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2013高考英语语法单选超级归纳


2013 高考英语语法单选超级归纳
一、冠词

冠词分为不定冠词(a, an) ,定冠词(the) ,和零冠词。 I. 不定冠词的用法 1 2 3 4 指一类人或事,相当于 a kind of 第一次提及某人某物,非特指 表示“每一”相当于 every,one 表示“相同”相当于 the same A plane is a machine that

can fly. A boy is waiting for you.有个男孩在等你。 We study eight hours a day. We are nearly of an age. — Hello, could I speak to Mr. Smith? 用于人名前,表示不认识此人或与某名人有类似性质的人或 5 事 —Sorry, wrong number. There isn't______ Mr. Smith here. A. 不填 B. a C. the D. one

That boy is rather a Lei Feng.(活雷锋) 6 7 8 用于固定词组中 用于 quite, rather, many, half, what, such 之后 用于 so(as, too, how)+形容词之后 a couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk, many a time This room is rather a big one. She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet. success(抽象名词)→a success(具体化) 成功的人或事 a failure 失败的人或事 a shame 带来耻辱的人或事 a pity 可惜或遗憾的事 a must 必需必备的事 a good knowledge of 精通掌握某一方面的知识

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用于抽象名词具体化的名词前

II. 定冠词的用法 In many places in China, ___ bicycle is still ___ popular means of 1 表示某一类人或物 transportation. A. a; the 2 用于世上独一无二的事物名词前 B. /; a C. the; a D. the; the

the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean

3 4 5

表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的人或事 用于演奏乐器 用于形容词和分词前表示一类人

Would you mind opening the door? play the violin, play the guitar the reach, the living, the wounded —Could you tell me the way to ____ Johnsons, please?

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表示“一家人”或“夫妇” (对比上文的不定冠词用法 5)

—Sorry, we don’t have ____ Johnson here in the village. A. the; the B. the; a C. /; the D. the; /

7 8 9 10 11 12

用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级前 用于国家党派等以及江河湖海,山川群岛的名词前 用于表示发明物的单数名词前 在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某个年代 用于表示度量单位的名词前 用于方位名词,身体部位名词

He is the taller of the two children. the United States, the Communist Party of China, the French The compass was invented in China. in the 1990’s(二十世纪九十年代) I hired the car by the hour. He patted me on the shoulder.

III. 不用冠词(又名零冠词)的用法 1 2 3 4 5 专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人名地名等名词前 名词前有 this, my, whose, some, no, each, every 等限制 季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三餐前 表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前 表示球类,棋类等运动的名词前 Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air I want this book, not that one. / Whose purse is this? March, Sunday, National Day, spring Lincoln was made President of America. He likes playing football/chess. We went right round to the west coast by ______ sea instead of driving 6 与 by 连用表示交通方式的名词前 across ______ continent. A. the; the 7 8 以 and 连接的两个相对的名词并用时 表示泛指的复数名词前 B.不填;the C. the; 不填 D. 不填;不填

husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night Horses are useful animals.

二、名词和主谓一致 I. 名词的种类 专有名词 国名地名人名,团体机构名称 可数名词 个体名词 集体名词 抽象名词 普通名词 不可数名词 物质名词 特别注意名词类别的相互转换 个体名词与抽象名词的相互转换 例 句 意 义 名词性质 个体名词 抽象名词 抽象名词 个体名词 抽象名词 个体名词 ①She held some flowers in her hand. ②The trees are now in flower ①Youth is beautiful. ②He is a youth of twenty ①They have achieved remarkable success in their work. ②—How about the Christmas evening party? —I should say it was a success. 例 ①Iron is a kind of metal. ②Please lend me your iron. ①He broke a piece of glass. ②He broke a glass. ①I bought a chicken this morning ②Please help yourself to some chicken 句 花儿 开花 青春 年轻人 成功 成功的事 物质名词与个体名词的相互转换 意 铁 熨斗 玻璃 玻璃杯 小鸡 鸡肉 抽象名词与个体名词的转换 ①—I’d like______information about the management of your hotel,please. —Well, you could have____word with the manager. He might be helpful A.some,a B.an,some C.some,some D.an,a ②They sent us word of the latest happenings. 消息 (抽象名词) A.a B.an C./ D.the ③Could we have word before you go to the meeting? 话(个体名词) 义 名词性质 物质名词 个体名词 物质名词 个体名词 个体名词 物质名词

