梨树县（吉林）2016 高考英语阅读理解（二轮）选编（2）及参考答 案
请阅读下列短文，从每篇短文后所给各题的 A，B，C，D 四个选项 中，选出最佳选项。 Coffee is a powerful beverage． On a personal level， it helps keep US awake and active．On a much broad
er level，it has helped shape our history and continues to shape our culture． Coffee didn’t take off until the l400s when people figured out they could roast its seeds．By the l500s，the drink had spread to coffeehouses across the Arab world． Within another l50 years， it took Europe by storm． “It actually had a major impact on the rise of business，” historian Mark Pendergrast says．Coffeehouses became a spot not just to enjoy a cup but to exchange ideas．The insurer Lloyd’s of London was founded hundreds of years ago in one of London’s 2,000 coffeehouses． Literature， newspapers and even the works of great composers like Bach and Beethoven were also spawned(涌现)in coffeehouses． It is often said that after the Boston Tea Party of l773，when American colonists attacked British tea ships and threw boxes of tea into the harbor，Americans universally switched over to drinking coffee．In a letter John Adams wrote to his wife， Abigail， the Founding Father claims his love of tea but says he will have to learn to embrace coffee instead ，
because drinking tea had become a symbol of not loving the country． For all the upsides coffee has brought the modern world，it also led to its fair share of downsides， too． Europeans carried coffee with them as they colonized various parts of the world，and this frequently meant they enslaved people in order to grow it． In Brazil — where slavery was legal until l888 — coffee plantations would use slash-and-burn agriculture， tearing down rain forests and planting coffee trees．Once the soil had been exhausted，growers would move on to another place． And yet，coffee，as Pendergrast says，”had a very good impact in many ways on our civilization， even though it was， for a long time， grown by slaves．” 48．Why did people enjoy going to coffeehouses? A．Because it was a fashion to drink coffee． B．Because coffeehouses provided a better flavor． C．Because they could stay awake and active there． D．Because they could exchange ideas there． 49．What can we learn from the fourth paragraph? A．American colonists made great profits by trading in coffee． B．Tea was regarded as a symbol of loving one’s country． C．Coffee became very popular after the incident in Boston． D．John Adams was the Founding Father of the Tea Party． 50．In the fifth paragraph．the writer points out that __________ .
A．Coffee plantation was closely connected with slavery B．coffee plantation led to outdated agriculture in Brazil C．slavery in Brazil had been against the law until l888 D．slavery was responsible for the damage to rainforests 5 1．What is mainly talked about in this passage? A．Some interesting stories about coffee culture． B．Important Roles that coffee played in history． C．How coffee became the most popular beverage． D．How coffee affected America’s independence． 【参考答案】48—51、DCAB
阅读下列短文，从每题所给的四个选项（A、B、C 和 D）中，选出 最佳选项。 (The Affect of Electricity on Cancer) Can electricity cause cancer? In a society that literally runs on electric power, the very idea seems preposterous. But for more than a decade, a growing band of scientists and journalists has pointed to studies that seem to link exposure to electromagnetic fields with increased risk of leukemia and other malignancies. The implications are unsettling, to say the least, since everyone comes into contact with such fields, which are generated by everything electrical, from power lines and antennas to personal
computers and micro-wave ovens. Because evidence on the subject is inconclusive and often contradictory, it has been hard to decide whether concern about the health effects of electricity is legitimate —or the worst kind of paranoia. Now the alarmists have gained some qualified support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the executive summary of a new scientific review, released in draft form late last week, the EPA has put forward what amounts to the most serious government warning to date. The agency tentatively concludes that scientific evidence “suggests a casual link” between extremely low-frequency electromagnetic
fields—those having very longwave-lengths—and leukemia, lymphoma and brain cancer, While the report falls short of classifying ELF fields as probable carcinogens, it does identify the common 60-hertz magnetic field as “a possible, but not proven, cause of cancer in humans.” The report is no reason to panic—or even to lost sleep. If there is a cancer risk, it is a small one. The evidence is still so controversial that the draft stirred a great deal of debate within the Bush Administration, and the EPA released it over strong objections from the Pentagon and the Whit House. But now no one can deny that the issue must be taken seriously and that much more research is needed. At the heart of the debate is a simple and well-understood physical phenomenon: When an electric current passes through a wire, tit
generates an electromagnetic field that exerts forces on surrounding objects, For many years, scientists dismissed any suggestion that such forces might be harmful, primarily because they are so extraordinarily weak. The ELF magnetic field generated by a video terminal measures only a few milligauss, or about one-hundredth the strength of the earth’s own magnetic field, The electric fields surrounding a power line can be as high as 10 kilovolts per meter, but the corresponding field induced in human cells will be only about 1 millivolt per meter. This is far less than the electric fields that the cells themselves generate. How could such minuscule forces pose a health danger? The consensus used to be that they could not, and for decades scientists concentrated on more powerful kinds of radiation, like X-rays, that pack sufficient wallop to knock electrons out of the molecules that make up the human body. Such “ionizing” radiations have been clearly linked to increased cancer risks and there are regulations to control emissions. But epidemiological studies, which find statistical associations between sets of data, do not prove cause and effect. Though there is a body of laboratory work showing that exposure to ELF fields can have biological effects on animal tissues, a mechanism by which those effects could lead to cancerous growths has never been found. The Pentagon is for from persuaded. In a blistering 33-page critique of the EPA report, Air Force scientists charge its authors with having “biased
the entire document” toward proving a link. “Our reviewers are convinced that there is no suggestion that (electromagnetic fields) present in the environment induce or promote cancer,” the Air Force concludes. “It is astonishing that the EPA would lend its imprimatur on this report.” Then Pentagon’s concern is understandable. There is hardly a unit of the modern military that does not depend on the heavy use of some kind of electronic equipment, from huge ground-based radar towers to the defense systems built into every warship and plane.
