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英语语法概括


英语语法概括
Ⅰ. 虚拟语气(1) (Subjunctive Mood)
一、 条件句中的虚拟语气 1. 条件句中虚拟语气的形式 从句中提出一种与客观现实不相符或根本不可能存在的条件, 主句会产生的一种 不可能获得的结果。条件句中的虚拟语气根据不同的时间有三种不同的形式。 时间 现在 过去 从句谓语形式 动词过去式(be 用 were) had +动词过去分词 主句谓语形式 would / should / might / could + 动词原形

would / should / might / could have + 动词过去分

动词过去式(be 用 were) 将来 should + 动词原形 were to + 动词原形 2. 条件句中的虚拟语气的举例 (1) 现在时的条件句中的虚拟语气。如: If he were free, he would help us. 要是他有空的话,它会帮助我们的。 If he studied at this school, he would know you well. 如果他在这所学校 学习的话,它会对你很熟悉。 (2)过去时的条件句中的虚拟语气。如: If I had seen the film, I would have told you about it. 我如果看过这场 电影,我会把电影内容告诉你了。 If I had got there earlier, I would have met Mr. Li. 如果我早点到那儿, 我就会会到了李先生。 (3)将来时的条件句中的虚拟语气。如: If he should go to Qing Hua University, he would make full use of his ti me. 如果他要上清华大学的话,他就会充分利用他的时间了。 If he were to come here, he would tell us about it. 如果他要来的话, 他会 通知我们一声。 3. 运用条件句中的虚拟语气时,须注意的几个问题 would / should / might / could + 动词原形

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(1) 当从句的主语为第三人称单数时,谓语动词若是系动词 be 时,可用 wa s 代替 were。但在倒装虚拟结构及 if I were you, as it were 中,只能用 were。 如: Were I ten years younger, I would study abroad. 要是我还年轻十岁的话, 我会去国外学习。 If I were you, I would try my best to grasp the chance. 要是我是你的 话,我要尽力抓住这次机会。 (2) 有时,虚拟条件句中,主、从句的动作若不是同时发生时,须区别对待。 ①从句的动作与过去事实相反, 而主句的动作与现在或现在正在发生的事实 不符。如: If I had worked hard at school, I would be an engineer, too. 如果我在学 校学习刻苦的话,我现在也会使工程师了 If they had informed us, we would not come here now. 如果他们通知过 我们的话,我们现在就不会来这里了。 ②从句的动作与现在事实相反,而主句的动作与过去事实不符。如: If he were free today, we would have sent him to Beijing. 如果他今天有 空的话,我们会已经派他去北京了(from www.yygrammar.com)。 If he knew her, he would have greeted her. 要是他认识她的话,他肯定会 去问候她了。 ③从句的动作与过去发生的情况相反, 而主句的动作与现在正在发生的情况 相反。如: If it had not been raining too much, the crops would be growing much b etter. 如果天不下太多的雨的话,庄家会长得更好。 If he had been working hard, he would be working in the office now. 要 是他工作一直努力的话,他现在已进了办公室了。 (3) 当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有 were, should, had 时,if 可省略,而将 w ere, should, had 等词置于句首。如: Should he agree to go there, we would send him there. 要是他答应去的 话,我们就派他去。 Were she here, she would agree with us. 如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我 们的。

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Had he learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here. 如果她懂一些电脑知识的话,我们会已经聘用他来这里工作了(from www.yygra mmar.com)。 (4) 有时,句子没有直接给出假设情况的条件,而须通过上下文或其他方式 来判断。如: I would have come to see you, but I was too busy. 我本该来看你了,然 而我太忙了。 But for his help, we would be working now. 要不是他的帮助,我们还会 在工作呢。 Without your instruction, I would not have made such great progress. 要 是没有你的指导,我不会取得如此大的进步。 (5) 有时,虚拟条件句中,主、从句可以省略其中的一个,来表示说话人的 一种强烈的感情。 ①省略从句 He would have finished it. 他本该完成了。 You could have passed this exam. 你应该会通过这次考试了。 ②省略主句 If I were at home now. 要是我现在在家里该多好啊。 If only I had got it. 要是我得到它了该多好啊。

二.虚拟语气(2):其他状语从句的虚拟语气
1. 目的状语从句中的虚拟语气 (1) 在 for fear that, in case, lest 引导的目的状语从句中,若用虚拟语气时, 从句谓语为: should + 动词原形。并且 should 不能省略 She examined the door again for fear that a thief should come in. 她又把 门检查了一遍,以防盗贼的进入。 He started out earlier lest he should be late. 他很早就出发了以防迟到。 (2) 在 so that, in order that 所引导的目的状语从句中,从句中的谓语为: can / may / could / might / will / would / should + 动词原形。如(from www. yygrammar.com):

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He goes closer to the speaker so that he can hear him clearer. 他走近说 话的人以便能挺得更清楚。 He read the letter carefully in order that he should not miss a word. 他把 信读得很仔细以便不漏掉一个单词。 2. 让步状语从句中的虚拟语气 (1) 在 even if, even though 所引导的让步状语从句中,可用虚拟语气,主 句、从句的结构与 if 所引导的条件从句结构相同。如: Even if he were here himself, he should not know what to do. 即使他亲 自来也不知该怎么办。 Nobody could save him even though Hua Tuo should come here. 即使华 佗在世也救不了他。 (2) 在 whatever, whichever,whenever,whoever, wherever,however, no matter wh-word 等引导的让步状语从句中,从句虚拟语气结构为: ① may +动词原形(指现在或将来)。如: We will finish it on time no matter what / whatever may happen. 不管发 生什么事,我们都要按时完成。 We will find him wherever / no matter where he may be. 无论他在哪里, 我们都要找到他。 I will wait for him no matter how late he may come. 不管他来的多么 晚,我都会等他。 ② may +完成式(指过去) ,主句结构不限。如: You mustn’t be proud whatever / no matter what great progress you may have made. 不管你取得了多么大的进步,你也不能骄傲(from www.yygrammar. com)。 We must respect him no matter what / whatever mistakes he may have m ade. 不管他翻过什么错误,我们必须尊敬他。 (3) 在 though, although 等引导的让步状语从句中,从句虚拟语气结构为 sh ould +动词原形,主句结构不限。如: Although / Though he should often be late, he is a good student. 尽管他 经常迟到,他还是个好学生。

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Although / Though he should be secretary, he must obey the rules. 尽管 他是书记,他也必须遵守规定。 3. 方式状语从句中的虚拟语气 as if, as though 引导的方式状语从句常用虚拟语气。虚拟语气的结构为: 表示所发生的时间 发生在主句动作之前 与主句动作同时发生 发生在主句动作之后 例如: They began to talk warmly as if they had known each other for long. 他 们开始热烈的谈论起来就好像他们已相互认识很久了。 He coughed twice as if someone should come. 他咳嗽两声就好像有人要 来了。 4. 原因状语从句中的虚拟语气 amazed, angry, annoyed, astonished, disappointed, frightened, happy, please d, proud, sorry, surprised, upset 等后面的状语从句中常用虚拟语气。 其虚拟语气 的结构为: ① should + 原形动词(指现在或将来)。如: He was angry that you should call him by name. 他很生气, 你竟然对他直 呼其名。 I was astonished that he should not answer such an easy question. 我很惊 讶他竟答不出如此简单的问题。 ② should + 完成式, 指过去。如: I’m very sorry that you should have failed the exam. 我很遗憾,你这次考 试竟然失败了。 I was very surprised that Father should have known what I did yesterday. 我很吃惊,父亲竟指导我昨天所作的事情(from www.yygrammar.com)。 三、宾语从句中的虚拟语气 1.英语中,如:advise, ask, demand, desire, decide, insist(坚决要求) , ord er, propose, request, suggest(建议) 表示请求、要求、命令或建议等意义的动词 虚拟语气结构 had + 过去分词 过去时(be 用 were ) would / could / might / should+原形动词