具有动作意义的抽象名词加用 与某些动词(如:have 等)连 用,表示某一次短暂的动作

表示知识和时间的抽象名词转 换为普通名词时可以用来表示 其中的一部分

A.a B.an C./ D.the 类例:have a dream/a rest/a smoke/a swim/a trip/a wash/a discussion/a look take a walk/a bath make an advance(进步)/make an early start(早点出发) /make a decision/make a change/give a cry of pain(发出痛苦的叫声) /give a try ①Many people agree that___knowledge of English is a must in____international trade today. A.a, / B.the, an C.the, the D. /, the a knowledge of truth(知道实际情况) give a fuller knowledge of China(提供关于中国更为翔实的知识) have a knowledge of shorthand(有速记的知识) ②If there were no examination, we should have______at school. A.the happiest time B.a more happier time C.much happiest time D.a much happier time ③ is money. A.The time B.A time C.Time D.Times ①Oh, John. _____you gave me! A.How a pleasant surprise B.How pleasant surprise C.What a pleasant surprise D. What pleasant surprise ②She looked up when I shouted. A.in a surprise B.in the surprise C.in surprise D.in some surprise 其它例子:The gift came as a complete surprise to me. We have had some unpleasant surprise ③It is_____work of art that everyone wants to have a look at it. A.so unusual B. such unusual C.such an unusual D.so an unusual

抽象名词转换为普通名词可用 来表示“一次、一阵、一种” 具体的行为、事件、现象或结 果。这时名词前往往有形容词 修饰

II. 名词的数 规则名词的复数形式:名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es(参看有关语法书) 。英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,请看下表 规 1 2 3 4 5 6 单复数相同 只有复数形式 一些集体名词总是用作复数 部分集体名词既可以作单数 (整体) 也可以作复数 (成 员) 复数形式表示特别含义 则 例 词 改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, compasses, contents people, police, cattle, staff audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group, committee, government, population, crew, team, public, enemy, party customs(海关), forces(军队), times(时代), spirits(情绪), drinks(饮料),

sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), manners(礼貌), looks(外表), brains(头脑 智力), greens(青菜), ruins(废墟) 加-s 7 表示 “某国人” 单复数同形 以 -man 或 -woman 结 尾 的 改 为 -men,-women 将主体名词变为复数 8 合成名词 无主体名词时将最后一部分变为复数 将两部分变为复数 III. 主谓一致 规则 语 情 况 举 例 His father is working on the farm. To study English well is not easy. Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes. What he said is very important for us all. 由 what 引导的主语从句, 后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形式, 但若表语是复数或 what 从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构 时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式。 what I bought were three English books. What I say and do is (are) helpful for you. Lucy and Lily are twins The writer and artist has come. Every student and every teach is in the classroom. Many a boy and many a girl likes it. No boy and no girl likes it. Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese Englishmen, Frenchwomen sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches women singers, men servants



以单数名词或代词动词不定式短语, 动名词短语或从句作主 语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词 用复数形式。

一 由连接词 and 或 both?and 连接起来的主语后面,要用复数 形式的谓语动词。但若所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物 时,它后面的谓语就用单数形式。由 and 连接的并列单数 主 语 前 如 果 分 别 有 no, each, every 或 more than a (an)/one,many a (an) 修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。



either, neither, each, every 或 no+单数名词和由 some, any no, every 构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待。. 原

Each of us has a new book. Is everyone here today? Somebody is speaking in class. Everything around us is matter 若 none of 后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单 数。若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可 以。 None of the sugar was left. None of us has (have) been to America.



Those who want to go please write their names on the blackboard. 在定语从句里,关系代词 that, who, which 等作主语时,其 He is one of my friends who are working hard. 谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。 He is the (only) one of my friends who is working hard. 在强调句型中应与被强调部分一致 It is I who am going to the cinema tonight. It is we who are going to the cinema tonight.

The police are looking for the lost child. The cattle are eating grass in the field. 如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数形式; His family has moved to the south .(他的一家) 如果它指的集体的成员,其谓语动词用复数形式 His family are watching TV.(他的家人) Class four is on the third floor.(四班) Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.(四班的学生) There are a lot of people in the classroom. Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is sea. 50 percent of the students in our class are girls. 此外,还有 a number of +复数名词有类似的用法(用复数) ,但 the number of +复数名词的数就得依 number 而定(用单数) 。 A number of students have gone to the farm to help the farmer pick apples. The number of pages in this book is three hundred. There comes the bus. On the wall are many pictures. Such is the result. Such are the facts. Between the two hills stands a monument.

由 a lot of /lots of/ plenty of/ a heap of/ heaps of/ the rest of/the majority of+名词构成的短语以及由分数或百分数+名词构 成的短语作主语时, 其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词 的数而定。

在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致

What, who, which, any, more, all 等代词可以是单数, 也可是 复数, 主要靠意思来决定。 逻 辑 意 义 一 致 原 则 表示时间重量长度价值等的名词的复数作主语时, 谓语动词 通常用单数形式, 这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整 体。 若英语是书名名格言剧名报名国名等的复数形式, 其谓语动 词通常用单数形式。 表数量的短语“one and a half”后面接复数名词作主语时, 其谓语动词要用单数形式。

Which is your bag? Are any of you good at English? All can be done has been done. All have been taken out.

