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高中英语语法五大基本句型


六个基本句型 主+谓 主+谓+宾 主+谓+双宾 主+谓+宾+宾补 主+系+表 There be 句型

典型例句 He studies very hard.他学习非常努力。 We enjoy sports.我喜欢运动。 Sports bring me happiness.运动给我带来快乐。 Exercise makes me healthy.运动使我健康。 E

xercise is very beneficial.运动益处多多。 There are three reasons why I like it.我喜欢它有 三个原因。

五大基本句型 1.主 (n./pron./to do sth/doing sth/主语从句) ——谓 (vi.如: come, go, arrive, stay, work, fall, rise, die, happen, fail, appear,lie,sit,stand,last) 注意:谓语 有时态和语态 (1).The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. (2).Your brother has gone home. (3).We work hard at English. 练习 She went home very late yesterday evening. The meeting will last two hours. Great changes have taken place in my home town in the past ten years. Things of this sort are happening all over the world every day.
主语从句:(1).Whether it is true remains a question. (2).Whether he will go or not has not been decided. (3).It isn't quite clear why she did it. (4).It is not known where she has gone. (5)What is called atomic energy is actually nuclear energy.

2.主-------谓(vt.如:visit, spend, forget, raise, have, seat, astonish, satisfy, embarass) -----宾 ( n./pron./to do sth/doing sth/宾语从句) (1).I study chemistry and he studies physics. (2).I have never seen such an interesting film.
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(3).He doesn't know what to read. 练习 They have carried out the plan successfully. He wrote a letter last night. You must finish reading these books in two weeks. Jim cannot dress himself.
宾语从句: (1).I wonder whether or not Mike is at home now. (2).I don't care whether or not his car breaks down. (3).His parents think it a pity that their son didn't pass the exam. (4)After what seemed an endless wait, it was at last his turn to step into the consulting room. (5)He was born in what is now known as Shanghai.

3.主-------谓(vt.)------间接宾语(sb)-------直接宾语(sth.) (1).Give sb sth=Give sth to sb: send, pass, hand, show (2).Buy sb sth=Buy sth for sb: make, get, cook, call, find (3).Ask sb sth=Ask sth of sb 练习 .Will you lend me your bike? .Peter bought Mary a new dress. .Please get him some hot water. .Will you tell us something about your school life? .This little boy is always asking the teacher all sorts of questions. .Pass me the paper, please. John is teaching Mary how to ride a bicycle. 4.主-----谓(vt.)-------宾-------补(n./adj/adv/介词短语/to do sth----如:ask, tell, order,want, wish, encourage, allow, forbid/Do sth----如:“四看”、“二听”、 “一感觉”;have, let 与 make /Doing sth/Done by sb.) (1).I saw her enter the lab. (2).Nathan Hale felt his heart beating fast. (3).We elected him our school headmaster. (4).The students often keep their classroom clean and tidy. 练习 I'll have the bike repaired. I heard him singing happily in the next room.
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That man made the boy obey him. He painted the door red. She found her bike stolen. Let me have a look. We call her Xiao li. We asked them to stay for lunch. I wish you to go with me. Don't keep your mother waiting. Suddenly she saw a wallet lying on the ground. When he woke up, he found himself tied down. 5.主-----系 (be/look,smell,taste,sound,feel/prove,remain,stay,keep/turn,get,become, make)----表。 练习 The news was exciting. He was excited at the news. The teachers' office is clean and tidy. She became a League member in 1978. The Summer Palace looks especially beauitiful in the early morning. The music sounds sweet. Your answer doesn't sound right. The dish smells good/delicious. The liquid tastes bitter. My job is to teach English./teaching English. This story is very interesting. I'm interested in the story. 表语从句:(1).China is no longer what it used to be.
(2).That's why we love our motherland so much. (3).It looks as if it's going to rain. (4).The reason why he was absent yesterday was that he was ill.

5、定语 He is a new student.他是个新生。 但副词,动词不定式,介词短语等作定语时,则放在被修饰的词之后。
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The bike in her room is mine.房间里的自行车是我的。
定语从句:(1).A plane is a machine that can fly. (2).The noodles that I cooked were deliicious. (3).Who is the man that is reading over there? (4).The girl that we saw yesterday was Jim's sister. (5).The fish which we bought were not fresh. (6).Who is the person whom you just talked to? (6).Mrs. Read is the person to whom you should write.

6、状语 He lives in London.他住在伦敦。 He speaks English very well. He is playing under the tree. I come specially to see you. My parents often tell us about their bitter life in the past. Ten years ago, She began to live in Dalian. The boy was praised for his bravery. When she was 12 years old, she began to live in Dalian. If I am not busy tomorrow, I will play football with you. Having had a quarrel with his wife, he left home in a bad temper。 Inhibited in one direction, it now seems that the Mississippi is about to take another.
1.时间状语从句:when,while,as,before,after,since,till(until),as soos as,hardly--when,no sooner--than, 2.地点状语从句:where,wherever 3.原因状语从句:because,since,as, now that, in that, considering (that) 4.目的状语从句:so that---,in order that---,in case---,for fear that---(以防、以免、生怕)=lest 5.结果状语从句:so that---,so/such---that--6.条件状语从句:if,unless,as/so long as----,on condition that---,providing(provided) that, assuming that,

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名词性从句 (一)、什么叫名词性从句?名词性从句在复句中的位置如何? 1.主语从句-----谓语------宾语. (1).Whether it is true remains a question. (2).Whether he will go or not has not been decided. (3).It isn't quite clear why she did it. (4).It is not known where she has gone. (5)What is called atomic energy is actually nuclear energy. 2. 主语------谓语(vt.)------宾语从句. (1).I wonder whether or not Mike is at home now. (2).I don't care whether or not his car breaks down. (3).His parents think it a pity that their son didn't pass the exam. (4)After what seemed an endless wait, it was at last his turn to step into the consulting room. (5)He was born in what is now known as Shanghai.

注意;it 作形式宾语的特殊句型:
(1).owe it to sb. that------“把----归功于----” that----“把---留给某人去做”
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(2).Leave it to sb.