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所接的宾语从句一般用虚拟语气,其虚拟语气的结构为:(should) + 原形动词。 如: The teacher advised that we should make good use of every minute here. 老师劝我们要好好地利用在这儿的每一分钟。 The Party asked that we should serve the people with our heart and soul. 党要求我们要全心全意地为人民服务。 但是,当 insist 的意思为:坚决认为,坚持说;suggest 的意思为:表明,暗 含,暗示等时,宾语从句一般不用虚拟语气。如: Tom insisted that he hadn’t stolen the watch. 汤姆坚持说他没有偷那块手 表。 His smile suggested that he had succeeded in this exam. 他的微笑表明他 在考试中成功了。 2. believe, expect, suspect, think, imagine 等动词的否定句或疑问句中的宾 语从句常用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为: should + 原形动词。如: Can you believe that he should kill a tiger? 你能相信他竟杀死了一只老 虎? Can you imagine that he should take the first place in the long jump cont est? 你能想象得到他在跳远比赛中竟获得了第一名? 3. 英语中,wish 之后的宾语从句,表示一种没有实现或根本不可能实现的 愿望,常用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为(from www.yygrammar.com): 表示所发生的时间 发生在主句动作之前 虚拟语气结构 (1)had + 过去分词; (2)would / could / might / should + have + 过去 分词 与主句动作同时发生 发生在主句动作之后 例如: I wish I learnt English well. 我希望我已学好了英语。 I wish I had been there with them last week. 我希望上周跟他们一起在那 儿。 过去时(be 用 were ) would / could / might / should + 原形动词

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He wishes we could go and play games with him. 他希望我们能去跟他做 游戏。 4. 英语中,would rather, had rather, would sooner 等之后的宾语从句常表 示与客观事实不相符的一种愿望,故使用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为: 表示所发生的时间 过去 现在 将来 例如: I’d rather you had seen the film yesterday. 我倒想你昨天看过了这场电 影。 I’d rather you were here now. 我倒想你现在在这儿。 We’d rather you went here tomorrow. 我么倒想你明天去那儿。 四、主语从句中的虚拟语气 在表达惊异、惋惜、遗憾、理应如此等意义的主语从句中常使用虚拟语气, 其虚拟语其的结构为: should + 动词原形,主句中的谓语动词形式不限。 句型: (1) It is admirable / dreadful / extraordinary / odd / remarkable / sad / a dvisable / annoying / disappointing / surprising / upsetting / frightening / better / best / curious / desirable / important / strange / peculiar / proper / necessar y / natural ?that? (2) It is a pity / a shame / no wonder?. that? (3) It is suggested / requested / desired / proposed /?. that ? (4) It worries me that? 如: It is important that we should do well in our lessons first. 我们先把功课 学好很重要。 It is strange that he should not come. 很奇怪,他竟没有来。 It is a pity that we should not meet last night. 真遗憾我们昨天晚上没有 见过面。 虚拟语气结构 had + 过去分词; 过去时(be 用 were ) 过去时(be 用 were )

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It worries me that we should be blamed for that. 我们竟要受责备真让人 烦恼。 五、表语从句及同位语从句中虚拟语气 英语中,表示请求、要求、命令、建议等名词 advice, desire, decision, idea, instruction, order, plan, proposal, recommendation, request, requirement, sugges tion, wish 充当句子的主语而后面接表语从句或它们后面接同位语时,表语从表 面上看几屗及同位语从句都须用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为:(should) 动词原形。如: We followed his advice that we should ask our teacher for help. 我们接 受了他的建议:我们应该请求老师的帮助(from www.yygrammar.com)。 He told us his idea that he should go to university. 他告诉了我们他的想 法:他想上大学。 His suggestion is that we should do our work more carefully. 他的建议就 是我们的工作要更细心些。 Their plan is that they should build a new factory in their hometown. 他 们的计划就是在家乡建一座新工厂。 六、定语从句中的虚拟语气 英语中,表示:“早该做某事了”时,定语从句中的谓语动词须用虚拟语气, 其虚拟语气的结构为:It is (high / about) time that + 主语+ 动词的过去式/ sh ould + 动词原形。如: It is time that I went to pick up my daughter at school. 我该去学校接我 的女儿了。 It is high time you should go to work. 你早该上班了。 7. 简单句中的虚拟语气 1. 说话时,为了表示客气、谦虚、委婉而有礼貌,言语常使用虚拟语气。 其虚拟语气的结构形式常为:would / could / might / should + 原形动词。如: Would you mind my shutting the door? 我把门关起来你介意吗? +

You should always learn this lesson by heart. 你要把这个教训牢记于心。 I should agree with you. 我应该同意你的观点。 2. 表示“祝愿”时,常用“may + 主语 + 动词原形 + 其他”。如: May you have a good journey! 祝你一路顺风。

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May your youth last for ever! 祝你青春永驻。 3. 表示强烈的“愿望”、“祝愿”时,常用动词原形。如: Long live the Communist Party of China. 中国******万岁。 God bless us. 上帝保佑。 4. 习惯表达中常用的虚拟语气。 (1) 提出请求或邀请。如: Would you like to have a talk with us this evening? 今天晚上来跟我们聊 天好吗? Could I use your bike now? 我可以用一下你的单车吗? (2) 陈述自己的观点或看法。如: I should glad to meet you. 见到你我会很高兴。 I would try my best to help you. 我会尽力帮助你。 (3) 提出劝告或建议。如: You’d better ask your father first. 你最好先问一问你的父亲。 You should make a full investigation of it first. 你应该先全面调查一番。 (4) 提出问题。如: Do you think he could get here on time? 你认为他能按时来吗? Do you expect he would tell us the truth? 你期望他会告诉我们真相吗? (5) 表示对过去情况的责备时,常用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为:“情态 动词 + have + 过去分词”。如: You should have got here earlier. 你应该早就到这里了。 You should have returned it to him. 你应该把他还给他了。

三:虚拟语气(2)归纳
虚拟语气除用在条件状语从句中外,还可以用于主语从句、宾语从句和定 语从句等从句中,具体情况如下:
从句类型 常用词 / 句型 谓语动词形式 例句

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形容词: necessary(必须的) important (重要的) possible (可能的) 主语从句: A. It is(was) +adj. + that? B. It is (was)+ 动词的过去分 词 + that? desirable (极好的) advisable (合理的) 动词的过去分词: required(需要的) demanded(要求) requested(被请求) desired(要求) suggested(建议) recommended(推荐) ordered(命令) 1. 坚持:insist 宾语从句 要求等的动词之后 的宾语从句) 2. 命令:order,command (表示建议、命令、 3. 建议:suggest,advice, propose 4. 要求:ask,demand, require,request “It is (high)time that?” (早)该??了 should + do 或 do(省略 should) The strikers demanded that the wages (should) be raised by 15%. 罢工工人要求提高工资 15%。 It is high time you reached a did decision. 该是你作出决定的时间了。 It seems as if it were spring already. 好像已经是春天了。 If only you hadn’t told him Without…, …; But for…, 其它句型 ?; ?,otherwise / or ?; If only…, … what I had said,everything would have been all right. 你要是没有把我说的情况 告诉他,一切就会好了。 should + do 或 do(省略 should) It is important that a child should keep good company. 小孩要结交好伴,这很重 要。 It is recommended that the project not be started until all the preparations have been made. 有人建议这项工程直到一 切准备就绪后才开始。

定语从句

状语从句 (as if、as though 引 导的从句)

与现在的事实相反;与过去 的事实相反

did 或 were; had done

Self-check Activity
Choose the best answer to complete each sentence 1. It is important that the hotel receptionist ______that guest are registered correctly.