Which are your bags? Has any of you got a pen? All is going well. All have gone to Beijing.

Thirty minutes is enough for the work.. Twenty pounds is too dear. 如强调这类词的复数意义,则谓语动词要用复数形式 Forty kilos of water are used every day. The United States is smaller than China. “The Arabian Nights” is an interesting story-book. One and a half apples is left on the table.

一 些 学 科 名 词 是 以 -ics 结 尾 , 如 : mathematics, politics, physics 以及 news, works 等。 都属于形式上是复数的名词, The paper works was built in 1990.这家造纸厂建于 1990 年。 I don’t think physics is easy to study. 实际意义为单数名词, 它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。 trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, scissors (剪刀)等词作主语 My glasses are broken. 时, 谓语用复数, 但如果这些名词前有 a(the) pair of 等量词 The pair of shoes under the bed is his. 修饰时(clothes 被 a suit of 修饰)谓语动词用单数。 “定冠词 the+形容词或分词” 表示某一类人动词用复数; , 若 表示某一类东西时,动词用单数。 The old are taken good care of there. The beautiful gives pleasure to all.

就 近 /远 一 致 原 则

Either the teacher or the students are our friends. 当两个主语由 either or, neither nor, not only but also ,whether Neither he nor they are wholly right. or 连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主语保持一致,即就近一致。 Neither they nor he is wholly right. Is neither he nor they wholly right? there be 句型中 be 动词的单复数取决于其后的主语。如果 其后是由 and 连接的两个主语,则应与靠近的那个主语保 持一致,即就近一致。 There are two chairs and a desk in the room. There is a desk and two chairs in the room.

主语后面跟有 with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, no less than, rather than, more than, besides, along with, including, in addition to 等引起的短语, 谓语动词要跟主语 一致,即就远一致。

Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. A woman with a baby was on the bus. Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. She, like you and Tom, is very tall. The girls as well as the boy have learned to speak Japanese. No one except my teachers knows anything about it. 三、代词

I. 代词可以分为以下八大类 主格 1 人称代词 宾格 形容词性物主代词 名词性物主代词 2 3 4 5 6 7 类 别 反身代词 指示代词 疑问代词 关系代词/连接代词 不定代词 相互代词 区 别 I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them my, your, his, her, its, our, their mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves this, that, these, those, such, some who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever, whatever that, which, who, whom, whose, as one/ some/ any, each/ every, none/ no, many/ much, few/ little/ a few/ a little other/ another, all/ both, neither/ either each other,one another 例 句 ①We’ve been looking at the houses but haven’t found ___ we like yet. A.one B.ones C.it D.them ②Cars do cause us some health problems — in fact far more serious _______ than mobile phones do. A.one B.ones C.it D.those —Your coffee smells great! A.it B.some —It’s from Mexico.Would you like ________? C.this D.1ittle

II. 不定代词用法注意点

one, some, any 和 it

one 可以泛指人或者事(东西) ,其复 数为 ones

some 可用于疑问句中,表示盼望得 到肯定的答复,或者表示建议,请求 等

some 和 any 修饰可数名词单数时, some 表示某个,any 表示任何一个 one 指同类中的一个,it 指代同一种 类的东西。此外 it 还可以作形式主 语、形式宾语和用于强调句型中。

①I have read this article in some magazine. Please correct the mistakes, if any. ②—Which of the three ways shall I take to the village? —________way as you please. A.Each B.Every C.Any D.Either —There is still a copy of the book in the library. Will you go and borrow —No, I’d rather buy in the bookstore. A.it;one B.one;one C.one;it D.it;it ?

some 多用于肯定句, 多用于疑问 any 句和否定句

①There’s ________cooking oil in the house. Would you go to the corner store and get ________. A.1ittle,some B.1ittle,any C.a little,some D.a little,any ②We had three sets of garden tools and we seemed to have no use for ________. A.none B.either C.any D.each ③He doesn’t have _________ furniture in his room --just an old desk. A. any B. many C. some D. much ①Each student has a pocket dictionary. Each (of us) has a dictionary. = We each have a dictionary. ②Every student has strong and weak points. / Every one of us has strong and weak points. ①There is no water in the bottle. ②How much water is there in the bottle? None. ③None of the students are (is) afraid of difficulties.

each 和 every

each 强调个别, 代表的数可以是两个 或两个以上,而 every 强调整体,所 指的数必须是三个或三个以上 no 等于 not any,作定语。none 作主 语或宾语,代替不可数名词,谓语用 单数,代替可数名词,谓语单复数皆 可以 other 泛指“另外的,别的”常与其他 词连用,如:the other day, every other week, someother reason, no other way, the other 特指两者中的另外一个,复 数为 the others

none 和 no

other 和 another

①Both sides have accused of breaking the contract. A. another B. the other C. neither D. each ②Two students in our class failed, but all the others passed the exam.