(3).Take it for granted that---“想当然”

(4).keep it in mind that----"

记住"
(5).I like/enjoy/hate it that-------that----=make sure that----"务必、确保" (7).depend on it that-----(1).I enjoy____ when you help_____is in trouble. A.it, those who anyone B.that, who C.this, (6).see to it

D.it,whoever

(2).I owe it to you that I'm still alive. (3)I leave it to you to judge.(我让你做判断) (4).You may depend on it that they will help you.(你可以放心他们会帮你的) (5).Would you see to it that the villagers have clean drinking water?(你负责保 证) (6)I take it that you won't be coming to Sophie's party.(我想你不回去参加) (7).I'm counting on it that you will come.(我正指望着你回来) 3.主语-----系-------表语从句. (1).China is no longer what it used to be. (2).That's why we love our motherland so much. (3).It looks as if it's going to rain. (4).The reason why he was absent yesterdy was that he was ill. 4. 某些名词(如:the news/idea/fact/hope/belief/promise/suggestion/possibilityproblem/concl usion/opinion/remark 评论、 意见, saying 格言、 谚语, evidnce)---引导词 (如: that,whether,how,when,where,why)----同位语从句(注意:which 不能引导 同位语从句) (1).Here comes the news that some foreign friends will come to our school. (2).The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody. (3).Word came that their headmaster would soon visit our school. (4).I have no idea when she will come back. (二)、名词性从句的引导词: (1).连接词:that, whether/if,as if--------在从句中不充当任何成分。

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(2).连接代词:who, what,which,whose-------在从句中充当主语、宾语、表语、 定语。 (3).连接副词:when, where.why,how,how many/much/soon/often/long----在从句中充当状语。

注意:(1).if 不能引导主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句以及介词的宾语从句。
(2).与 or not 或不定式连用,要用 whether. (3).what 本身有一定的意义,且在从句中充当一定的成分,而 that 本身

无任何意义,且在从 句中不充当任何成分。
(1).It is unknown whether/if she is ill.(如果 用形式主语,if 和 whether 都可以) (2).I don't care if he doesn't show up.他来不来我都不在乎(若宾语

从句为否定结构, 则多用 if,而不用 whether)
(3)After years of hard work, he was made what she was.(主语补足

语----经过多年的辛劳, 她被弄成 这样) 注意:in that(由于、因为),except that(除了----),but that(如果没有、要 不是-----),besides
that(除了----) (1)I know nothing about his career except that he is a graduate of Tsinghua University. (2)He would have helped us but that he was short of money at that time. (3)But that I saw it, I couldn't have believed it. (三).弄清一类连词:“无论(不管)--------” No matter who-----==Whoever------No matter what-----==Whatever-----No matter which------==Whichever------No matter when-------==Whenever--------第 7 页 共 40 页

No matter where-----==wherever---------No matter how + adj/adv------==However + adj/adv------左边:只能引导让步状语从句。而右边:既可以引导让步状语从句,又可以引 导名词性从句。 (1).I'll give the book to _______wants it. (A).anyone (B).those who (C).whoever (D).whomever

(2).No matter who= Whoever wants to read the book, you may lend it to him. (3).However late = No matter how late he is ,Mother will wait for him to have dinner together. (5).Whenever = Every time he saw me, he greeted me. Wherever you go, we'll be thinking of you. (四).弄清同位语从句与定语从句的区别: (1)that 引导定语从句时,that 充当定语从句的成分;that 引导同位语从句时, that 不充当从句的任何成分。 (2)当 when,where,why 引导定语从句时,其意义与先行词有关,与先行词的意

义基本相同,没有疑问意义;但它们引导同位语从句时,其意义与被同位的词 毫无关系,其意义完全与疑问词相同,即 when 表示;“什么时候”,where 表 示:“哪儿”。它们引导两种从句时都在从句中做状语。
(1).He expressed the hope that he had for many years. He expressed the hope that he would come to China again. (2).I have the 1st impression that he gave me in 1980. I have the 1st impression that he is an honest man. (3).The news that you heard is not true. The whole nation was plunged into deep sorrow at the news that Abraham Lincoln was murdered at a theatre. (4)比较:I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing.(定语从句) This is the house where I lived 2 years ago.(定语从句) I have no idea when she will be back.(同位语从句) Then arose the question where we were to get the machines needed.(同位语从句) (五).特殊句型要牢记:
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(1).It is said/believed/reported/thought/well-known that--------(2).It turned out that------“结果是,原来是-----” (3).It happened that------“碰巧--------” (4).It occurred to me that------= It struck me that-------“突然想起------” (5).Word came that------“有消息传来 说---------” (6).It seems/appears that-----------“似乎是,好像是---------” (7).It is a pity/a fact/no wonder that-------“真遗憾、是事实、难怪------” (8).It is possible/probable/likely that------(9).It is important/necessary/strange that--------{从句中用虚拟语气:(should ) + 动词原形} (10).It is certain that------(11).It follows that-------“于是乎,从而--------” (12).There is no point in doing sth. There is no need to do sth. (13).It is up to sb to do sth. “该由某人做某事,由某人负责” (14).It is just like sb to do sth.“某人恰恰是这个样子” (15).See to it that----- = Make sure that------“务必。确保” (16).How did it come about that you were late again yesterday? 六、弄清一组句型的区别: (1)It was not until----that------(强调结构) (2).It was +时间段+ago 或 +介词短语+that------(强调结构) (3).It was+时间点名词+when------"当----时已是----时间了” (4).It is/was/will (not) be +时间段名词+ before------(肯定句)“过多久---就/

才-----”
(否定句)“不久----就/才 -----” (5)It is+ 时间段 +since-------

例如:

(1).It was not until yesterday that I received his letter. (2).It was on the coasts that lots of people disappeared. (3).It was 3 years ago that he arrived in Australia. (4).It was 10 o'clock in the evening when he came back.
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(5).It will be hours before he arrives here. (6).It was not long before they drove the enemy from their homeland. (7).It is 3 days since we left our school. (8).It is 10 years since I was a teacher.(我不当教师已经 10 年了) (9).It is 5 years since he lived in London.(他有 5 年不在伦敦住了)

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定语从句 1.什么叫定语从句?先行词?引导词?定语从句的位置如何? (1).A plane is a machine that can fly. (2).The noodles that I cooked were deliicious. (3).Who is the man that is reading over there? (4).The girl that we saw yesterday was Jim's sister. (5).The fish which we bought were not fresh. (6).Who is the person whom you just talked to? (6).Mrs. Read is the person to whom you should write. (7).I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing. (8).This is the house where we lived last year. (9).The factory where his father works is in the west of the city. (10).Wei Fang is the student whose home caught fire last night. 2.定语从句的引导词分为 5 个关系代词:(1).who--指人,在从句中作主语。 (2).whom--指人,在从句中作宾语。(3).whose--指人或物,在从句中作定语。 (4).which---指物, 在从句指作主语或宾语;which 还可以作定语起到限定词的作 用(this/that/these/those),但其前面必须有介词。(5).that--指人或物,在从句 指作主语或宾语。(5)as---指人或物,在从句中作主、宾、表,既可以引导限制 性定语从句(the same-----as, such---as, as/so---as),也可以引导非限制性定语 从句(位置灵活). 3 个关系副词:(1).when--指时间,在从句中作时间状语。(2).where--指地点,在 从句中作地点状语。(3).why--指原因,在从句中作原因状语。