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A. has made sure

B.made sure

C.must make sure

D.make sure "B" in his

2. It is necessary that a graduate student ______grade point average of major field. A. shall maintain B.will maintain C.maintain D.maintains

3. The police chief ordered that parking ______on Main Street during the rush hours. A. was prohibited B.be prohibited C.is prohibited D.be prohibiting

4. He insisted that he ______ innocent, but no one knows the truth. A.should be B.was C.could be D.is

5. "You are very selfish .It is high time you ______ that you are not the most important person in the world." Edgar said to his boss angrily. A. realized B.realize C.have realized D.should realize

6 .It is already 5 o'clock now. Don't you think it's about time _______? A.we are going home C.we go home B.we went home D.we can go home

7. Some days go by much more quickly than others. Some hours seem as if they ______. A.would never end C. might be never ended B.should never end D.may be never ended

8 .Look at the terrible situation I am in!If only I ______ your advice. A.follow B.had followed C.would follow D.have followed

Ⅱ.非谓语动词(1) :不定式和动名词 (Infinitive and Gerund)
一.动词不定式 动词不定式分为带 to 的不定式和不带 to 的不定式。不定式可以有自己的宾 语和 / 或 状语,一起构成不定式短语。不定式的形式变化和用法列表如下: 1. 不定式的形式变化(以 do 为例) 时态 一般时 主动形式 to do 被动形式 to be done
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进行时 完成时

to be doing to have done to done have been

2. 不定式(短语)的用法 用法 作主语 例句 To persevere means victory.

(当比较长的不定式短语充当主语时,一般不 坚持就是胜利。 置于句首通常的主语位置上,而是用 it 作形式 It surprised me to hear (that) she was 主语放在句首,而将不定式短语充当的真实主 leaving. 语置于句末) 听到她要走,我很惊讶。 In Britain and America, people love to 作宾语 celebrate their birthdays.

(主要结构为“动词+不定式”“动词+wh-词+ 在英国和美国,人们喜欢庆祝他们的生 , 不定式” ) 日。 I’m at a loss (=I don’t’ know) what to do next. 我不知道下一步怎么办。 作宾语补足语和主语补足语 (在 let, make, have, see, hear, watch, feel, notice, He offered to help us. 他主动提出要帮助我们。 The boss made them work the whole

observe 等动词后面的宾语的后面做补足语时, night.. 用不带 to 的不定式;但当句中的宾语变成主 老板让他们整晚都干活。

语、谓语动词变成被动语态时,不定式(短语) They were made to work the whole night. 所充当的成分也就相应变成主语补足语,且不 他们被迫整晚干活。 (不定式短语作主 定式前必须有 to) 作表语 补) My dream is to travel around the world. 我的梦想是周游世界。 Have you anything to cure a bad cold? 作定语 你有治疗重感冒的药吗?

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(通常放在其修饰的名词或代词之后)

That will be the only thing to do now. 这可能是目前唯一可做之事。 We jumped with joy to hear the news.

作状语 (可以表示原因、目的、结果等)

听到这消息我们高兴得跳了起来。 She opened the parcel excitedly, only to find it empty. 她激动地打开包裹,却发现竟是空的。

二.动名词 动名词由“动词原形+ing”构成。动名词在句中起名词的作用,可以充当主语、 表语、宾语。它可以有自己的定语、宾语或状语,一起构成动名词短语。 用法 例句 Seeing is believing. 作主语 眼见为实。

(当比较长的动名词短语做主语时,一般不置 It is no use crying over the spilt milk. 于句首,而是用 it 作形式主语置于句首,而做 牛奶既已溢出,哭也无用。 (或:木已

真实主语的动名词短语则置于句末。常用的此 成舟,哭也无用。 ) 类句型有:It is no use/good doing… It is worth doing… It’s worth checking the details of the contract before you sign it. 在合同上签字之前核对细节很有必要。 Her job is raising pigs. 作表语 她的工作是养猪。 Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。 作宾语 (作某些动词、介词和短语动词的宾语。如: He could hardly resist laughing. mind, finish, enjoy, avoid, consider, practice, risk, 他忍不住要笑出来。 admit, advise, delay, deny, imagine, permit, recommend, suggest, resist, can’t stand, can’t It took him many years to give up smoking.

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help, give up, put off 等等)

他花了许多年才把烟戒了。 a waiting room 等候室

作定语 (表示所修饰名词的某种用途)

a reading room 阅览室 a washing machine 洗衣机 a swimming pool 游泳池 sleeping pills 安眠药

注:有些动词(如 remember, forget, stop,regret, try, like, love,hate,need 等)
之后既可接不定式也可接动名词作宾语,注意加以区分。一般说来,不定式作宾 语所表达的是说话时尚未做或尚未发生之事,或是某一次想做之事,而动名词作 宾语所表达的则是已经做了或已经发生之事,或是惯常之倾向。如: 1. I hate to see you unhappy. 我不愿看到你不快乐。 (还未看到) 2. I hate having my picture taken. 我不喜欢别人给我照相。 (惯常不喜欢)

Self-check Activity
1. The plants need___ --- the leaves are starting to go brown. A. to water B. water C. watering D. watered

2. We tried hard, but we still couldn’t make him___ his mind. A. to change B. change C. changed D. changing

3. There are two things in this newspaper that are worth___ --- the TV listings and the sports page. A. to read B. to be read C. reading D. being read

4. He’s a good person___ if ever you’re in a tough time. A. to be with him with 5. You can hardly imagine a child___ so cruelly. A. to treat 6. B. being treated C. treats D. treating B. to be with C. just to be with him D. in order to be

I’m looking forward to___ a few days to myself while the rest of the family are away. A. have B. had C. having D. have been

7. After___ for the job, you will be required to take a language test.
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A. being interviewed interviewed

B. being interviewing

C. interviewing

D. having

8. There was nothing to do but ___ till he came back. A. to wait B. waiting C. waited C. wait

Ⅲ. 非谓语动词(2) :分词 (Participle)
一. 形式 分词也是一种非谓语动词;它分为现在分词和过去分词两种。其形式见下表。 以 know 为例 主动 一般时 被动 主动 完成时 二. 被动 功能 现在分词 knowing being known having known having known been known 过去分词

现在分词和过去分词都有动词和形容词的特征,可以有自己的宾语,一起构成 分词短语。分词(短语)在句中可以作定语、表语、状语和宾语补足语。

功能

现在分词 多表示主 作 表 语所具有 语 的特征或 属性

过去分词 多表示主语 所处的状态 或具有的特 点 及物动词的 多 表 示 主 过去分词表 作 定 动 、 正 在 示被动、完 语 进行 成,不及物 动词的过去 分词只表完 成

例句 The current situation is encouraging. 当前的形势令人鼓舞。 I am deeply attached to this old car. 我对这辆旧汽车感情很深。 We’ll get new computers to replace the existing ones. 我们将用新电脑来替换现在用的这些。 Is this the book recommended by the professor? 这是教授推荐的书吗?