①We had a picnic last term and it was a lot of fun,so let’s have ______ one this another 指 “又一个, 另一个” 无所指, month. 复数形式是 others,泛指“别的人或 A.the other B.some C.another D.other 事” ②The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some others. ③Some like football, while others like basketball. ①—Do you want tea or coffee? — ______, I really don't mind. A. none B. neither C. either D. all ②It was hard for him to learn English in a family, in which _____ of the parents spoke the language. A. none B. neither C. both D. each
四、形容词和副词

either 和 neither

前者意思为:两者都(两者中任何一 方都) ;后者意思为:两者都

I. 形容词 1.形容词的位置:形容词作定语通常前置,但在下列情况下后置 1 2 3 4 5 6 修饰 some, any, every, no 和 body, thing, one 等构成的复合不定代词时 以-able, -ible 结尾的形容词可置于有最高级或 only 修饰的名词之后 alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep 等作定语时后置 和空间、时间、单位连用时 成对的形容词可以后置 形容词短语一般后置 enough 修饰名词时可以前置也可以后置,但修饰形容词或副词时要 后置 nobody absent, everything possible the best book available, the only solution possible the only person awake a bridge 50 meters long a huge room simple and beautiful a man difficult to get on with ______to take his adventure course will certainly learn a lot of useful skills.(NMET2000) A.Brave enough students B.Enough breave students C.Students brave enough D.Students enough brave

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注意:多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序 熟记口诀就可以顺利解题:限定描绘大长高,形状年龄和新老,颜色国籍跟材料,作用类别往后靠。 规则:限定语(The、A)+ 描绘性形容词 + size(小)+ shape(形状)+ age(年龄、时间)+ color(颜色)+ origin(国籍、来源)+ material(材料)+ purpose (目的)+ 名词。 ▲This ________ girl is Linda’s cousin. (05 北京卷) A. pretty little Spanish B. Spanish little pretty C. Spanish pretty little D. little pretty Spanish

2.复合形容词的构成 1 2 3 4 5 形容词+名词+ed 形容词+形容词 形容词+现在分词 副词+现在分词 副词+过去分词 kind-hearted dark-blue ordinary-looking hard-working newly-built 6 7 8 9 10 名词+形容词 名词+现在分词 名词+过去分词 数词+名词+ed 数词+名词 world-famous peace-loving snow-covered three-egged twenty-year

3.形容词(短语)作伴随状语 As he looked at the goat, it rolled over, dead. 当他看着山羊的时候,山羊翻了个身,死了。 Afraid of difficulties, they prefer to take the easy road.由于害怕困难,他们宁愿走好走的路。 II.副词的分类: 1 2 3 4 时间副词 地点副词 方式副词 程度副词 soon, now, early, finally, once, recently here, nearby, outside, upwards, above hard, well, fast, slowly, excitedly, really almost, nearly, very, fairly, quite, rather 5 6 7 8 频度副词 疑问副词 连接副词 关系副词 always, often, frequently, seldom, never how, where, when, why how, when, meanwhile where, why, whether, however,

when, where, why

III. 形容词和副词的比较等级 形容词和副词的比较等级分为原级,比较级和最高级。比较级和最高级的构成一般是在形容词和副词后加-er 和-est,多音节和一些双音节词前加 more 和 most。 项 目 例 句 She is as tall as her mother. I am not as/ so good a player as you are. This picture is more beautiful than that one. I have never seen such a more interesting film (than this one).

同级比较时常常用 as…as…以及 not so(as)…as… 双方比较, 表示一方超过另一方时, “比较级 (+ than) 用 ” 的结构表示。要注意题干中将比较的另一方阴藏起来的 情况。

表示一方不及另一方时,用“less + 原级 + than”的结构 This room is less beautiful than that one. 表示 表示一方随另一方变化时用“the more…the more…”句型 用比较级来表达最高级的意思 倍数的表达 The harder you work, the more progress you will make I have never spent a more worrying day. 我从来没有度过这样令人烦恼的一天。 (意为:我度过了最为令人烦恼的一天。 ) 表达法一:A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B.