注意:判断用关系代词还是用关系副词,主要取决于什么? 取决于引导词在从句中所充当的成分: 若引导词在从句中充当主语、宾语、定语时,须用关系代词;若引导词在从句 中充当状语时,须用关系副词。
(1).I'll never forget the day______you saved me. That's the special day_______I'll never forget. (2).This is the house______my aunt lived last year. This is the house______my aunt bought last year. (3).We'll visit the village,______was once the site of a famous battle.
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We'll visit the village,______a famous battle once took place. (4).Oct.1,1949 was the day______we'll never forget. Oct.1,1949 was the day______the PRC was founded. (5)He lost his temper, at which point I decided to go home.此时我决定回家 (6)Chaplin went to the States in 1910, by which time he had learned to dance and act in comedies. (7)His son insisted on joining the army, in which case he had to give in. (8) 3.一般来说,that/which 都可以指物(可互用),但在下列情况下,必须用 that 指物,不用 which. (1).当先行词本身为不定代词时:all,much,little, sth,anything,everything,noyhing. (2).当先行词被 adj 最高级/序数词修饰时。 (3).当先行词被 the very(正是、就是)、the only、the last 修饰时。 (1).All that glitters is not gold. All that can be done has been done. You can take any room that you like. There is no difficulty that we can't overcome. This is the last time that I'll give you a lesson. This is the very book that I'm after. China is not the country that it used to be.(关系代词在从句中作表语时) 4.As 引导的定语从句:(as 在定语从句中必须充当成分:主语、宾语、表语) (1).The same--------as-------(2).Such----------as-------(3).As-clause, main-clause.==Main-clause, as-clause. (4).such/as-------as------(5)as/so------as-------(1).As we know, more than 70 % of the earth's surface is covered by water. (2).This elephant is like a snake, as anybody can see. (3).This kind of computer,as is well-known,is out of date. (5).This is the same bag as I lost yesterday. (6).I have the same trouble as you (have). (7).Don't talk about such things as you do not understand.
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(8).Air is a gas, as is known to us. As we all know, air is a gas. Air, as we know, is a gas. (9)He can lift so heavy a stone as no one else can. 比较:This is so heavy a stone /such a heavy stone that no one can lift it.(结果 状语从句) This is so heavy a stone/such a heavy stone as no one can lift.(定语从 句)

注意:1.as 引导的非限制性定语从句常有,只能指代整个主句的内容,不能指 代单个先行词:“如同------那样”: as we know/as is known to all, as we all can see, as has been said before/above, as has been pointed out, as might be expected(正如所预料的那样), as is often the case(情况常常是这样), 2.which 在非限制性定语从句中,既可以指代整个主句,也可以指代单个

先行词。指代的是先行词 本身而不是主句时,不可用 as 代替 which.
3.在非限制性定语从句中作主语时,which 既可作系动词 be 的主语,也

可作实义动词的主语,而 as 只能作系动词 be 的主语。
(1)The apple tree, which I planted last year, has not any fruit. (2)He married her, which/as was natural. (3)He saw the girl, which delighted him. 5.特殊的句型 (1).Do all one can to do sth. Do what one can to do sth. Do/try one's best to do sth. (2).I don't like the way (that) you walk I don't like the way (in which) you walk. (3).This/It is the 1st/2nd time that I have done sth. This/It was the 1st/2nd time that I had done sth.
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(4).He lives in the house whose window faces south. He lives in the house the window of which faces south. He lives in the house of which the window faces south. (5).He entered the meeting hall, in the front of which were sitting some important men. (6)比较:As is reported in the newspaper, talks between the 2 countries are making progress. It is reported in the newspaper that talks between the 2 countries are making progress. What is reported in the newspaper is that talks between the 2 countries are making progress. (7)We went up to the roof, from where we had a good view of the procession. They stood near the window, from where we could see the whole garden.

注意: (1)No/never/not--------先行词-------But----= that------not 或 who------not:没 “ 有--------不----的”
(2)当先行词是 case,condition, situation, position, point, stage 等名词

时,表示情况、方面、处境 时,用关系副词 where.但先行词是 occasion 时,用关系副词 when.
(!)There was no man but admired him=no man who didn't admire him. (2)There is no dificulty but may be smoothed away.=no difficulty that may not be smoothed away. (3)There are some cases, where this role doesn't hold good.(适用) (4)In China there is no one but knows Lei Feng. (5)There is no rule but has exceptions. (6)Her sister has beecome a lawyer, _____she wanted to be. A.who 业、身份) 6.相似结构,注意辨别: (1)*Is this museum _______they visited yesterday? *Is this the museum _______they visited yesterday? *Is this museum ________they stayed yesterday? *It was the museum_______you saw many treasures.
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B.what

C.that

D.which

(关系代词指代人的职

*It was in the museum_______you saw many treasures. *It was in the museum_____you dropped in that you saw many treasures. (2).She lived in the house________she used to live. _________she used to live in. _________she used to drop in. _________she used to visit. __________windows were broken. the windows______were broken. and __________windows were brokken. _________the broken windows. A.where which D.that B.in which E.which H.of which d; C.at F.its I.whose e J.不填 2.ab; K.the one (that)

G.with

Keys:1.k; de; a; ab; dej; de; de; i;

h; f; g.

(3).______is known is that he has gone to college. ______is known that he has gone to college. _____is known, he has gone to college. We all know _______he has gone to college. He has gone to college, ________made us surprised. He has gone to college and _____made us surprised. He has gone to college, _____ surprised us. He has gone to college,______I am surprised at. _____surprised us most was______he has gone to college. A.It B.As C.Which D.What E.that

(4).He is such a good teacher______we all like. He is such a good teacher_____we all like him. He is such a good teacher,_____we all know. He is a good teacher,_____makes us respect him. A.as B.that C.which

(5).He arrived in Beijing in 1984,_________he became a manager some years later. He arrived in Beijing in 1984, _______was important for him.

