北京,23)Scientists have many theories
about how the universe A.came into being. B.was coming

C.had come
答案 解析 态。 A

D.would come

宇宙形成是过去的事情,故用一般过去时

3.(2009· 北京,30)When I talked with my grandma
on the phone,she sounded weak,but by the time we C.hung up,her voice had been full of life. B.had hung D.would hang A.were hanging

答案
解析

C
hang up的动作应发生在had been full of life之

后,故应用一般过去时表示。

4.(2009· 北京,32)John was given the same
suitcase his father and grandfather them to school. A.took C.were taking B.had taken D.would take with

答案
解析

B
定语从句his father and grandfather with them

to school中的动词take动作发生在was given之前, 故应用过去完成时态。

5.No one told us that the meeting would be it was raining. A.put down C.put on 答案 B B.put off D.put out

if

解析

put down写下,记录;put off推迟,延期;

put on穿上;put out熄灭。

6.(2009· 湖南,35)
—The food here is nice enough. —My friend A.introduces B.introduced me a right place.

C.had introduced
D.was introducing 答案 B

解析

句意为:——这里的食物足够好了。——

我的朋友给我介绍了一个合适的地方。从句意看, 空格处的动作introduce是发生在过去的动作,所以 用一般过去时态。

7.(2009· 江西,29)
—What is the price of petrol these days? —Oh,it A.is raised C.has arisen sharply since last month. B.has risen D.is increased

答案
解析

B
由since last month可知应该用现在完成时,首

先排除A、D。再根据句意可知应该选B。rise是不 及物动词,意为“上升”,符合题意。arise意为 “站立,出现”,不符合语境。

8.(2009· 宁夏/海南,26)His sister left home in
1998,and since. A.had not been heard of B.has not been heard of C.had not heard of

D.has not heard of
答案 解析 B 句意为:他的妹妹自从1998年离开家后一直

杳无音讯。根据句意,指从1998年后到现在一直没 有音讯,故应用现在完成时,排除A和C项;又因 他的妹妹和hear of之间是被动关系,故排除D项。

9.(2009· 宁夏/海南,29)Edward,you play so well.
But I you played the piano. B.hadn?t known D.haven?t known A.didn?t know C.don?t know 答案 A

解析

句意为:Edward,你弹的真好。但是我以前

不知道你会弹钢琴。根据句意知是以前不知道,现 在听他弹了并作了评价应该是现在知道了,故用一 般过去时态。

10.(2009· 山东,25)The number of foreign students
attending Chinese universities steadily since 1997. A.is C.has been B.are D.have been rising

答案
解析

C
“the number of+n.”作主语时,其谓语动词

用单数形式;由since 1997可知句子的时态应用现 在完成时。

11.(2009· 重庆,23)She stared at the painting,
wondering where she A.saw C.sees 答案 D it. B.has seen D.had seen

解析

句意为:她盯着这幅画,想知道她在哪儿

见过它。动作see在stare at之前已发生,又因stare at 发生在过去,故see应该是过去的过去,用过去完 成时,故选D。

12.(2008· 全国Ⅰ,27)
—Have you known Dr.Jackson for a long time? —Yes,since she A.has joined the Chinese Society. B.joins

C.had joined
答案 解析 D

D.joined

考查主句用现在完成时,since引导的从句

用一般过去时这一结构。

13.(2008· 全国Ⅰ,29)The wet weather will continue tomorrow,when a cold front A.is expected C.expects 答案 A B.is expecting D.will be expected to arrive.

解析

考查when引导的时间状语从句用一般现在

时代替一般将来时及expect的用法。cold front意为 “冷锋”。

14.(2008· 安徽,22)
—Did you watch the basketball match yesterday? —Yes,I did.You know,my brother match. in the

A.is playing
C.has played 答案 解析 B

B.was playing
D.had played

句意为:——你昨天看篮球赛了吗?——

看了。你要知道,我的弟弟在那场比赛中上场打球。 故此处应该用过去进行时态。

15.(2008· 安徽,33)I like these English songs and
they A.taught C.are taught 答案 D many times on the radio. B.have taught D.have been taught

解析

句意为:我喜欢这些英语歌曲,它们在收音

机里已经被播放过多次了。此处用现在完成时态 表示结果,且应该用被动形式。

16.(2008· 福建,25)So far this year we A.saw C.had seen 答案 D B.see D.have seen

a fall in

house prices by between 5 and 10 percent.

解析

so far一般与现在完成时连用。

17.—Haven?t I told you that I like my beef well
done? —Yes,but I A.am cooking C.cook it longer than I usually do. B.had cooked D.cooked

答案
解析

D
考查时态。依据语境可知beef已做好端上来,

故用过去时。

18. I don?t know what to
A.take in C.take off 答案 D

at the university.I
B.take over D.take up

can?t make any forecasts about my future.