The new building is four times the size(the height)of the old one. 这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大(高)/这座新楼比那座旧楼大(高)三倍。 表达法二:A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. Asia is four times as large as Europe. 亚洲是欧洲的四倍大/亚洲比欧洲大三倍。 表达法三:A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B. Your school is three times bigger than ours. 你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。 用 times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用 twice 或 double. 注意:1. 可以修饰比较级的词有:much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal; 2. 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如:favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect,superior,junior 等。 五、动词和短语动词 知识网络 行为动词(实义动词) ①及物动词(带宾语) :study, develop; ②不及物动词(不带宾语)work, swim, go, come ③状态动词(相对静止)contain, exist, own, prefer, belong ④动作动词:延续性(work, stay) ;非延续性(marry, go, come) 连系动词(汉语中没有这种词类) 助动词(与动词原形或分词构成复合谓语) be(am,is,are),do(does,did);have(has);will,would,shall 情态动词 can(could),may(might),must,shall(should)

动词的分类

短语动词常见的构成方式及其注意点

动词+副词所构成的短语动词分及物的和不及物的两类 Please turn every light in the house off. 请把房子里的每一盏灯都关掉。 (及物) Harry turned up after the party when everyone had left. 晚会后,人们都已离去,哈里出现了。 (不及物) 注意: ① 如果宾语较长,就应避免把副词同动词分开 She turned off all the lights which had been left on. 她关掉了所有还在亮着的灯。 ② 如果宾语是人称代词,只能放在动词和副词之间 She gave them away.她送掉了它们。 ③同一动词和不同副词搭配时,意义上有很大的差异 ring back 回电话 ring off 挂断电话 ring up 打电话 put away 放好 put on 穿,上演 put up 挂起,举起。 ④不同动词和同一副词搭配时,在意义上有很大的差异 break out 发生,爆炸 carry out 进行,开展 go out 熄灭 hand out 分发 let out 放出 look out 当心 sell out 卖完 set out 出发, take out 取出 work out 算出 动词+介词(及物) I'm looking for my glasses. 我在找我的眼镜。 注意:① 当它跟宾语时,不能把介词放在宾语后面。 ② 同一动词和不同介词搭配时,意义上有很大的差异。 look after 照料,look at 看,look for 寻找 动词+副词+介词 I look forward to seeing you soon. 我盼望不久就见到你。 注:“动词+介词”、“动词+名词+副词”、“动词+副词+介词”,这三种搭配都是及物的,如 变成被动语态,不可漏掉介词。In this way both grain and vegetable can be well looked after. (不能漏掉 after) 这样一来,粮食和蔬菜都能兼顾了。

考点聚焦及解题点拨 (单个动词)同义词近义词辨析 从三个方面考虑:词的恰切含义、搭配(与介词、名词或非谓语动词的搭配)和用法(是 及物动词还是不及物动词) 状态系动词 be 持续系动词 keep,remain,stay,continue,lie,stand,rest 表象系动词 seem,appear 感官/感觉系动词 look,smell,taste,sound,feel 变化系动词 become,grow,get,turn,fall,go,come 终止系动词 prove,turn out 解答这类试题的关键首先是弄清题意,然后是分析句子结构,由此可判断出该动词是否 用作系动词,最后确定所要填入的答案。特别关注:go hungry,come true,turn writer 接双宾语的动词 短语动词的辨析 容易被我们忽视的知识点 give sb. sth=give sth.to sb 但是我们只能说:suggest sth. to sb. 熟记常考的短语动词的意义 sell, write, wash, wear 等词的主动形式后跟副词表示被动意义 happen, occur,take place, break out, come out, belong to 等无被动形式 buy sb. sth.=buy sth. for sb explain sth.to sb. read sth. to sb.

系动词的用法

六、动词的时态和语态 1. 常用常考的动词时态和用法: (以 do 为例) 名称 构成 用法 1.一般现在时表示经常发生、习惯性动作、客观真理、科学 事实、格言,目前的特征、状态、能力等。 2.主句是一般将来时,时间、 条件状语从句中用一般现在时表 示将来。 I’ll go there after I finish my work. If it rains tomorrow,I won’t go there. 3.在以 here,there 开头的句子里, go,come 等少数动词的一般 在时表示正在发生的动作。 There goes the bell.铃响了。 There comes the bus.汽车来了。 Here she comes.她来了。

一般现在时

do/does,( 连系动词 is/am/are )

一般过去时

did,( 连系动词 was/were)