1.The main idea of this passage is [A]. studies on the cause of cancer . controversial view-points in the cause of cancer [C]. the relationship between electricity and cancer. [D]. different ideas about the effect of electricity on caner. 2.The view-point of the EPA is [A]. there is casual link between electricity and cancer. . electricity really affects cancer. [C]. controversial. [D].low frequency electromagnetic field is a possible cause of cancer 3.Why did the Pentagon and Whit House object to the release of the report? Because [A]. it may stir a great deal of debate among the Bush Administration.
. every unit of the modern military has depended on the heavy use of some kind of electronic equipment. [C]. the Pentagon’s concern was understandable. [D]. they had different arguments. 4.It can be inferred from physical phenomenon [A]. the force of the electromagnetic field is too weak to be harmful. . the force of the electromagnetic field is weaker than the electric field that the cells generate. [C]. electromagnetic field may affect health. [D]. only more powerful radiation can knock electron out of human body. 5.What do you think ordinary citizens may do after reading the different arguments? [A].They are indifferent. . They are worried very much. [C]. They are shocked.
[C]. The may exercise prudent avoidance.
Vocabulary 1. preposterous 2. leukemia 3. malignancy 4. legitimate 5. paranoia 6. lymphoma 反常的，十分荒谬的，乖戾的 白血病 恶性肿瘤 合法的，合理的 偏执狂，妄想狂。这里指：无根据的担心。 淋巴瘤
7. carcinogen 8. minuscule 9. consensus 10. wallop 11. epidemiological 12. blistering 13. critique 14. imprimatur
致癌物 很小的，很不重要 舆论 乱窜，猛冲，冲击力 流行病学的 罗嗦的，胡扯的 评论，批评 出版许可（官方审查后的） ，批准
难句译注 1. Because evidence on the subject is inconclusive and often
contradictory, it has been hard to decide whether concern about the health effects of electricity is legitimate—or the worst kind of paranoia. [参考译文] 由于这问题的证据还不是结论性的， 而且常常是矛盾的， 所以就难以断定有关电力对身体的影响的顾虑是合乎情理， 还是毫无 根据的怀疑。 2. EPA——U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 3． 美国环境保护署
While the report falls short (缺乏， 不够) of classifying ELF fields
as probable carcinogens, it does identify the common 60-hertz magnetic field as “a possible, but not proven, cause of cancer in humans.” [参考译文] 虽然报告没有把极低频磁场归类为可能致癌物， 但它确
实指出通常 60 赫兹的磁场是“一种虽尚未证实， 但可能导致人患癌症
The evidence is still so controversial that the draft stirred great deal of debate within the Bush
Administration, and the EPA released it over strong objections from the Pentagon and the Whit House [参考译文] 证据争议性仍然很大，所以报告草案在布什政府内引起 巨大的争辩，而环保署无视无角大楼和白宫的强烈反对，公布了这份 报告。 5. This is far less than the electric fields that the cells themselves
generate. [参考译文] 这远比细胞所产生的电磁场低的多。 6. …and for decades scientists concentrated on more powerful kinds
of radiation, like X-rays, that pack sufficient wallop to knock electrons out of the molecules that make up the human body. [参考译文] 而且几十年来，科学家专注于更为强大的辐射类别，如 Ｘ光射线，其聚合的冲击力足以把电子从组成人体的分子中撞出来。 7. But epidemiological studies, which find statistical associations
between sets of data, do not prove cause and effect. [参考译文] 可是流行病学的研究发现，几组资料在数据方面有所关 联，却没有证实其因果关系。 8. a body of laboratory work 一批研究成果。
In a blistering 33-page critique of the EPA report, Air Force
scientists charge its authors with having “biased the entire document” toward proving a link. [参考译文] 在长达 33 页的对环保署文件的十分尖锐的批评中， 空军 方面的科学家指责， 作者歪曲整个文件以证明癌症和电磁场之间的关 联。 10. report. [参考译文] 令人惊讶的是环保署竟然批准许可这份报告的出笼。 It is astonishing that the EPA would lend its imprimatur on this