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He arrived in Beijing in 1984, _______he was already in his fifties. He arrived in Beijing in 1984, and _____he became famous. It was in 1984 _____he arrived in Beijing. A.when B.where C.which D.there E.that 4.a;b;ac;c 5.b;c;a;d;e

Keys: 3.d;a;b;e;ce;c;bc; d;e

状语从句 一、什么叫状语从句?状语从句有哪些种类?引导词是什么? 1.时间状语从句:when,while,as,before,after,since,till(until),as soos as,hardly--when,no sooner--than, once, each/every time, the first time, the last time, next time,the moment, the minute, the instant, immediately, directly, instantly 2.地点状语从句:where,wherever 3.原因状语从句:because,since,as, now that, in that, considering (that) 4.目的状语从句:so that---,in order that---,in case---,for fear that---(以防、以免、 生怕)=lest 5.结果状语从句:so that---,so/such---that--6.条件状语从句:if,unless,as/so long as----,on condition that---,providing(provided) that, assuming that, suppose that, supposing that, given that, when 7.方式状语从句:just as---,as if, the way--8.让步状语从句: (al)though,ever if,whether,no matter who/what/where---, as(虽 然),while 9.比较状语从句:as---as, not as/so---as, more---than, the more----the more, less---than 例如:1.She treated the child the way his mother did. 2.Child as he is, he knows a lot. 3.Much as I like it, I will not buy it.
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4.Try as you will, you won't manage it. 5.Lose money as I did, I got a lot of experience. 4.You may borrow this book,on condition that you don't lend it to anyone else. 5.I'll come on condition that John is invited,too. 6.No sooner had I reached the bus stop than the bus started. 7.Hardly had he closed the door when there came a knock on it. 8.Take your umbrella,in case it rains. 9.We hadn't met for 20 years but I recognized him the moment I saw him. 10.Now that you are well again, you can work with them. 11.When you read the book,you'd better make a mark where you have a question. 12.However late he is, Mother will wait for him to have dinner together. 13.When in Rome, do as the Romans do. 14.Jack and Tom had to wait 2 more weeks before the manager came back. 15.For all (that) he has lots of money, he's far from being happy.(虽然、尽管) 16.With all his roughness, he has a heart of gold.(虽然他粗俗,但他有一颗金 子般的心) 17.Air is to us what water is to fish. 18.Reading is to mind what food is to the body. 19.I thought conditions would get better, but as it is they are getting worse.(事 实上,实际情况是) 20.Leave it as it is.别动它(让它保持原来的样子) 21.State the facts as they are.按照实际情况把事实摆出来。 22.He is, as it were, a walking dictionary.(仿佛、好像可以说是)(=/=as it is/was) 23.The sky is covered, as it were, with a black curtain.(仿佛) 二、注意:特殊的引导词(连词): the moment----=as soon as----=immediately----=directly---=hardly---when=no sooner---than as/so long as---,on condition that---,in case---,now that---,provided that---=supposing that---,every time---, the first time---,the last time---, next time--第 17 页 共 40 页

例如:(1).On arriving at the station, the thief was arrested. 比较: On his arrival at classroom, the came and the bell rang. (2).The first time I climbed onto the wall, I felt nervous. (3).The last time she saw James, he was lying in bed. 三、并列连词 when=and just then(就在这时,突然---)的三种句型: 1.I was doing sth. when sth. happened. 2.Iwas (just) about to do sth. when sth. happened. 3.I had just done sth.when sth. happened. 例如:1.I was just about to go out when the telehphone rang. 2.I had just fallen asleep when the baby started to cry. 3.I was thinking of this when I heard my name called. 四、状语从句中的省略: 有些时间、地点、条件、方式或让步状语从句中,如果从句中的主语与主句中的 主语一致或主语为 it 时, 且从句谓语又包含 Be 动词, 就可以省略从句中的“主语 +Be”部分。 1.If asked, you may come in. 2.While walking in the street, I met an old friend of mine. 3.If possible, send me word tomorrow. 4.He won't attend the meeting unless invited. 5.He got much taller than expected. 7.He looked through the newspaper while having his supper. 8.Once recovered,she threw herself into her study. 9.When still a boy of 10,he had to work day and night.he 10.She tried her best though rather pool in health. 11.He was fond of swimming when yet a child. 12.The boy looked as if afraid of nothing. 五、如何区别不同的从句:(1)据连词。(2)据句子结构和句意: 1.You are to find it where you left it. 2.Tell me the address where he lives. 3.I don't know where he came from. 4.Where he has gone is not known yet. 5.This place is where they once hid. 6.Make a mark where you have a question when reading.
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虚拟语气 什么叫虚拟语气?虚拟语气在主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、 定语从句及状语从句中的用法如何? 一、虚拟语气在条件状语从句中的用法: 1.与现在事实相反: If 条件句 主句 would/should/could/might+do

过去时(Be-----were)
sth.

(1).If I were you, I would do it in a different way. (2).If I had time, I would/should read it again. 2.与过去事实相反: If 条件句 Had done sth. done sth. (1).If I had taken his advice, I would/should not have made such a mistake. (2).You played all the while last term. If you had studied hard, you would have made some progress. (3).I could have seen him yesterday if I had got to the station earlier. (4).If she had told him about the danger, he wouldn't have got hurt. 3.与将来事实相反: If 条件句 (1)过去时 (2).should do sth. (3).were to do sth. (1).If she should come, I would/should ask her for help. would/should/could/might do sth.

主句
would/should/could/might have

主句

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(2).She won't come tomorrow. If she came, I would show her my new computer. (3).If it should rain, the crops could be saved. (4).I'm sure she will never ask me such questions again. If she were to ask me again, I would refuse to answer her. 注意:如果条件从句中有 were,助动词 had 或 should, 可将 if 省略,而把 were,had 或 should 移至主语之前。 (1).Were I a student, I would study harder. (2).Were it to rain, the crops would be saved. (3).Had he helped me, I would not have failed. (4).Should he get the letter tomorrrow, she would leave for SH at once. 二、虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法: It is important/necessary/strange/essential/natural/a shame/no wonder/a pity that-----{(should)+动词原形} (1).It is necessary that we (should) write to him again. (2).It is strange that he should have left without saying good-bye.(竟然) (3).It is a pity that he should be so proud.(竟然) 三、虚拟语气在宾语从句中的用法: 1.I wish that-------(1).一般过去时(Be-----were): 表示与现在事实相反。

(2)过去完成时(had done sth.): 表示与过去事实相反。 (3)过去将来时(would/could/might do sth.):表示与将来事 实相反。
(1).I wish I could have seen her last night. (2).I wish he were with us. (3).I wish he would have a try.

(4).I wish you would spend the winter vacation with us. (5).I wish I could have spoken German that day. (6).Children wish every day were a New Yea's Day. (7).How I wish I hadn't made such a mistake. (8).I wish I had taken their advice. 2.虚拟语气:“一、二、三、四”后面的宾语从句中要用{(should)+动词原形} “一坚持”: insist; “二命令”: order, command;
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"三建议”:advise, suggest, propose; "四要求”:ask, demand, require, request.