表达特定的过去时间内发生的动作或存在的状况, 或过去某 一时间内经常发生或反复发生的动作或行为。 1.表示正在进行的动作。 2.表示按计划安排即将发生的动作。 She is leaving for Beijing.她要去北京。 He is working as a teacher tomorrow. 从明天起他要做老师。 My father is coming to see me this Saturday. 这个星期六我爸爸要来看我。 3.代替一般现在时,描绘更加生动。 The Changjiang River is flowing into the east. 长江江水滚滚向东流。 The sun is rising in the east.太阳从东方冉冉升起。 1.表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行的动作 (这一 过去时间须用时间状语表示) He was preparing his lecture all day yesterday. 2.表示动作在另一过去动作发生时进行 They were still working when I left. 3.用在两个过去进行时动作同时发生 I was writing while he was watching TV. 4.表示过去将来动作 He said she was arriving the next day. 1.表示过去发生的动作对现在产生的影响或结果, 说话时已 完成的动作。 I have finished the report./ She has cleand the room. 2.表示从过去开始,待续到现在的动作或状态,往往 和“for...”, “since...”表述的一段时间状语连用。 He has learned English for six years. They have worked here since they left college. 3.表示“曾经到过某地(人已回来)”用“have/has been to”,表

现在进行时

is/am/are doing

过去进行时

was/were doing

现在完成时

has/have done

示“到某地去了(还未回来)”用“have/has gone to”。 —Where is Li Hua? -He has gone to the reading-room. —She knows a lot about Shanghai. -She has been there. 4.短暂动词(即瞬间动词) , join,lose,buy,borrow,leave,go,come,arrive,die,marry, finish,complete,begin,start,break out 等,在完成时态 中,其肯定式不能和表示一段时间的状语连用。不能说: He has joined the army for three years. 要翻译“他已参军已经三年了。”可采用 ①“ago 法” He joined the army three years ago. ②“延续法” He has been in the army for three years. ③“since 法” It is/has been three years since he joined the army. 1.表示在过去某一时间以前已经完成的动作。 He had shut the door before the dog came up. Everything had been all right up till this morning. 2.表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到 另一个过去时刻才完成,甚至还要继续下去。 At the age of ten,he had learned 500 English words. He had been ill for a week when we learned about it. 3.常用 hope,expect,think,intend,want,suppose 等动词的 过去完成时来表示未实现的希望、打算或意图。 We had expected that you would be able to win the match. 用来表示在将来某个时刻(前)将完成的动作。常和 by 短 语,when,before 引起的时间状语连用。 We will have finished senior Book 2 by the end of this term. 用来表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在 (还要继续下 去) 的动作。 has been doing the maths problems since 8:00. He

过去完成时

had done

将来完成时

will/shall have done

现在完成进行时

has/have been doing

过去完成进行时

had been doing will/shall do is/am/are going to do is/am/are(about)to do

表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到另一个过 去时刻才完成,还将继续下去。 一般将来时表示将来要发生的动作和存在的状况 (详见下面 2.一般将来时的特殊表达方式的比较) 1.相对于过去某一时刻而言即将发生的动作或存在的状态 He told me he would go to Beijing.他告诉我他将去北京。 I was told that he was going to return home. 有人告诉我他准备回家。 2. would do(表示过去的习惯)总是,总会,常常 He would sit silent for hours. 他常常接连好几个小时默默地坐着。 例 句

一般将来时

过去将来时

would/should do was/were going to do was/were(about)to do

2.一般将来时的特殊表达方式的比较 将来时 1 2 3 4 be + doing 进行时表将来 be about to + 动词原形 be to + 动词原形 一般现在时表将来 用 法 go, come, start, move, leave, arrive 等词可用进行时表示按计 划即将发生的动作 表示安排或计划中的马上就要发生的动作, 后面一般不跟时 间状语 表示按计划进行或征求对方意见 时刻表上或日程安排上早就定好的事情, 可用一般现在时表 示将来 He is moving to the south. Are they leaving for Europe? I was about to leave when the bell rang. The meeting is about to close. We’re to meet at the school gate at noon. The meeting starts at five o’clock. The plane leaves at ten this evening.

3.容易混淆的时态比较 项 目 区 别 例 句 We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time. What do you suppose _______ to her? A. was happening B. happens C. has happened D. happened 说明:说话者强调 Jane 目前的状况. Mr. Lee, who ________ as a carpenter for over 10 years, is now a very famous statesman in this country. A. has worked B. had worked C. worked D. works (只说明他过去当过木匠不涉及到现在) Hello, I ____ you were in London. How long _________ here? A. don’t know; were you B. hadn’t known; are you C. haven’t known; are D. didn’t know; have you been 说明:didn’t know 强调见面前不知道 I read the novel last month. (只说明上个月看了,不涉及现在是否记住) I have read that book.我读过那本书了。 (知道那本书的内容)