写作方法与文章大意 文章以问答的方式，对比的写作方法，写出了围绕电力是否影响健康 ——是否致癌因素的两种观点，及其观点的依据。一种是美国环境保 护署为代表的：极低频磁场是一种可能但还未被证实的致癌因素，而 且无视白宫和五角大楼反对，公布了这份报告。理由是科学证据提出 了两者之间的关联偶然性。另一种以空军中科学家为主的观点：电磁 场不会诱发或触发癌症，而且以歪曲整个文件来证明两者之关系，批 评了环保署。其理由人人皆知。因军队中任一单位都有点——从地面 雷达到舰艇飞机防卫系统。
答案祥解 1. D 电力对癌症影响的不同观点。文章一开始就提出了“电会致
癌吗？”这个问题。十多年来，一大批科学家和新闻界人士都指出： 研究结果似乎表示： 接触电磁场可能会增加患白血病和其他恶性肿瘤 的危险性。 所以说到目前为止还难以确定电力对健康的影响究竟是理 性的，还是杞人忧天。见难句注释 1。第二段公布了环保署的报告， 见难句注释 3。第三段说明：即使有致癌危险也是极微的。但应予以 认真对待，进行更多的研究。而第七段中空军方面的科学家还没有被 说服（见难句注释 9） ，明确提出，我们的评论员认为没有迹象说明 环境中存在的电力会诱发或促发癌症。 A. 对致癌因素的研究。 B. 致癌原因方面有争议的观点， 这两项根 C. 电力和癌症的关系，文中涉及
的是电力究竟会不会致癌的两种观点，而不是两者之关系。 2. A. 电和致癌有一定难以确定的关系。答案在第二段第三句，
环保署目前的结论是据科学证据指出极低频电磁场 ——具有长波的 电磁场——和白血病，淋巴瘤及脑癌之间有着难以确定的联系，见难 句注释 3。 A. 电确实致癌， 不对。 C. 有争议的。 说的不够清楚， 争议什么。 D. 低频磁场是一个可能致癌因素。这只是论点的一面。 3. B. 现代军事的任何部门都一直依赖于应用大量应用电子设
备。五角大楼和白宫所以反对环保署公布报告之理由就在此。空军方 面的专家所以说环保署方面的报告“歪曲了整个文件以证明两者之间 的关系”也在此。见难句注释 4。所以文内说“角大楼的关注是可以理 解的。”
A. 报告会在布什政府内引起大规模的辩论， 这是结果。 楼的关注是可以理解的，这不是原因。 4.
当电流通过电缆，产生磁场，对周围物体产生（影响）力。许多年来， 科学家把任何有关“这些力可能有害的想法”置于一边（不予考虑） ， 主要是因为它们（所产生的力）非常弱。 B. 磁场力比细胞产生的电磁场弱。 只是明确指出的事实。 力对人的健康有害。不对。 子击出来。不对。 5. C. 他们会采取谨慎小心避开电器的途径。因为他们不可能象 C. 磁场
A 项那样漠不关心。这种问题直接影响人的生命。 B. 他们非常担忧。 D. 他们感到震惊，这两项都不可能，因为还在
阅读下列短文，从每题所给的四个选项（A、B、C、D）中，选出最 佳选项。 【2014 高考英语仿真模拟试题】 “Experience may possibly be the best teacher, but it is not a particular good teacher.” You might think that Winston Churchill or perhaps Mark Twain spoke those words, but they actually come from James March, a professor at Stanford University and a pioneer in the field
of organization decision making. For years March ( possibly be wisest philosopher of management) has studied how humans think and act, and he continues to do so in his new book The Ambiguities of Experience. He begins by reminding us of just how firmly we have been sticking to the idea of experiential learning :“Experience is respected；experience is sought；experience is explained.”The problem is that learning from experience involves（涉及） serious complications（复杂化） ，ones that are part of the nature of experience itself and which March discusses in the body of this book. In one interesting part of book，for example，he turns a double eye toward the use of stories as the most effective way of experiential learning. He says“The more accurately （精确的） reality is presented， the less understandable the story，and the more understandable the story, the less realistic it is.” Besides being a broadly knowledgeable researcher. March is also a poet, and his gift shines though in the depth of views he offers and the simple language he uses. Though the book is short, it is demanding ； Don’t pick it up looking for quick, easy lessons. Rather, be ready to think deeply about learning from experience in work and life. 43. According to the text, James March is ____________. A. a poet who uses experience in his writing B. a teacher who teachers story writing in university
C. a researcher who studies the way humans think and act D. a professor who helps organizations makes important decisions 44. According to James March, experience ______________. A. is overvalued C. should be actively sought B. is easy to explain D. should be highly respected
45. What can we learn from Paragraph 3? A. Experience makes stories more accurate. B. Stories made interesting fail to fully present the truth. C. The use of stories is the best way of experiential learning. D. Stories are easier to understand when reality is more accurately described. 46. What’s the purpose of this text? A. To introduce a book. B. To describe a researcher. C. To explain experiential learning. D. To discuss organizational decision making. 【参考答案】43—45、CAB 46、A
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