注意:(1).当 suggest 作“建议”解时,用虚拟语气;作“暗示、表明”解时,用陈述 语气。
(2).当 insist 作“强烈要求,坚决主张”解时,用虚拟语气;作“坚持说”解时,

用陈述语气。
(1).He suggested that we (should) make a trip to Huangshan. (2).His accent suggests that he is from the south . (3).He insists that he (should) be sent where he is most needed. (4).He insists that he didn't do that. (5).I propose that we (should) work out a plan first. (6).He insisted that he was strong and (should) be sent there. (7).The headmaster suggested that we (should) make better use of our spare time. (8).The workers requested that their working conditions (should) be further improved. 3.Would rather +sb.+ (1)一般过去时-------与现在或将来事实相反。或: + (2)Had done sth.--------与过去事实相反。 例如:(1)I'd rather you visited us today. I'd rather you visited us tomorrow. I'd rather you had visited us yesterday. (2)-----I'm going to see the Victim's brother. -----I'd rather you_______. not C.don't D.didn't 四、虚拟语气在定语从句中的用法: It is (high/about) time + (1).for sth. + (2)(for sb.) to do sth. + (3)(that)--从句 [一般过去时或 should do sth.-----这里的 should 不能省略] (1).It's time I went home. 或 It's time I should go home. 五、虚拟语气在方式状语从句及目的状语从句中的用法: A.do B.do

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1.As if = As though---------(1)一般过去时(Be----were) :表示与现在事实相反。 (与主句动作同时) (2)过去完成时(had done sth.); 表示与过去事实相

反。(在主句动作之前)
(3)过去将来时(would/could do sth.):表示与将来事

实相反。(在主句动作之后)
(1).He speaks as if he had really been there. (2).She looked as if she were ill. (3).He orders me as if Ii were his wife. (4).She looks as if she had been ill. (5).He talks as if he had been abroad before. (6).She talks about it again as though she would never end. 2.So that------(为了、以便于)= In order that---------【从句中用情态动词 may/might/can/could】 (1).She got up early so that she could catch the train. (2).He turned the radio up so that everyone could hear the news. (3).He sat in the front of the classroom so that he could see clealy. 3.should 用于由 lest, in case, for fear that 引导的目的状语从句中:“可以、

会”.其中 lest, for fear that 句中的 should 可以省去。in case 句中的 should 通常不省去, 但是 in case 句中可以不用虚拟语气, 而用陈述语气。 lest, for fear
that 后面也可以接其他形式。 (1)He took his raincoat with him in case it should rain. (2)I will not make a noise for fear that I (should/might) disturb you. (以免打扰你) (3)Care must be taken in using this method lest overflow (should) occur.(以免 发生溢流现象) (4)She hid her jewelry for fear that it would be stolen.(以防被盗) 六、If only---------= I wish--------------(虚拟形式同 wish):“要是-----就好了” (1).If only they were here now. (3).If only I were as strong as you. 七、含蓄虚拟条件句(不直接出现 If 条件句,而是通过别的一些词,如: but,otherwise,without,but for 或上下文来暗示一种条件)
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(2).If only he had come yesterday.

(1).Without your help, we would not have made such good progress. (2).But for your help, we couldn't have succeeded. 或 If it hadn't been for your help, we couldn't have succeeded. (3)He would have given you more help, but he was so busy. (4).He was busy that day. Otherwise ,I would have taken part in the sports meeting. 八、错综(混合)时间虚拟条件句(即从句和主句中的时间不一致): (1).If you had not watched television so late last night, you wouldn't be so sleepy now. (过去) (2).If I were you, (现在) I would have taken his advice. (过去) (现在)

九、其他形式的虚拟语气: 1.Had hoped/intended/meant/planned/wanted/thought/expected/supposed to Have done sth.= Hoped/intended/meant/planned/wanted---- to have done sth.(本来希望、

打算、计划做某事,但却没做成.)
例如:(1)I_______to meet Mr. Thompson this morning, but I found nobody______in the room when I came. A.hoped, left leaving B.had hoped, left C.hoped,

D.had hoped, leaving

(2)She had meant to buy the furniture, but it rained. (3)I intended to have attended the meeting, but I was ill. 2.Was/were to Have done sth.(本来打算做某事,但却为做成) 例如:He was to have come here yesterday, but he had an important meeting to attend. 3.Would like/love to have done sth. (本来想做某事,但实际上没做成) 例如;I would love to have gone to the cinema that day, but the tickets were all sold out. 4. Was/were going to do sth.(本来打算做某事,但却未做成)

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例如: I was going to finish my article but my friend arrived, so I didn't have
time 小试牛刀: 1.You can't imagine that a well-bahaved gentleman_____be so rude to a lady. A.might B.need C.should D.would

2. -----Why didn't you buy the book? ------I_______but my mother___________allow me. A.would, didn't wouldn't B.would have, didn't C. had had,

D.had bought, hadn't

3.You______have told him the bad news, which made things even worse. A.shouldn't B.wouldn't C.needn't D.couldn't

4.I would love ______to the party last night, but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A.to go B.to have gone C.going D.having gone

5.---I stayed at a hotel while in New York。 ----Oh, did you? You______ with Barbra. A.could have stayed stay B.could stay C.would

D.must have stayed

倒装句 什么叫倒装句?全部倒装?部分倒装?构成倒装句的条件是什么? 一、全部倒装(即整个谓语跑到主语前面去了) 1.Here/there, In/out, Up/down, away 等小副词放在句首时, 使用全部倒装。这 (

类句型中只能使用一般时态,不能用进行时)
(1).Listen! There goes the bell. (3).The boy came in.----------___________________________________________ (4).The bird flew away..-------_____________________________________________ 但,当主语为人称代词时,主谓不能倒装。如: (2).Look! Here comes the bus.

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(1).Here you are.

(2).Out he rushed.

2.{表示方位的介词短语}+谓语+主语。(用全部倒装) (1).In the hall sat a professor. (2).A high building stands in the distance.--------_________________________________________ (3).A city lies to the east of the 2 hills.--------_________________________________________ 二、部分倒装(即谓语的一部分跑到主语的前面去了): 1..Hardly, Scarcely, little, Never, seldom, Neither/Nor, Not until-----, Not only-----, Hardly----when-----, No sooner-----than---, By no means 等否定词

位于句首时,主谓要部分倒装。
(1).You can hardly understand the text.------___________________________________________ (2).He knows little about the news.------___________________________________________ (3).I didn't realize how much time I had wasted until I began to work.------___________________________ (4).Not only does he study hard but also he in kind. 比较: Not only he but also his parents have been to BJ.(不倒装) (5).I had hardly got to the airport when the plane took off.-----____________________________________ (6).He had no sooner gone to bed than the telephone rang.-----__________________________________ 2.So+ 助动词+ 主语. :“某人也如此” Neither/Nor +助动词+ 主语:“某人也不如此” So +主语 +助动词.:“某人的确如此”