功能

现在分词(短 过 去 分 词 语) (短语)
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例句

表示时间、原 因、结果、方 作 状 式和伴随状 语 况等,多表主 动、正在进行

表示时间、 原因、方式 或伴随状 况。多表被 动、完成。

Walking down the street, we saw a lot of tall buildings. 我们沿着街道走的时候看 见了许多高楼。 (时间) Not knowing what to do, he telephoned the police. 不知道该怎么办,他只好打电话找警 察。 (原因) It rained three days on end, completely ruining our holiday. 一连下了 3 天雨,我们的假期都泡汤 了。 (结果) Given better condition, the flowers could grow better. 要是条件好一点,这些花可以长得更 好。 (条件) The professor stood there, surrounded by many students. 教授站在那里,许多学生围着他。 (伴 随状况)

与宾语有着 逻辑上的主 谓关系,宾语 为现在分词 所表示的动 作 宾 作的做出者, 语 补 且此动作与 足语 句子谓语动 词所表示的 动作同时发 生,或谓语动 词表示的动 作发生时现 在分词表示 的动作正在 进行 Self-Check Activity

与宾语有着 逻辑上的动 宾关系,宾 语是过去分 词所表示的 动作的承受 者

There is something wrong with the table; I can feel it moving. 这桌子有毛病了,我感到它在动。 There was so much noise that the speaker couldn’t make himself heard. 由于太吵, 讲话人没法让人听到他的 声音。 They had a wedding picture taken yesterday. 他们昨天拍了结婚照。

1. Don’t get your schedule ___ ; stay with us in this class. A. to change B. changing C. changed
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D. change

2. Not ___ an answer from her, I wrote again. C. Have received having received 3. ___ by the police, the kidnappers had no choice but to surrender. B. To be surrounded Surrounding 4. There’s something wrong with the television; I can’t get it ___. A. working B. to work C. work D. worked B. Surrounded C. Having surrounded D. B. has been received C. having been received D.

5. ___ the coffee, he washed the cup and put it away. A. Drank B. Drinking C. Having drunk D. Having been drunk

6. With the guide ___, they started toward the mountains. A. leading B. led C. to lead D. being led

7. ___, water will change into steam. A. Heating B. To heat C. Heated D. being heated

8. The patient, ___ by his doctor to stop smoking, made every effort to do so. A. Having been advised B. having advised C. advising D. to advise

Ⅳ。限定性定语从句(Restrictive Attributive Clause)
定语从句(Attributive Clause)在句中作定语,修饰名词或代词。被修饰的 词叫做先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副 词) 引导。 关系代词有 who, whom, whose, that, which 等。 关系副词有 when, where, why 等。定语从句就其与先行词的关系而言,可分为限定性定语从句和非限定性 定语从句。限定性定语从句对先行词起限制作用,关系比较密切,不能省略,否 则先行词的意义就不完整。 如:He is a man who has strong personality. 他是个个性很强的人。 (如将此句 中 who 引导的定语从句省略,剩下部分 He is a man 就没实际意义了。 ) 一. 关系词的用法 关系词 先行词 关系词在从 句中充当的 成分 例句 备注

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who



主语

whom 关 系 代 词



宾语

whose

人,物

定语

主语,宾语 that 人,物

which

物 主语,宾语

The pupils who had been watching started to applaud. 一直在旁观看的小学生们开始 鼓起掌来。 He is the man whom we all respect. 他是我们大家都尊重的人。 The boy whose father works abroad is my deskmate. 父亲在国外工作的那个男孩是 我的同桌。 The house whose windows are broken is unoccupied. 窗户破了的那所房子没人住。 He is a man that means what he says. 他是个说话算数的人。 These are the pictures that I took in Shanghai. 这些是我在上海拍的照片。 A house which overlooks the park will cost more. 面向公园的房子贵些。

Whom, which 和 that 在从 句中做宾 语时,常 可以省 略,但介 词提前时 后面的关 系代词不 能省略, 也不可以 用 that 引 导。

关系词

关系词 先 行 在从句 词 中充当 的成分 时间

例句

备注

whe n 关 系 副 wher 词 e

Sunday is the day when people 时 间 状 usually don’t go to work. 星期天是 语 人们通常不上班的日子。

地点

why

原因

Australia is one of the few countries 地 点 状 where people drive on the left. 语 澳大利亚是少数几个沿左侧开车 的国家之一。 That is the reason why I am not in 可用 原 因 状 favor of the plan. for 语 这就是我不赞成这个计划的原因。 which 替换

可用 on which 替换 可用 in which 替换

二.限定性定语从句中 that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别 情况 用法说明
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例句

①先行词为 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much,等不定代词时; ②先 只 用 行词被 all, any, every, each, that 的 much, little, no, some, few 等 情况 修饰时; ③先行词被序数 词或形容词 / 副词最高级 修饰时;④ 先行词既指人 又指物时;⑤ 先行词被 the only, the very 修饰时; 主 ⑥ 句是以 who 或 which 开头的 特殊疑问句时;⑦ 为了避 免重复时

用 which, who, whom 的情况

① “介词+关系代词”引导 定语从句时,关系词只能用 which 指物、whom 指人; ② 先行词本身是 that 时, 关系词用 which;③先行词 是人称代词和指示代词 (those, one, he 等)时,关系 词用 who

三. He knew everything that happened in the village. 他知道发生在村子里的每一件事。 四. There is no person that doesn’t make mistake. 没有人不犯错误。 五. This is the most interesting film that has been produced in recent years. 这是近几年制作的最有意思的一 部电影。 六. They are talking about the teachers and schools that they have visited. 他们正在谈论他们访问过的老师 和学校。 七. That’s the only thing that we can do now. 目前我们只能这样做了。 八. Who is the person that is standing over there? 站在那边的那个人是谁? 1. This is the program of which I was speaking. 这是我所说的节目。 2. Those who contribute to the people deserve our respect. 那些为人民作出了贡献的人应该受到 尊敬。

Self-Check Activity
1. He’s the man ___ I supposed was capable of doing such a thing. A. who B. to whom C. it D. which

2. She was very patient towards the children, ___ her husband seldom was. A. that B. who C. which D. so that

3. I know someone else ___ father works in Beijing. A. that C. which C. who D. whose 4. All ___ can be done by the doctor is to prolong the patient’s life. A. whom B. which C. who D. that

5. I sent invitations to sixty people, ___ have replied.

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A. of whom only twenty of these C. only twenty of these whom

B. of whom only twenty D. only twenty who

6. They talked a lot about things and persons ___ they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom D. what

7. The day will surely come ___ all the people in the world enjoy freedom and live in happiness. A. when B. which C. that D. why 8. The History Museum ___ we’ll visit next week is not far from here. A. where B. to which C. which D. in which

Ⅴ。非限定性定语从句(Non-restrictive Attributive Clause)
非限定性定语从句和先行词之间有逗号隔开,它有时修饰先行词,有时修饰 整个主句, 是对先行词或主句的附加说明, 去掉它一般不会影响主句的意思。 如: My brother, who works abroad, is coming next week. 我哥哥在国外工作, 他下周将 回来。 一.限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句的用法区别 类别 作用 形式 关系代词/副词 例句 The people who called yesterday want to buy the house. 昨天打来电话的 人想买这所房子。

修饰先行词, 是先行词不 限定性 可 缺 少 的 部 分,去掉它主 句意思不明 确 既可修饰先 行词也可修 饰整个主句, 是对先行词 非 限 定 或整个主句 性 的附加说明, 去掉它一般 不会影响主 句的意思

可用 that, which, 紧 跟 于 先 who, whom, 行 词 后 , whose. when, 无 逗 号 隔 where, why 等引 开 导,有些情况下 可以省略