现在完成时强调过去动 作对现在产生的影响或 造成的结果 一般过去时与现在完成时的比较

一般过去时只表达过去 的动作或状态

着重表示动作的结果 时,用现在完成时 现在完成时与现在完成进行时的 比较

现在进行时与过去进行时的比较

—Hi, Tracy, you look tired. 着重表示动作一直在进 —I am tired. I _______ the living room all day. B. had painted 行, 即动作的延续性时, A. painted C. have been painting D. have painted 则用现在完成进行时 说明:强调动作从过去到现在的延续 I don’t really work here. I ____ until the new secretary _______. 现在进行时表示现在某 A. just help out; comes B. have just helped out; will come 个时候或某段时间正在 C. am just helping out; comes D. will just help out; has come 进行的动作 说明:指目前一段时间正在发生的动作, until 引导的是时间状语从句, 动词需用一般现在时。 — Hey, look where you are going! 过去进行时表示某个时 — Oh, I’m terribly sorry. _______. 候或某段时间正在进行 A. I’m not noticing. B. I wasn’t noticing. 的动作 C. I haven’t noticed. D. I don’t notice. 说明:对话的后者显然是在解释刚才不小心冒犯对方时正在做的事情.

一般过去时只表达过去 的动作或状态 一般过去时与过去进行时的比较 过去进行时表示某个时 候或某段时间正在进行 的动作

Tom________ into the house when no one ___________. A. slipped; was noticing B. had slipped; noticed C. slipped; had noticed D. was slipping; noticed 说明: 和 notice 为同时发生的动作, slip 因此 B、 为错误选项, C slipped 指过去有结果的动作(他溜进去了) ,when no one was noticing 指他溜 进去的一刹那发生的情况(没有人注意) 。 .He ______ a book about China last year, but I don’t know if he ______ it. A.wrote; has finished B. was writing; has finished C. was writing; had finished D. wrote; will finish 说明:正确选项为 B. 从 I don’t know if he has finished it.推断,他去年 一直在写。

II. 动词的被动语态 常用被动语态 构 成 常用被动语态 构 成 1 一般现在时 am/is/are done 6 过去进行时 was/were being done 2 一般过去时 was/were done 7 现在完成时 have/has been done 3 一般将来时 shall/will be done 8 过去完成时 had been done 4 过去将来时 should/would be done 9 将来完成时 will/would have been done 5 现在进行时 am/is/are being done 10 含有情态动词的 can/must/may be done 被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加 not,短语动词的被动态不可漏掉其中介副词。固定结构 be going to, 注 used to,have to, had better 变为被动态时,只需将其后的动词变为被动态。 Trees should not be planted in summer. The boy was made fun of by his classmates. 意 Newspapers used to be sent here by the little girl. 汉语有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构表示: 事 It is believed that… It is generally considered that… It is said that… It is well known that… It must be pointed out that… It is supposed that… 项 It is reported that… It must be admitted that… It is hoped that…

被动语态的句型 1.常见句式是:主语(受动者)+be+过去分词+(by+施动者) :He was scolded by the English teacher. 2.主语+get+过去分词+其它成分:The boy got drowned last summer./ She got fired because of her faults. 使用这种结构不能带有“by+施动者” 3.带有双宾语(直接宾语和间接宾语)的主动句变为动句,其主语可以是直接宾语,也可以是间接宾语。 She lent me a bike.?被动:①I was lent a bike(by her). ②A bike was lent to me(by her). 4.情态动词+be+过去分词:This problem must be worked out in half an hour. 5.双重被动式:主语+被动式谓语+不定式的被动式+其它成分 These magazines are not allowed to be taken out of the reading-room. The murderer was ordered to be shot. 下面主动形式常表示被动意义 1.不及物动词与状语连用,用以表示主语的品质和状态。常见动词是:cut,sell,read,write,fill,cook,lock,wash 等。 This knife cuts well.这把刀好切。 These books sell well.这些书好卖。 The pen writes smoothly.这支笔写起来流畅。 Meat won’t keep long in such hot weather.肉在这样热的天气里放不长久。 The cloth washes well.这种布好洗。 2.一些连系动词的主动式+形容词。常见动 look,smell,taste,sound,feel,prove,turn out 等。 The apples taste good. The flower smells wonderful. The news proved/turned out true. Cotton feels soft. 不可变为被动语态的几种情况 1.I teach myself French.不可变为 Myself is taught French.因为反身代词不可作主语。 2.We help each other/one another.不可变为 Each other/One another is helped by us.因为相互代词不可作主语。 3.He lost heart.不可变为 Heart was lost by him. 因为象 lose heart,make a face,keep silence,lose in thought 这类动宾结构的固定短语只能用于主动式,不能用被动式。 4.She took part in the sports meet.不能变为 The sports meet was taken part in by her. 因为象 take part in,belong to ,own,have,hate,fail,contain 等表状态动词没有被动语态。 含有短语动词在被动语态中介词不能丢 Much attention must be paid to your handwriting. 特别注意以下句子的结构:Every minute must be made full use of to study Englsih. 下面词或短语没有被动态: leave, enter, reach, become, benefit, cost, equal, contain, last, lack, fit, fail, have, appear, happen, occur, belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, keep up with, consist of, have on, lose heart 等等