注意:如果前句中既有行为动词,又有 be 动词;或既有肯定,又有否定,这时, 只能用:
So it is with sb.= It's the same with sb. (1).He has passed the exam, ______________________________(我也通过 了) (2).------Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother.
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-------I don't know, __________________________(我也不想知道) (3).If you don't go to the party, ________________________________(我也 不去了) (4).------She likes to play the piano, but she can't play it well. -------__________________________________________ (她弟弟也如此) (5).------He is a writer and has written a lot of books. -------_________________________________(我也如此) (6).------He is good at English, but doesn't do well in maths. ------______________________________________(我也如此) 3.{Only +状语(副词、介词短语、状语从句----从句内部不倒装)+助动词 +主 语。(部分倒装) (1).Only in this way can you learn English well. (2),I realized the importance of English only then.----________________________________________ (3).He comes to see me only when he is free.-----__________________________________________ (4).He didn't go there only because he was very busy.----_____________________________________

但,only 修饰主语时,主谓不倒装。如:
(1).Only the teachers can use this room. (2).Only socialism can save China. 三、虚拟语气句中的省略与倒装:

在 if 虚拟条件从句中,若从句中的谓语动词含有助动词 were,had,should,可以 将这 3 个助动词提至句首,省略 if,从而构成特殊的倒装句。(注意;在倒装句中否 定式不能用缩写的形式)
(1).If it had been possible, would you have done it?----_______________________________________ (2).If I were you, I wouldn't go.-----________________________________________________ (3).If it had not been for your help, we wouldn't have achieved so much.-------_____________________________________________________ ______________________
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(4).Had he studied hard, he couldn't have failed in the exam.-----_________________________ (5).Should it rain tomorrow, the meeting would be put off.----____________________________

不定代词 什么叫不定代词?要弄清不定代词的总数、单复数,泛指或特指。 一、什么叫不定代词?

不定代词 数
both 数 either 数 neither 数 all 数 none 数 each 数 every 数

含义 作主语时谓语的数
两者都 复数 两者中任何一个 单数 两者都不 单数 三者或三者以上都 单数或复数

数量关系

作定语时名词的

等于 2



等于 2



等于 2



大于或等于 3

单数或复

三者或三者以上都不 大于或等于 3 单数或复数 每一个 单数 每一个 单数 大于或等于 3 大于或等于 2

单数或复





注意:(1).All 作定语时,可修饰复数可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词。
(2).Every 不能单独作主语或宾语,但可以修饰单数可数名词,或构成复

合不定代词;everyone,everybody 等.
二、弄清下列区别:
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1..All(三者或三者以上全部)-----Any(三者或三者以上任何一个)-----None(三者

或三者以上无一个)
Both(二者都)------Either(两者中任何一个)------Neither(二者中任何一个都

不)
如; Our hands are all wet. 2.Every(大于或等于 3):强调整体,只能作定语。 Each(大于或等于 2):强调个体,可作主语、宾语、定语、同位语。 例如:(1).On both sides of the street= On each/either side of the street. (2).Each of us has a dictionary.= We each have a dictionary. (3).Each of the 2 has won a prize. 比较:Every one has strong and weak points. (4).I have 5 friends in my hometown. I wrote a letter to each of them yesterday. (5)._________ one of us will try his best to finish the work. (6).We must make good use of _________ minute. 3.Some(“一些",修饰可数名词或不可数名词)--------一般用于肯定句中。 Any(“一些",修饰可数名词或不可数名词)---------一般用于否定句、 疑问句或 if

条件从句中。
注意:some 也可以用于疑问句中,表示:(1)期望对方给予肯定的回答。(2)表 示“邀请、请求”。(3)表示“劝告或建议”的反问句中。而 any 也可以用于肯定句中, 表示:“任何一个,随便哪一”。any 不能在否定句中作主语。 例如:(1).Some are playing basketball, ___________are playing chess in the classroom. (2).Would you like____________tea? (3).Can't you borrow____________jewelry from a friend? (4).Won't you have _____________more fish? (5).I have some English magzines, But I don't have __________French magzines. (6).Have you got ____________tickets for the concert? (7).The teacher asked us if we had____________questions. (8).You may come at ____________time. (9).He is cleverer than ___________other boy in his class.
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4.None of----“----中没有一个人或物”(后面往往有一个特定的范围) No one-----“没有人”= Nobody.(单独使用,后面不接 of 短语)

注意:None 用来回答以"How many/much---?"开头的疑问句,而 No one 用来
回答以 "Who---?"开头 的 疑问句,Nothing 用来回答以"What----?"开头的疑问 句。 例如:(1).--------How many books are there on the desk?----------_________________ (2).---------Who is in the classroom?--------____________________ (3)-------What's in the box?---------____________________ (4).I wanted some thread but there was______in the drawer. A.none B.nothing C.no one D.not thing 5.Other-----泛指,“其他的、别的”:other boys/students /money/no other way/every other day / some other reason/any other plant Another-----泛指,“三个或三个以上中的另一个,再一个” Others------泛指,“另外一些” The others-----特指,“其余所有的人或物” The other-------特指,两者中的另一个,或两部分中的另一部分。

用图示来表示:(1). #----------------------@
#------##@######### one----------------the other (3). ####----------@@@@@@ ###---------@@@@@###### some------------the others some--------others

(2).

one--------another (4).

例如:(1).Some will visit the Summer Palace, ______________will visit the Great Wall. (2).Some are carrying water, ________________are watering the trees. (3).He studies harder than any _____________student in his class. (4).China is bigger than any _____________country in Asia. 比较:
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China is bigger than any____________country in Africa. (5).I have 2 brothers. One is a doctor, _________________is a professor. (6).I have ____________question to ask. (7).Would you like_____________cup of coffee? (8).I don't like this pen. Please show me ________________. (9).They asked us to stay for ___________few days. (10)He goes swimming every_______________day. (11).There is no ____________way to do it. (12).Three comrades spoke at the meeting. One was a doctor, ____________was a peasant, and the third was a PLA man. 6.One/Ones---------(泛指),只能代替可数名词,其前面往往有修饰词。 That/Those--------(特指),可代替可数名词或不可数名词,其前面无任何修饰