I’m writing a letter to Mike, whose mother is 逗号将其 ill. 与 其 所 修 不能用 that 引导, 我在给迈克写信, 他的 饰 的 词 或 并且不能省略 母亲病了。 句子隔开 The meeting was put off, which was exactly what he wanted. 会议延期了,这正是他 求之不得的事。

二.非限定性定语从句可以由介词+which 引导 1. 名词(代词)+ of which (whom) 引导。这种结构在定语从句中作主语, 类似 于“whose+名词” 。
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如:My father bought an antique yesterday, the price of which was very reasonable. 昨天我父亲买了个古玩, 价格相当合理。 2. 不定代词、数词或形容词最高级+ of which (whom) 引导。这种结构在定语句 中也是作主语, 表示整体的一部分。 如:They have four children, all of whom are studying music. 他们有四个孩子,都学音乐。 Twenty passengers were killed in the accident, ten of whom were students. 在那次事故中有二十名乘客遇难,其中有十个是学生。 There were twenty pupils in her class, the youngest of whom was twelve. 她班里有 20 个学生, 年纪最小的 12 岁。 Self-check Activity 1. We went to the industrial exhibition, ____ we saw two man-made satellites. A. where B. there C. when D. which 2. The people of Pakistan, ____ land is quite mountainous, are nevertheless primarily farmers. A. which B. whose C. that D. because 3. He studied hard and later become a well-known writer, ____ his father had expected. A. that was what B. what was that C. which was what C. and which was 4. I sent invitations to sixty people, ____ have replied. A. of whom only twenty of these B. only twenty of whom C. only twenty of these whom D. only twenty who 5. These students will graduate from the university next summer, ____ they will have studied here for four years. A. by then B. by that time C. by what time D. by which time 6. ____ is mentioned above, the number of the university students is increasing every year. A. That B. It C. Which C. As 7. Latin, ____ the Roman Languages are derived , is rarely in American schools today. A. from it B. from which C. from that C. from where 8. The famous football star, ____ tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention. A. where B when C. which C. who

Ⅵ.全倒装(full inversion)
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倒装是语言中的一种强调手段。 英语中的倒装指句中的谓语动词的全部或部 分被置于主语的前面。 谓语动词的全部被置于主语之前时叫全倒装;谓语动词的 部分被置于主语之前时叫部分倒装。
四种情形 例句

表示方位的副词 (如 there, here, down, up, There goes the bell. 铃响了。 in,out,away 等)位于句首,且句中的 Here is the letter you’ve been looking forward to. 谓语动词为 be, come, go, 或 stand, fall, lie 你久盼的信在这儿。 这时要将该谓语动词放到主语前面。 表示顺序的副词(如:then,now,first, Then came harvest time. 接着收获的季节到了。 next,last 等)位于句首,且句中的谓语 Last came a little feeble,squeaking voice. 动词为不及物动词,这时要将该动词放到 最后传来一点微弱而短促刺耳的声音。 主语前面。 介词短语作地点状语放到句首,且句中的 谓语动词为不及物动词,这时要将该动词 放到主语前面。 At the top of the hill stands a weather station. 小山顶上矗立这一个气象站。 Among the mountains lies an ancient temple with a long history. 在群山之中有一座具有悠久历史的古庙。 Seated in a ring on the ground were a group of college students talking heartily. 围成一圈坐在地上的是一群大学生,在尽情的交谈 着。 Gone is the spring with the flowers carried away by the stream. 落花流水春去也。

表语放到句首时,句中的系动词要放到主 语前面。

Self-check Activity
Choose the best answer to complete each sentence

1. ________about economics for you to read. A.There the book is C.Here is a book B.Here a book is D.A book is

2. ___________from the ground floor. A.Up the man comes C.The man came up 3. Then _______we had been looking forward to. A.came the hour coming 4. Last _________the other. A.the team defeated
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B.came up the man D.Up came the man

B.the hour came

C.comes the hour

D.the hour is

B.the team had defeated

C.defeat the team

D.defeated the team

5. To the north of the village _________a small island A.lain B.lies C.was there D.there lays

6. Through the window ___________. A.did wafts of intoxicating fragrance come in B.wafts of intoxicating fragrance came in C.in coming wafts of intoxicating fragrance D.came in wafts of intoxicating fragrance 7.Behind the farmhouse ___________. A.a rice field was rice field 8. Surrounding the earth ___________air of unknown thickness. A.a layer of B.a layer is of C.is a layer of D.of a layer is B.was a rice field C.a rice field had D.had a

Ⅶ. 部分倒装(partial inversion)
一 部分倒装的定义
只把谓语动词的一部分(通常是助动词、情态动词)置于主语之前,称为部分倒装。疑 问句中一般都用部分倒装。 Have you got anything that belongs to me? 你那儿有我的东西吗?(一般疑问句) When was your reservation made? 你是在什么时候预定的?(特殊疑问句) Would you rather wait or come later?你愿意等还是愿意晚些时候再来?(选择疑问句)

二 常见的部分倒装句型
部分倒装的句型 句型结构 例句 备注

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so,neither,nor 在 句首

肯定: + be So / have /助动 词和情态动 词 + 主语 否定:Neither (Nor) + be / have /助动 词和情态动 词 + 主语

She likes chemistry. —So does my sister. 她喜欢化学。──我妹妹也喜欢。 They don’t like rice, neither does my daughter. 他们不喜欢吃米饭,我女儿也不喜 欢。 She can’t play bridge, nor can I. 她不会打桥牌,我也不会。

so? 表示与上述情 况同样, neither / nor 表示与上述情况同 样不。(注意:表示 对别人所说内容的 赞同,则不能用倒 装。如: That’s a wonderful film. ---So it is.那是 一部精彩的电影。 ---的确是。

具有否定意义的副 词(如 hardly, never,seldom, rarely, scarcely, no, little,nowhere, by no means,in no case,in no way,in no wise) ,具有否定 意义的关连词(如 no sooner? (than) , hardly (scarcely, barely)?when)在 句首

否定副词 + be / 助动词 + 主语 + 动 词

Never in my life have I heard such a thing. 我从来没有听说过这样的事。 In no way can teaching in school be separated from practice. 学校教学决不能脱离实践。 Hardly had we started when it began to rain. 我们刚要出发,天就开始下雨了。

这些词或词组不在 句首时句子则用正 常语序

only 置于句首修饰 介词短语或状语从 句

Only + 副词/ 介词短语/状 语从句 + be/ 助动词/情态 动词 + 主语 + 动词

Only by constant practice will you learn English well. 唯有通过不断的实践,你才会学好 英语。 Only because two-thirds of the students were absent was the lecture cancelled. 只因为三分之二的学生缺席讲座才 被取消了。

以下情况不倒装 1) only 不在句首 2) only 位于句首 修饰主语而非 修饰状语,如: Only jack knew how to operate this machine .只有杰克 知道如何使用这台 机器。

省略 if 的非真实条 件句

Had / should + 主语 + 动 词

Had you come earlier,you would have met him. 如果你早点来,就会遇见他了。

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So 在句首

So + adj./adv. + that …

So loudly did he speak that even the people in the next room could hear him. 他说话是那样的响亮,甚至连隔壁 的人都能听得见。

在主语 + 系动词 +so + adj./adv. + that -clause 和 主语 + 系动词 + such + n. + that -clause 结构中则用 正常语序。

Self-check Activity Choose the best answer to complete each sentence 1. She never laugh,_________lose her temper. A.or she ever did ever did 2. Little _________about his own health though he was very ill A.he cared B.he cares C.does he care D.did he care B.nor did she she ever C.or did she ever D.nor she

3. By no means __________create or destroy energy. A.we can B.we can’t C.can we D.shall we

4. No sooner ________to the station _________the train left. A.had I got, when B.I had got, than C.had I got, than D.did I get, when