解析

take up从事……活动;修……课程,符合

题意。take in拿进;收容;欺骗;take over接管; take off起飞;脱下(衣)。

19.(2008· 辽宁,23)We first met on a train in 2000.
We both felt immediately that we other for years. A.knew C.had known B.have known D.know each

答案
解析

C
句意为:我们于2000年在火车上第一次相

遇。我们两人都立刻觉得我们好像已认识了好多 年。that从句中know的动作发生在句子谓语动词 felt之前,因此从句谓语动词应用过去完成时态。

20.(2008· 辽宁,29)
—Have you got any job offers? —No.I A.waited C.have waited . B.had been waiting D.am waiting

答案
解析

D
句意为:——有人给你提供工作了吗?—

—没有,我正在等着。”用现在进行时态表示正在 进行的动作或存在的状态。

21.The exchange program between the UK and
China may affect various schools, kindergartens to high schools. A.spreading C.ranging B.locating D.including from

答案
解析

C
考查动词词义辨析。range from...to...指变

化、数量、程度等的范围从……到……。

22.Franklin?s ability to learn from observations
and experience in public life. A.owed C.attached B.contributed D.related greatly to his success

答案
解析

B
contribute to有助于,导致,符合题意。

owe to由于,后应跟原因。attach to附着于;relate to与……相关。

23.(2008· 陕西,15)
—Did you go to the show last night? —Yeah.Every boy and girl in the area invited. A.were B.have been

C.has been
答案 解析 D

D.was

主语是every boy and girl,表示单数概念,故

谓语动词用单数,且询问昨晚的情况,有明确的过去 时间,所以应选择was。

24.(2008· 陕西,17)Though we don?t know what
was discussed, yet we can feel the topic A.had changed B.will change C.was changed .

D.has been changed
答案 解析 D 本题中使用了一般现在时态,the topic与

change之间为逻辑上的动宾关系,故须用被动语态, 且是造成对现在的一种感觉,故又应该用完成时态。

25.(2008· 四川,7)The telephone
time I got indoors,it stopped. A.had rung C.rings 答案 B

,but by the

B.was ringing D.has rung

解析

由句意“电话响着,但我进入室内时停了”

可知,该题表达的时间与过去有关,而与现在无 关。由此,排除C、D两项。而如果选A项,则与 后面it stopped在逻辑上存在错误。

26.(2008· 浙江,5)I don?t believe you?ve already
finished reading the book— I this morning! A.would lend C.had lent B.was lending D.lent it to you

答案
解析

D
根据句意“我认为你还没有读完这本书—

—我今天早晨刚把它借给你”可知,是对过去事 情的一个描述。

27.(2008· 浙江,7)
—What?s that noise? —Oh, I forgot to tell you.The new machine A.was tested C.is being tested B.will be tested D.has been tested .

答案
解析

C
根据一对一的问答可知,“机器正在被检

测”,故选C项。

28.(2008· 北京,22)
—Have you read a book called Waiting for Anya? —Who A.writes it? B.has written

C.wrote
答案 解析 C

D.had written

由于“写书”这一动作应发生在“读书”

之前,且本句中并没有强调具体动作的情况,故该题 空格处应表示一般过去的动作,用一般过去时态。

29.(2008· 北京,27)The hotel wasn?t particularly
good,but I A.was staying C.would stay 答案 D in many worse hotels. B.stayed D.had stayed

解析

由句中的worse可知该句是表达比较的含义,

故本题句意应为:这家旅馆并不特别好,但是我住过 比它更差的旅馆。由于The hotel wasn?t particularly good中的时态是一般过去时态,所以stay这一动作 应发生在描述情况之前,故须用过去完成时态。

30.(2008· 重庆,35)Teenagers
A.have damaged B.are damaging C.damaged

their health

because they play computer games too much.

D.will damage
答案 解析 B 根据because引导的原因状语的时态,可知

前面的时态。

1.It seems water A.had leaked C.leaked

from this tap for some time. B.is leaking D.has been leaking

We?ll have to take it apart to put it right.

答案
解析

D
根据句中时间状语for some time以及下一句

的动词时态可知,选项动词表示的动作强调到现在 为止仍在继续,故应排除选项A、C。由于选项B 现在进行时不可与一般时间状语连用,所以排除选 项B,故选D项。

2.—Don?t you feel surprised to see Bruce at the
meeting? —Yes.I really didn?t think he A.has been C.would be here. B.had been D.would have been

答案
解析

C
根据上下文语境和“I really didn?t think...”