词,后面往往是 of/in---。
That(指人少用). It-------特指,指代上文已出现过的那个名词,表示同一个东西。 注意:The one 和 the ones 表示特指。one 和 ones 表示泛指。 The one 相当于 that, the ones 相当于 those 例如:(1).The population of China is larger than___________of Japan. (2).Color TV sets are more expensive than black-and-white___________. (3).Those books are not so interesting as _____________you borrowed last week. (4).This pen is longer than ______________on the desk. (5).This park is more beautiful than that_____________. (6).This cap is too small. please give me a big ______________. (7).The stidents in our class work harder than_____________in their class. (8).The children love the houses with gardens better than____________without them. (9).I'll write another article as soon as I finish _____________I'm writing.
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(10).No dictionary is as useful as the one I bought last year.(the one=that) (11)The children from the United States are different from the ones from China.(the ones=those) 三、全部否定与部分否定:

全部否定

部分否定

Not all -----------------------None of----或 No one 或 No+名词 Not both---------------------Neither Not everything-------------Nothing Not everybody--------------Nobody 或 No one Not everywhere-------------Nowhere Not always-------------------Never 例如:(1).Both the answers are not correct.-------___________________________________________ (2).All the answers are not correct.---------____________________________________________ (3).Everyone cannot do it.------------_________________________________________ (4).All my friends do not smoke.--------________________________________________________ 四、一些固定搭配: Other than---(除了), none other than---(不是别人或物,正是), every other day(每隔一天), every few days(每隔几天), some day or other(迟早,总有一天), only a few(仅少数,只有几个), quite a few(相当多的),not a few(相当多的), not a little(很,非常), not a bit(根本不,一点儿也不), from one to another, some other day(改天), no---other than(除---外没有), have nothing of(不理睬), none other than(恰恰是,除---没别的), nothing more than(这不过是---而已), have none of(拒绝参加,不接受), every now and then(时常,间或), all but--(几乎,差点,

除---外全部都), none but--(仅, 只有, ---外谁也不),anything but(决不), nothing 除
but(只是,不外是,无非是), no other than(正是,就是), nothing other than(不

是别的,而是), something like(有点像---,大约), little by little(逐渐地)。

第 31 页 共 40 页

例如:None but fools believe him.除非傻瓜才相信他。
练习:(1).---------Do you want a cup of tea or coffee?--------__________, I really don't care. A. Neither B.None C.Either D.Both

(2).The Smiths have 3 sons, one a baby, ___________twins of 13. A.another B.other C.the other D.the others

(3).The customer wanted to change for a double room, so he was asked to pay________$10. A.more B.another C.other D.every

(4).---------Is _________here?---------No, 2 students are ill and can't come to school. A.anybody B.everybody C.somebody D.nobody

(5).My father bought a second-hand car, but _______will need lots of repairs before he could drive. A. they B.it C.one D.which (6).___________was reported that Saddam was caught alive. 比较; ___________was reported, Saddam was caught alive. A.which B.as C.it D.they

(7)Both sides have accused of breaking the contract______. A.another B.the other C.neither D.each

(8)I made so many changes in my composition that only I could read it. To____else, it was hard to make out. A.none B.everyone C.someone D.anyone

(9)----One week's time has been wasted. -----I can't believe we did all that work for_______. A.something hing (10)Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgattable moment,_____I will always treasure. A.that B.one C.it D.what B.nothing C.everything D.anyt

第 32 页 共 40 页

(11)I prefer a flat in Inverness to_____in Perth, because I want to live near my Mum's. A.one B.that C.it D.this

(12)The thought flashed across my mind; by some means or____she has some information about my engagement. But how? A.others B.other C.the others D.another

(13)------Shall we meet tonight? --------Sorry, I'm busy. How about______day? A.every other other D.some other (14)I'm moving to the countryside because the air there is much fresher than ____in the city. A.ones B.one C.that D.those B.the other C.any

(15)I just want an umbralla, so_____will do. A.anyone B.any one C.it D.one

(16)Cars do cause us some health problems---in fact far more serious ____than mobile phone do. A. one B.ones C.it D.those (2005 江西)

(17)What he said is_____but practical since ______depends on "if". A. anything, everything anything D.none, everything (18)Although he is poor, he spends______on clothes. A.not a little B.only a little C.a little D.a few B.nothing, everyything C.everything,

(19)------What do you think he is? -------______from what he said, he is _____but a teacher. A.Judged, somebody anything D.Judging,anybody B.Judged,something C.Judging,

(20)-----How about the price of these refrigerators? -----They're equal in price to, if not cheaper than,______at the other stores. A.others B. it C.that D.the ones

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不定代词 什么叫不定代词?要弄清不定代词的总数、单复数,泛指或特指。 一、什么叫不定代词?

不定代词 数
both 数 either 数 neither 数 all 数 none 数 each 数 every 数

含义 作主语时谓语的数
两者都 复数 两者中任何一个 单数 两者都不 单数 三者或三者以上都 单数或复数

数量关系

作定语时名词的

等于 2



等于 2



等于 2



大于或等于 3

单数或复

三者或三者以上都不 大于或等于 3 单数或复数 每一个 单数 每一个 单数 大于或等于 3 大于或等于 2

单数或复





注意:(1).All 作定语时,可修饰复数可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词。
(2).Every 不能单独作主语或宾语,但可以修饰单数可数名词,或构成复

合不定代词;everyone,everybody 等.
二、弄清下列区别: 1..All(三者或三者以上全部)-----Any(三者或三者以上任何一个)-----None(三者

或三者以上无一个)
Both(二者都)------Either(两者中任何一个)------Neither(二者中任何一个都

不)
如; Our hands are all wet. 2.Every(大于或等于 3):强调整体,只能作定语。 Each(大于或等于 2):强调个体,可作主语、宾语、定语、同位语。
第 34 页 共 40 页

例如:(1).On both sides of the street= On each/either side of the street. (2).Each of us has a dictionary.= We each have a dictionary. (3).Each of the 2 has won a prize. 比较:Every one has strong and weak points. (4).I have 5 friends in my hometown. I wrote a letter to each of them yesterday. (5)._________ one of us will try his best to finish the work. (6).We must make good use of _________ minute. 3.Some(“一些",修饰可数名词或不可数名词)--------一般用于肯定句中。 Any(“一些",修饰可数名词或不可数名词)---------一般用于否定句、 疑问句或 if

条件从句中。
注意:some 也可以用于疑问句中,表示:(1)期望对方给予肯定的回答。(2)表 示“邀请、请求”。(3)表示“劝告或建议”的反问句中。而 any 也可以用于肯定句中, 表示:“任何一个,随便哪一”。any 不能在否定句中作主语。 例如:(1).Some are playing basketball, ___________are playing chess in the classroom. (2).Would you like____________tea? (3).Can't you borrow____________jewelry from a friend? (4).Won't you have _____________more fish? (5).I have some English magzines, But I don't have __________French magzines. (6).Have you got ____________tickets for the concert? (7).The teacher asked us if we had____________questions. (8).You may come at ____________time. (9).He is cleverer than ___________other boy in his class. 4.None of----“----中没有一个人或物”(后面往往有一个特定的范围) No one-----“没有人”= Nobody.(单独使用,后面不接 of 短语)