5. Only when you have obtained sufficient data ________come to a sound conclusion. A.can you B.would you C.you will D.you can

6. Only under special circumstances _________to take make-up tests. A.are freshman permitted C.permitted are freshman B.freshman are permitted D.are permitted freshman

7. _________she would not have been met with the accident. A.Linda had been more careful C.If Linda were more careful B.Had Linda been more careful D.Linda was more careful

8. _________that the pilot couldn’t fly through it. A.The storm so severe was C.So severe was the storm B.So the storm was severe D.Such was the storm severe

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Ⅷ.独立主格结构
一、独立主格结构的概念 独立主格结构(Absolute Structure)是由名词或代词加上分词等构成的一种独立 结构,用于修饰整个句子。独立主格结构中的名词或代词与其后的分词等构 成逻辑上的主谓关系。这种结构与主句不发生句法上的联系,它的位置相当 灵活,可置于主句前、主句末或主句中,常由逗号将其与主句分开。需特别 注意的是,独立主格结构与主句之间不能使用任何连接词。 二、独立主格结构基本构成形式 名词(代词)+现在分词(过去分词;形容词;副词;不定式;名词;介词短语) 1. 名词(代词)+现在分词 The girl staring at him(= As the girl stared at him), he didn't know what to say. 姑娘两眼望着他,他不知道说什么好。 Time permitting(= If time permits), we will go for an outing tomorrow. 如果时间允许的话,我们明天去郊游。 There being no bus, we had to walk home. 由于没有公共汽车,我们只好走回家。 2. 名词(代词)+过去分词 The workers worked still harder, their living conditions greatly improved. 由于工人们的生活条件大大提高,他们工作得更起劲了。 He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard. 他上课专心听讲,眼睛紧盯着黑板。 3. 名词(代词)+不定式 在“名词/代词+动词不定式”结构中,动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词如果存 在着逻辑上的主谓关系,动词不定式则用主动的形式;如果是动宾关系,则 用被动形式。 The four of us agreed on a division of labor, each to translate a quarter of the book. 我们四人同意分工干,每人翻译全书的四分之一。 Many trees, flowers, and grass to be planted, our newly-built school will look even
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more beautiful. 种上许多的树、花和草后,我们新建的学校看上去将更美。 4. 名词(代词)+形容词 The Trojans asleep, the Greek soldiers crept out of the hollow wooden horse. 特洛伊人睡着了,于是希腊士兵从中空的木马里悄悄爬了出来。 Computers very small, we can use them widely. 电脑虽小,我们却能广泛地利用它们。 5. 名词(代词)+副词 The meeting over, our headmaster soon left the meeting room. 散会了,校长很快就离开了会议室。 The lights off, we could not go on with the work. 灯熄了,我们不能继续工作了。 6. 名词(代词)+名词 His first shot failure,he fired again. 他第一枪没击中,又打了一枪。 Two hundred people died in the accident, many of them children. 两百人死于事故,其中有许多儿童。 7. 名词(代词) +介词短语 He lay at full length upon his stomach,his head resting upon his left forearm. 他的脊背朝天,四肢伸展,头枕着左臂,直挺挺地趴伏着。 Every afternoon a very old woman hobbled past the old house, vast load of firewood a on her back. 每天下午,一个背着一大背柴禾的老妇人都会从那间破旧的房屋前蹒跚着走过。

三、with,without 引导的独立主格结构
with ( without)+宾语(名词/代词)+宾语补足语,宾语通常由名词或代词充当, 但代词一定要用宾格。上文的独立主格结构的几种情况都适用于此结构。 The girl hid her box without anyone knowing where it was. 小女孩把盒子藏了起来,没有人知道它在哪里。 (without +名词/代词+动词的-ing 形式)

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Without a word more spoken, she left the meeting room. 她没再说什么话就离开了会议室。 (without+名词/代词+动词的-ed 形式) The kid feels excited with so many places of interest to visit. 有这么多的名胜可参观,小孩很激动。 (with+名词/代词+动词不定式) The boy was walking, with his father ahead. 父亲在前,小孩在后走着。 (with+名词/代词+副词) He stood at the door, with a computer in his hand. 或 He stood at the door, computer in hand. 他站在门口,手里拿着一部电脑。 (with+名词/代词+介词短语) With his son so disappointing, the old man felt unhappy. 由于儿子如此令人失望,老人感到很不快乐。 (with+名词/代词+形容词) 在 with (without) 的复合结构中, 多数情况下 with 能省略, without 不能省略。 但 四、独立主格结构的句法功能 独立主格结构在句中一般作状语,表示时间、条件、原因、伴随状况等,还可以 作定语。 1. 作时间状语 My shoes removed,I entered a low-ceilinged room,treading cautiously on the soft tatami matting. 我脱掉鞋子后, 走进一间屋顶很低的房间, 小心翼翼地踩在柔软的塌塌米垫子上。 The governor pondering the matter,more strikers gathered across his path. 总督思考问题时,更多的罢工工人聚集在他要通过的路上。 2. 作条件状语 Weather permitting,they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow. 如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨郊游。 Such being the case,you have no grounds for dismissing him. 如果情况如此的话,你没有理由解聘他。 3. 作原因状语 The boy leading the way, we had no trouble finding the strange cave. 由那个男孩带路,我们很容易就找到了那奇怪的洞。 There being no further business to discuss, we all went home.
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没有别的事可讨论,我们都回家了。 4. 作伴随状语或补充说明 I took my ticket,and marched proudly up the platform,with my cheeses,the people falling back respectfully on either side. 我拿着车票还有我的奶酪,雄赳赳气昂昂地跨步走向月台。人们似乎很尊敬我, 纷纷向两边退去。 Ten students entered for the competition, the youngest a boy of 12. 十个学生报名参加了这次竞赛,年纪最小的是个 12 岁的男孩。 5. 作定语,独立主格结构作定语其功能相当于一个定语从句。 He is the person with a lot of questions to be settled. 他就是有许多问题要解决的那个人。 He was walking along the road without any street lights on its both sides. 他走在一条两边没有路灯的马路上。 Close to the bank I saw deep pools, the water blue like the sky. 靠近岸时,我看见几个深池塘,池水碧似蓝天。

五、独立主格结构注意事项
1. 独立主格结构多用于书面语,尤其是描述性语言中,在口语和非正式文体中, 一般用从句或两个句子来代替。 独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同, 它独立存在,名词或代词与后面的分词等逻辑上是主谓关系,独立主格结构 一般有逗号与主句分开。 The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. 总统被谋杀了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中。 2. 动词不定式表示动作没有发生或即将发生,动词-ed 形式表示动作已经结束, 动词-ing 形式往往表示动作正在进行。 The manager looks worried,many things to settle. 经理看上去很着急, 有这么多的事情要处理。 (事情还没有处理,而且是由经理 本人来处理,用不定式 to settle,表示将来的时间) The manager looks relaxed, many things settled. 许多事情已经处理好了,经理看上去很轻松。 (事情已经处理好了,用过去分词