可以判断出从句中的动作是从过去某时间看将来要 发生的事,故应选过去将来时。

3.Our team was ahead during the first half,but

we

in the last ten minutes.
B.would lose D.lost

A.had lost C.were losing 答案 解析 D

but前后两个半句应用相同时态,后半句是

在说比赛结果,应用一般过去时lost。

4.—Can I help you,Madam?
—No,thanks.I B.just look around C.just looked around . A.have just looked around

D.am just looking around
答案 解析 D 此处用I am just looking around表示“我只是

正在随便看看”,just可以和现在进行时连用,表 示“只是……”。

5.—I haven?t seen you for weeks.Where have
you been? —I C.was on leave in Europe. B.am D.had been A.have been

答案
解析

C
此题可能会误选A。前者说“我好几周未见

你,你去哪儿了?”可见他已经回来,因此他去欧 洲的动作已经发生过了,应用过去时来回答where have you been?

6.—Have you heard from Janet recently?
—No,but I A.saw C.have seen 答案 B her over Christmas. B.will be seeing D.have been seeing

解析

第一句中用了have,而第二句回答No,说明

说话人近来都没有Janet的消息,而A、C、D三项 都表示有她的消息,所以只能选B,用将来进行时。

7.—Tom came back home the day before
yesterday. —Really?Where A.had he been C.had he gone at all? B.has he been D.has he gone

答案
解析

A
come back发生在过去,而问句中的动作发

生在come back之前,是过去的过去,所以要用过 去完成时,而且Tom已经回来,所以要用been,而 gone是去了还未回来。

8.—What?s the matter?You look worried and
restless. —Oh,nothing really serious.As a matter of fact,I of my graduation thesis.I have to B.just thought D.was just thinking hand it in soon. A.am just thinking C.have just thought 答案 解析 D 考查动词的时态与语态。从会话可知,答

话人是在解释他look worried and restless的原因,因 为他(刚才)是在思考毕业论文的事,这是说话前的

那个时刻正在发生的事情,故应用过去进行时描述
过去正在进行的动作。

9.—Oh,my God!Where is the key to the sound
lab? —Dear me!You A.have never left C.haven?t left it in the taxi! B.never left D.didn?t leave

答案
解析

B
考查语境。答语“你千万别把它忘在出租

车里!”表示吃惊。而“忘”这一动作应用一般过 去时,但否定口气应用never。因为句子用的是感 叹号,不应用D项。

10.—What were you up to do when she dropped

in?
—I for a while and some reading.

A.was playing;was going to do B.played;did C.had played;was going to do

D.had played;did

答案
解析

C
由第一句可判断出第二句描述的事情发生

在过去,for a while是相对于when she dropped in来 说的,表示“当她来拜访时,我已经玩了一会儿 了”,因此应用过去完成时态。再看后一个动作,

承接前面for a while,仍然在过去,但应发生在had
played for a while之后,因此应用过去将来时,表 示过去那个时间将要发生的动作,故选C项。

阅读表达专练 (8)
阅读下面的短文,并根据短文后的要求答题(请 注意问题后的词数要求)。 A

You can be a master achiever by developing
the same qualities of those who seem to achieve more than others.Here are 5 qualities you need to master in order to become a successful person in your chosen field and in your life. Achievers Are Creative

Creativity is a fundamental quality of a

visionary leader.Creativity is also essential for
problem-solving,conflict resolution,crisis and change management. As they are extensively goals and result oriented,achievers need to come up with many

solutions to reach their goals;therefore they
need to be more creative than others. Develop the Habit of Courage

They have developed the habit of courage.
Courage to wake up earlier and go to bed later.

They?ve developed self-discipline.Self-discip-

line is mastering yourself,your actions,thinking
and emotions.They know that in order to become leaders for others,they need to become a leader for themselves first. Top People Are Committed to Contribute

Finally,they take action.High achievers are
result and action-oriented.They are committed to action.As they make precise plan for what

they really want,they go for it and are committed
to .An effective way for you to be committed

to action is to set goals.Work every day on

these plans and evaluate every week where you
are. Continuous Learning High achievers are lifelong learners who subscribe to the process of continuous impro-

vement.They view mistakes as learning opportunities.“There is no failure,only feedback” is always their motto.They know they need to

improve,take risks,make mistakes and view
these mistakes as opportunities to bounce back.

They Are Responsible High achievers know that they are 100% responsible for what?s happening to them.They don?t blame anybody else.They look themselves in the mirror and say,“You can do it.It?s only up

to you guy!”You have the ability to respond in
every situation you find yourself.Your response is up to you.

1.What is the best title of the passage?(Please

answer within 10 words.)
Master Qualities of Extraordinary Achievers/Qualities Needed to Be High Achievers 2.Which sentence in the passage can be

replaced by the following one?
They know that they have to become a leader for themselves before they can lead others.