注意:None 用来回答以"How many/much---?"开头的疑问句,而 No one 用来
回答以 "Who---?"开头 的 疑问句,Nothing 用来回答以"What----?"开头的疑问 句。

第 35 页 共 40 页

例如:(1).--------How many books are there on the desk?----------_________________ (2).---------Who is in the classroom?--------____________________ (3)-------What's in the box?---------____________________ (4).I wanted some thread but there was______in the drawer. A.none B.nothing C.no one D.not thing 5.Other-----泛指,“其他的、别的”:other boys/students /money/no other way/every other day / some other reason/any other plant Another-----泛指,“三个或三个以上中的另一个,再一个” Others------泛指,“另外一些” The others-----特指,“其余所有的人或物” The other-------特指,两者中的另一个,或两部分中的另一部分。

用图示来表示:(1). #----------------------@
#------##@######### one----------------the other (3). ####----------@@@@@@ ###---------@@@@@###### some------------the others some--------others

(2).

one--------another (4).

例如:(1).Some will visit the Summer Palace, ______________will visit the Great Wall. (2).Some are carrying water, ________________are watering the trees. (3).He studies harder than any _____________student in his class. (4).China is bigger than any _____________country in Asia. 比较: China is bigger than any____________country in Africa. (5).I have 2 brothers. One is a doctor, _________________is a professor. (6).I have ____________question to ask. (7).Would you like_____________cup of coffee? (8).I don't like this pen. Please show me ________________.

第 36 页 共 40 页

(9).They asked us to stay for ___________few days. (10)He goes swimming every_______________day. (11).There is no ____________way to do it. (12).Three comrades spoke at the meeting. One was a doctor, ____________was a peasant, and the third was a PLA man. 6.One/Ones---------(泛指),只能代替可数名词,其前面往往有修饰词。 That/Those--------(特指),可代替可数名词或不可数名词,其前面无任何修饰

词,后面往往是 of/in---。
That(指人少用). It-------特指,指代上文已出现过的那个名词,表示同一个东西。 注意:The one 和 the ones 表示特指。one 和 ones 表示泛指。 The one 相当于 that, the ones 相当于 those 例如:(1).The population of China is larger than___________of Japan. (2).Color TV sets are more expensive than black-and-white___________. (3).Those books are not so interesting as _____________you borrowed last week. (4).This pen is longer than ______________on the desk. (5).This park is more beautiful than that_____________. (6).This cap is too small. please give me a big ______________. (7).The stidents in our class work harder than_____________in their class. (8).The children love the houses with gardens better than____________without them. (9).I'll write another article as soon as I finish _____________I'm writing. (10).No dictionary is as useful as the one I bought last year.(the one=that) (11)The children from the United States are different from the ones from China.(the ones=those) 三、全部否定与部分否定:

第 37 页 共 40 页

全部否定

部分否定

Not all -----------------------None of----或 No one 或 No+名词 Not both---------------------Neither Not everything-------------Nothing Not everybody--------------Nobody 或 No one Not everywhere-------------Nowhere Not always-------------------Never 例如:(1).Both the answers are not correct.-------___________________________________________ (2).All the answers are not correct.---------____________________________________________ (3).Everyone cannot do it.------------_________________________________________ (4).All my friends do not smoke.--------________________________________________________ 四、一些固定搭配: Other than---(除了), none other than---(不是别人或物,正是), every other day(每隔一天), every few days(每隔几天), some day or other(迟早,总有一天), only a few(仅少数,只有几个), quite a few(相当多的),not a few(相当多的), not a little(很,非常), not a bit(根本不,一点儿也不), from one to another, some other day(改天), no---other than(除---外没有), have nothing of(不理睬), none other than(恰恰是,除---没别的), nothing more than(这不过是---而已), have none of(拒绝参加,不接受), every now and then(时常,间或), all but--(几乎,差点,

除---外全部都), none but--(仅, 只有, ---外谁也不),anything but(决不), nothing 除
but(只是,不外是,无非是), no other than(正是,就是), nothing other than(不

是别的,而是), something like(有点像---,大约), little by little(逐渐地)。 例如:None but fools believe him.除非傻瓜才相信他。
练习:(1).---------Do you want a cup of tea or coffee?--------__________, I really don't care. A. Neither B.None C.Either D.Both

(2).The Smiths have 3 sons, one a baby, ___________twins of 13.

第 38 页 共 40 页

A.another

B.other

C.the other

D.the others

(3).The customer wanted to change for a double room, so he was asked to pay________$10. A.more B.another C.other D.every

(4).---------Is _________here?---------No, 2 students are ill and can't come to school. A.anybody B.everybody C.somebody D.nobody

(5).My father bought a second-hand car, but _______will need lots of repairs before he could drive. A. they B.it C.one D.which (6).___________was reported that Saddam was caught alive. 比较; ___________was reported, Saddam was caught alive. A.which B.as C.it D.they

(7)Both sides have accused of breaking the contract______. A.another B.the other C.neither D.each

(8)I made so many changes in my composition that only I could read it. To____else, it was hard to make out. A.none B.everyone C.someone D.anyone

(9)----One week's time has been wasted. -----I can't believe we did all that work for_______. A.something hing (10)Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgattable moment,_____I will always treasure. A.that B.one C.it D.what B.nothing C.everything D.anyt

(11)I prefer a flat in Inverness to_____in Perth, because I want to live near my Mum's. A.one B.that C.it D.this

(12)The thought flashed across my mind; by some means or____she has some information about my engagement. But how?

第 39 页 共 40 页

A.others

B.other

C.the others

D.another

(13)------Shall we meet tonight? --------Sorry, I'm busy. How about______day? A.every other other D.some other (14)I'm moving to the countryside because the air there is much fresher than ____in the city. A.ones B.one C.that D.those B.the other C.any

(15)I just want an umbralla, so_____will do. A.anyone B.any one C.it D.one

(16)Cars do cause us some health problems---in fact far more serious ____than mobile phone do. A. one B.ones C.it D.those (2005 江西)

(17)What he said is_____but practical since ______depends on "if". A. anything, everything anything D.none, everything (18)Although he is poor, he spends______on clothes. A.not a little B.only a little C.a little D.a few B.nothing, everyything C.everything,

(19)------What do you think he is? -------______from what he said, he is _____but a teacher. A.Judged, somebody anything D.Judging,anybody B.Judged,something C.Judging,

(20)-----How about the price of these refrigerators? -----They're equal in price to, if not cheaper than,______at the other stores. A.others B. it C.that D.the ones

第 40 页 共 40 页


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