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settled 表示动作已经结束) The food being cooked, the boy was watching TV. 小孩一边做饭,一边看电视。 (两个动作同时进行) 3. 独立主格结构介词使用的问题 当介词是 in 时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词) ,也不 用复数。但 with 的复合结构不受此限制。 A robber burst into the room, knife in hand. ( hand 前不能加 his) 劫匪手里拿着刀闯进房间。 当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时, 及物动词用现在分词, 不及物动词用过去分词。 He lay there, his teeth set, his hands clenched, his eyes looking straight up. 他躺在那儿,牙关紧闭,双拳紧握,两眼直视上方。 4. 独立主格结构与独立成分的异同 有些分词短语可以独立存在,在句子中没有逻辑上的主语,作为习惯用法。 这些短语有: Generally speaking (总的说来) Frankly speaking (坦率地说) , , Judging from (从??判断) ,Supposing (假设) ,等等。 Generally speaking, the rule is very easy to understand. 总的说来,这条规则很容易懂。 Judging from what he said, he must be an honest man. 由他所说的来判断,他一定是一个诚实的人。 有些固定短语是带 to 的不定式, 表明说话人的立场或态度, 在句中作独立成分。 这些短语有: be honest 老实说) to be sure (确实) to tell you the truth (说 to ( , , 实话) to cut a long story short (长话短说) to be frank (坦率地说) to make , , , matters / things worse (更糟糕的是) ,等等。 To tell you the truth, I made a mistake in the word spelling. 说实话,我犯了一个拼写错误。 To make things worse, many of the men have gone off to cities in search of higher pay, leaving women from nearby villages to carry on with the work. 情况更糟的是, 许多男人都去城市找工资较高的工作,而留下附近村庄的妇 女来继续承担修复工作。

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5.独立主格结构与分词短语都可以转换为状语从句。但是独立主格结构转换为 状语从句后,它有自己的逻辑主语,与主句的主语不一致;而分词短语转换 为状语从句后,从句的主语与主句的主语一致。 If time permits, we'd better have a holiday at weekends. 转换为:Time permitting, we'd better have a holiday at weekends. 如果时间允许,我们最好周末去度假。 When we see from the hilltop, we can find the city more beautiful. 转换为:Seeing from the hilltop, we can find the city more beautiful. 从山顶上看,我们发现这个城市更美了。 还必须注意, 分词结构的逻辑主语并不总是和主句的主语一致,也可以是主句的 其他成分。 Searching for the thief in the city, it had taken the policemen a long time. 在城市里搜查小偷,花费了警察很长一段时间。 (Searching 短语的逻辑主语是主 句中的 policemen

Text-yourself
1. ______ no bus, we had to walk home. A. There was B. There being C. Because there being

2. ____, I'll go there with you tomorrow afternoon. A. Time permits B. If time permitting C. Time permitting 3. _____, we all went home happily. A. Goodbye was said C. Goodbye said B. Goodbye had been said D. When goodbye said D. Time's permitting

4. _____, we all went swimming in high spirits. A. It being fine weather C. It was fine weather B. It fine weather D. It being a fine weather

5. ____, the bus started at once. A. The signal was given C. The signal given B. The signal giving D. When the signal given

6. She stood there, _____ from her cheeks.

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A. tears' rolling down C. with tears rolled down

B. tears rolled down D. tears rolling down

7. ____, the leaves are turning green. A. When spring coming on C. Spring came on B. Spring coming on

D. Spring being come on

8. _____, I had to buy a new one. A. My dictionary losing B. My dictionary having been lost D. Because my dictionary lost

C. My dictionary had been lost

9. I used to sleep with the window _____. A. opened B. open C. opening D to open

10. ____, the hunter went into the forest. A. A gun on shoulder C. Gun on shoulder B. A gun was on his shoulder D. A gun being on shoulder

11. ____ production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year. A. As B. For C. With D. Through

12. With a lot of work ____, I have to sit up tonight. A. do B. doing C. done D. to do

13. He stood there silently, his lips_____. A. trembling B. trembled C. were trembling D. were trembling

14. _____, her suggestion is of greater value than yours. A. All things considering B. All things considered D. With all things were considered

C. All things were considered

15. ______, we will surely succeed. A. The teacher helping us C. The teacher will help us B. The teacher to help us D. With the teacher helping

Ⅸ.英语时态
英语共有十六种时态,其表现形式如下(以 study 为例)
一般时 进行时 完成时 完成进行时

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现 在 study studying 过 去 studied studying 将来 will study studying

be studying

have studied

have been

be studying

had studied

had been

will be studying

will have studied

will have been

过去将来 would study have been studying

would be studying

would have studied

would

一:一般现在时态: 表示现在经常发生或习惯性的动作。时间状语: every …, sometimes, never, often, usually 等。 always,

1 由 be 的 is am are 表示,之后接名词,形容词或介词。 陈述句:I am an office worker. He is so lazy. They are at home now.

否定句: I am not Tim. She is not very beautiful. They are not in the office. 一般疑问句:Are you an office assistant? Is she beautiful? 特殊疑问句:What is your job? What colour is your bag? Where are you now? 2 由实意动词 V 构成,引导疑问句和否定句,用 do 或 don’t。第三人称时用 does 或 doesn’t,有 does 出现动词用原形;第三人称陈述句 V 后加 s 或 es. 陈述句:I work in Shanghai. He works at home. Davy never watches TV at home. 否定句: I don’t like the food in KFC. Davy doesn’t like the food in KFC either. 一般疑问句: Do you want a cup of coffee? Does she live near the subway station? 特殊疑问句:What do you want? Where does she live? How do they go to work? 3 由情态动词 can, must, may 构成。may 没有否定形式。 陈述句: I can drive a car. He must tell the truth. We may get there on foot. 否定句:I can’t swim at all. You mustn’t(表示禁止) smoke in the office. 一般疑问句: Can you wait a minute? Must I stay at home? May I use your phone? 特殊疑问句: How can I get there? What must I do now?

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二:一般过去时态。 在过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。 时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago,the day before yesterday,in 1997。 1 由 be 的过去式是 was 或 were 表示。Is\ am---was;are---were. 陈述句:I was a big boss.He was beautiful. We were in Beijing last year. 否定句: I was not at home at that moment. We were not at work yesterday. 一般疑问句: Were you a teacher? Was she in the office last week? 特殊疑问句:Where were you last night? When were you in that company? 2 由 V 的过去式构成陈述句,疑问句和否定句用借助于 did,有 did 出现动词用原 形。 陈述句:I worked in Sunmoon.We studied English there. He lived in HongKong. 否定句: I didn’t work here. They didn’t see me. She liked English a lot. 一般疑问句: Did you go to America? Did he work in Sunmoon? 特殊疑问句:Where did you work? What did he say to you? How did you know my name? 3 由情态动词的过去式构成,can—could. She could walk when she was one year old. I could not speak English one year ago.

三: 一般将来时态: 即将发生动作或状态。时间状语有:tomorrow,next year,the month after next,in two hours. 1 任何人称+will+动词原形. I will fly to KongKong tomorrow. He will go with us. We will arrive in Shanghai next week. I will never believe you again. He will not come tonight. We will not buy a car next year. Will you go there by train? Will he come tomorrow? Will they live a five-star hotel? What will you do after class? Where will he live? How will they come here? 2 is/am/are+going to+V 原形,表示计划打算做什么事情。 I’m going to go to Kongkong by air. We are not going to buy a house here.
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Are they going to change their jobs?

How are you going to tell him?

四 :过去将来时态;在过去将会发生的动作。 构成:任何人称+would +V 原形 was/were going to +V 原形 He said he would come in in Shanghai. I say I would buy you a car one day.

They told me that they were not going to go abroad.

五: 现在进行时态: 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。常用的时间的动作:now, at the (this)moment 构成:is/am/are+Ving I’m waiting for my boy friend. He is doing the housework at home now. He is not playing toys. We are enjoying ourselves. Are you having dinner at home? Is Tim cooking in the kitchen? What are you doing now? Where are they having a meal?