They know that in order to become leaders for
others,they need to become a leader for themselves first.

3.Please fill in the blank in the third part with

proper words or phrases to complete the
sentence.(Please answer within 10 words.) reach the goal 4.What should you do in order to achieve your goal?(Please answer within 30 words.)

First,we should set proper goals and then
make careful plans and find possible solutions.Finally,we should not lose heart

whatever mistakes we may meet.

5.Translate the underlined sentence in the first

part into Chinese.
因为目标明确,注重结果,成功者需要为实现每一 个目标找到很多解决办法,所以他们得比其他人更 富有创造性。

B

(2009· 山东省聊城市高三模拟题)A new study
warns that about thirty percent of the world?s people may not have enough water by the year 2025.A private American organization called Population Action International did the new

study.It says more than three hundred and thirty
five million people lack enough water now.At least 18 more countries are expected to East. .

Most of the countries are in Africa or the Middle

The report says lack of water in the future

may result in several problems.It may increase
health problems.Lack of water often means drinking water is not safe.Mr.Engelman says there are problems all over the world because of diseases,such as cholera(霍乱),which are

carried in water.He also says the population in
countries that lack water is growing faster than in other parts of the world,and the population

growth in these countries will continue to
increase.

Lack of water may also result in more inter-

national conflict.Countries may have to compete for water in the future.Some countries now get sixty percent of their fresh water from other countries.This is true of Egypt,the Netherlands, Cambodia,Syria,Sudan,and Iraq.And the report

says lack of water would affect the ability of
developing their economies.This is because new industries often need a large amount of

water when they are beginning.
The Population Action International study

gives several solutions to the water problem. One way,it says,is to find ways to use water for

more than one purpose.Another way is to teach
people to be careful not to waste water.A third way is to use less water in agriculture.

6.What does the passsage mainly talk about? (Please answer within 10 words.) The general situation of the world water problem. 7.Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following one? Mr.Engelman says the speed of the population in some countries having water problems grows faster than that of others in the world, and so does it in the later time. He also says the population in countries that lack water is growing faster than in other parts of the world,and the population growth in these countries will continue to increase.

8.Please fill in the blank in the first paragraph

with proper words or phrases to complete the
sentence.(Please answer within 10 words.) have severe water problems

9.Could you give another solution to the water
problems besides those in the last paragraph in the passage?(Please answer within 10

words.)
We must control our population growth. 10.Translate the underlined sentence in the passage into Chinese. 报告认为水缺乏将影响发展经济的能力。这是因为 新工业在开始阶段经常需要大量的水。

(2009· 山东省济宁市高三二模)[1]The need for love is deeply rooted in the human psyche. Love is a way of overcoming the feeling of human separateness.Separateness,according to

psychologists,means to be cut off,helpless and
alone in the world.It is the source of all anxiety. [2] .It can be selfish and possessive,or unselfish and giving.Abraham Maslow distinguishes between two kinds of love:B-love and D-? love. B-love or ?being-love? means love for

another person:an unselfish love not dependent

upon your own needs.D-love or ?deficiency-?
love? is a selfish possessive love which is based upon someone else?s ability to satisfy your needs. [3]D-love is conditional:it depends upon

whether personal needs continue to be met.But
B-love is unconditional:it depends not upon what you do,but upon who you are.Further?

more,as it depends upon who you are,it is
possible only when you allow yourself to be known to the other person.

[4]The psychologist Erich Fromm also

distinguishes between two types of love, namely, immature love,called by him symbiotic union (共生体),and mature love.Symbiotic union is an immature love based upon the satisfaction of needs and is similar to Maslow?s concept of D-

love.
[5]Mature love,on the other hand,is a relationship that allows individuals to retain(保

持) their independence,their identity,and their
integrity.In mature love people can overcome

their sense of separateness,yet continue to be
themselves.The immature lover would say,“I love you because I need you.”The mature one would say,“I need you because I love you.”

1.Which sentence in the passage is the closest

in meaning to the following one?
All worries and fears result from it. It is the source of all anxiety. 2.Fill in the blank in paragraph 2 with a proper sentence.(within 7 words)

There are different(two) kinds(types) of
love./Love can be divided into different(two) types./Love falls into different(two) categories.

3.Which do you prefer,D-love or B-love? Why?
(within 30 words) 略。

4.What would be a proper title for the passage?

(within 5 words.)
Different Types of Love/Two Types of Love/Theories of Love/Love/About Love 5.Translate the underlined sentence in the third paragraph into Chinese.

而B型爱(B-love)是无条件的,它不取决于你的地
位,而取决于你的品质。

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