六: 过去进行时态:过去一段时间正在发生的动作。 构成:was/were+Ving I was doing my homework at that time. He was not sleeping at 11 o’clock last night. What were you doing at that moment? We were having a party while my neighbor is sleeping.

七: 现在完成时态 用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状态,其结果的确和现在有联系。动作 或状态发生在过去但它的影响现在还存在;也可表示持续到现在的动作或状 态。简单的说,就是动作已经发生对现在造成明显的影响。常用的时间 for two /weeks/years; for accident several days; since 2004/ Apr. 23/last week /the

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构成:have/has +done(过去分词) I have already told Davy. Davy has known this matter. He has lived here for nearly 10 years. I haven’t finished my homework. Tim hasn’t come yet.We haven’t heard any news about him How long have you worked in this company? 特别注意: 1. have/has always been+名词/形容词/介词:总是或一直是什么样子。。 。 He has always been a good father. I have always been busy. They have always been in America. 2 have/has been to:表示去过或到过。。 。 I have been to Canada. Have you been to Hongkong? Where have you been? I have never been here. 3 have/has gone to:去了。。 。 He has gone to Beijing. They have gone to the cinema.

八 过去完成时态:发生在过去的过去。 构成:had + done He said he had told Davy. They told us they had finished the work. She had had dinner before she went out. He left the office after he had called Davy

九:将来进行时(will be doing) 用法:强调在将来的某个具体时间正在发生的动作或事情。 例:Don't worry, you won't miss her. She will be wearing a red T-shirt and a white skirt at that time.(别担心,你不会认不出她的。她到时会穿一件红色的 T 恤衫和一条白色的短裙。 ) 注意事项:由于本时态是由将来时和进行时融合在一起的,所以关于本 时态的注意事项,可参考"一般将来时"和"现在进行时"的有关注意事项。

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十: 将来完成时(will have done) 用法:表示从将来的某一时间开始、延续到另一个将来时间的动作或状 态,或是发生在某个将来时间,但对其后的另一个将来时间有影响的动作或 状态。就好象把现在完成时平移到时间轴的将来时时段一样。其用法从和过 去及现在有关,变成了和将来及将来的将来有关。 例:1997 年 1 月四级第 22 题 The conference __________ a full week by the time it ends. A) must have lasted B) will have lasted C) would last D) has lasted 本题考核谓语动词的时态。全句的意思是:“会议从开始到结束将持续整 整一个星期。”句中 by the time it ends 表示动作要延续到将来某一时刻,因此 要用将来完成时。答案是 B) will have lasted。如果选 A),因为情态动词 must 后面接动词不定式的完成时形式表示对已经发生的事情的一种肯定推测,而 本句的时间状语是 by the time it ends 而非 by the time it ended,所以犯了时态 不呼应的错误。 Would 虽可以表示推测或可能性, would last 不能表示延续 但 到将来某一时刻的动作,所以 C) would last 错误。因为 D) has lasted 是现在 完成时,表示到现在为止已经完成的动作,不能表示延续到将来某一时刻的 动作,所以也不正确。 注意事项:由于本时态是由将来时和完成时融合在一起的,所以关于本 时态的注意事项,可以参考“一般将来时”和“现在完成时”的有关注意事项。

十一:将来完成进行时:shall have been doing ,will have been doing 例:By the end of next month, the project will have been being worked for 3 years. (到下个月底为止,这项工程就已经不停地进行了 3 年了。(被动语 ) 态)

十二:过去完成进行时:had been doing 例:The old clock had been being taken apart of and fixed up again for several times by my 10-year old son before I came back home.(我回到家之前,

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我 10 岁大的儿子已经把这个旧钟表拆卸并重新组装了好几回了。 此处强调 ) ( “拆卸”和“组装”这两个过去的过去的动作一直在反复进行。(被动语态) )

十三: 过去将来进行时:should be doing , would be doing 例:The government promised that a new highway would be being built next July.(政府承诺说第二年 7 月将有一条新的高速公路正在修建。(此句的时 ) 间状语是具体的将来时间,所以最好用将来进行时。(此句为被动语态) )

十四:过去将来完成时:should have done , would have done 例:I believed by the end of that year an advanced version of that software would have been developed, but I was wrong.(我坚信到那年年底为止,那个软 件的新版本将被开发出来。但是我错了。(此句为被动语态) )

十五: 过去将来完成进行时:should have been doing , would have been doing 例:They said that by the end of the following month, the project would have been being worked for 3 years. (他们说到第二个月底为止,这项工程就已经 不停地进行了 3 年了。 )

Text-yourself
1、 The violin will have to be tuned before it _____. A. is played B. should play C. plays D. is being played

2、 By the time you arrive in London, we _____ in Europe for two weeks. A. had stayed C. will have stayed 3、I ___ B. shall stay D. have been staying

with some friends until I find a flat. B. live C. have lived D. will have lived

A. am living

4、All the preparations for the task _____, and we’re ready to start. A. completed C. had been completed B. complete D. have been completed

5、 I thought I ____ the door, but it is still open

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A. had closed C. have closed

B. was closing D. would close

6、You ____ television. Why not do something more active? A. always watch C. have always watched B. are always watching D. have always been watching

7. ---It seems that she is thinking about something. ---Yes, she cannot remember what key she ____ to her computer. A .set B. has set C. had set D. sets

8、 ---Why weren’t you at the meeting? ---I ____ an important visitor from the UK in my office. B. had been expecting D. had expected

A. expected C. was expecting

9、I have no idea what ____ while I was asleep. A. has happened C. had happened B. was happened D. happened

10, --Have you moved into the new house? --Not yet, the rooms _____. A. are being painted C. are painted B. are painting D. have been painting

11. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times. A. had met B. have met C. met D. meet

12.---I'm sorry to keep you waiting. ---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes. A. have been B. had been C. was D. will be

13. --- Oh, dear. I forgot the air tickets. --- You ______ something. A. have left B. are always leaving C. are leaving D. always left

14. --- I ______ so busily recently that I ______ no time to help you with your math. --- That’s OK. I can manage it by myself. A. have been working; have B. have worked; had
39

C. am working; will have

D. had been working; had had

15. Remember to send me a photo of us next time you ______ to me. A. are writing B. will write C. has written D. write

16. He ______ at the meeting, but his heart attack prevented him. A. will speak C. had to speak 17. B. is going to speak D. was going to speak

I ____ ping-pong quite well, but I haven’t had time to play since the New Year. B. have played C. played D. play

A. will play

18. I can guess you were in a hurry. You _____ your sweater inside out. A. had worn B. wore C. were wearing D. are wearing

19. The traffic in our city is already good and it ______ even better. A. gets B. got C. has got D. is getting 20. --- Where do you think ______ he ______ the computer? --- Sorry. I have no idea. A. has; bought B. /; bought C. did; buy D. /; buys

Keys
Ⅰ. 虚拟语气 2 Keys:1.D 2. C 3.B 4.B 5.A 6.B 7.A 8.B Ⅱ. 不定式和动名词 :Keys: CBCBBCAC Ⅲ. 分词 Keys: CDBACACA Ⅳ. 限定性定语从句 KEYS: ACDDBBAC Ⅴ. 非限定性定语从句 Keys: ABCBDCBC Ⅵ. 全倒装 1.C 2.D 3.A 4.D 5.B 6.D 7.B 8.C Ⅶ. 部分倒装 1.B 2.D 3.C 4.C 5.A 6.A 7.B 8.C

Ⅷ. 独立主格结构 1-10:BCCAC DBBBC 11-15:CDABB Ⅸ. 英语时态: 1-10: ACADA BBCDA 11-20: BABAD DDDDB
40


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