七、非谓语动词
非谓语动词的语法功能 所能充当的成分 现在分词 V-ing 形式 动名词 不定式(to do) 过去分词(done) △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ 主语 表语 △ 宾语 宾语补足语 △ 定语 △ 状语 △

注:现在分词、不定式、过去分词都可以作独立成分 generally speaking 一般说来;frankly speaking 坦白地说;judging from/by...根据……来判断;considering.../taking...into consideration 考虑到……; to tell you the truth 说实话;seeing...考虑到……;supposing 假设,如果;providing 如果;given 考虑到,鉴于;provided that 如果 非谓语动词的形式变化 非谓语 形式 构成 时态 一般式 不定式 进行式 完成式 完成 进行式 一般式 动名词 完成式 语态 主动 to do to have done to be doing to have been doing doing having done 与动名词变化形式相同 被动 to be done to have been done / / being done having been done 复合结构 否定式

for sb. to do sth. 或 of sb. to do sth.

在“to”前加 not 或 never

sb.或 sb’s doing 作主语要用 sb’s doing

现在分词

在前加 not 特别注意复合结构的否定式: sb’s not doing sb’s not having done 在前加 not

在解非谓语习题时同学们遇到最大的困难有两个:一是如何判别是谓语动词还是非谓语动词;二是如何选用哪一种非谓语动词及其恰当的形式。 一、谓语与非谓语的比较 非谓语动词是汉语中没有的语言现象。汉语中几个谓语动词连用而动词不用作任何形式的变化。如:他明天来拜访你。翻译成英语不是 He will come visit you,而是 He will come to visit you. 这里就用了不定式 to visit。因此同学们要特别注意弄清句子的结构。 例:Tom sat under a tree and seeing his friend, up in no time. A. to stand B. standing C. stood D. would stand 分析:stood 是与 sat 并列的谓语。 非谓语语法功能的比较

做宾语的非谓语动词比较

情况 只接不定式 做宾语的动词 只接动名词 做宾语的动词或短语 意义基本相同 两 者 都 可 以 意义相反

常用动词 hope, want, offer, long, fail, expect, wish, ask, decide, pretend, manage, agree, afford, determine, promise, happen mind, miss, enjoy, imagine, practise, suggest, finish, escape, excuse, appreciate, admit, prevent, keep, dislike, avoid, risk, resist feel like, succeed in, be fond of, object to, get down to, be engaged in, insist on, think of, be proud of, take pride in, set about, be afraid of, be tired of, look forward to, devote oneself to, be worth, be busy, pay attention to, stick to begin, start, like, love, hate, prefer, continue(接不定式多指具体的动作,接动名词多指一般或习惯行为) need, want, require(主语与动名词之间存在逻辑上的动宾关系,接动名词主动形式表示被动意义,若接不定式则应用被动形式) stop to do 停止手中所做的事,去做另一件事 stop doing 停止正在做的事 remember/forget/regret to do(指动作尚未发生) remember/forget/regret doing(指动作已经发生) go on to do(接着做另外一件事) go on doing(接着做同一件事) mean to do(打算做,企图做) mean doing (意思是,意味着) be considered to have done 被认为已经做了 consider…to be 认为是 consider doing 考虑做某事 例 句

意义不同

try to do(设法,努力去做,尽力) try doing(试试去做,看有何结果) can’t help (to) do(不能帮忙做) can’t help doing(忍不住要做)

非谓语动词做宾语补足语的区别
分 类 常见动词 ask, beg, expect, get, order, tell, want, wish, encourage have, notice, see, watch, hear, feel, let, make notice, see, watch, hear, find, keep, have, feel 与宾语的逻辑关系及时间概念

不定式

主谓关系,强调动作将发生或已经完成

I asked to be sent to the countryside. I heard him call me several times. I found her listening to the radio. We found the village greatly changed. 例 句

现在分词

主谓关系,强调动作正在进行,尚未完成 动宾关系,动作已经完成,多强调状态

过去分词 IV. 非谓语动词做定语的区别 分 类

不定式 动名词 现在分词 过去分词

区 别 与被修饰词往往有动宾关系,一般式表示将来,进行式表示与谓语动 作同时发生,完成式表示在谓语动词之前发生 通常指被修饰词的用途,无逻辑上的主谓关系 与被修饰词之间是主谓关系,表示动作与谓语动作同时发生 与被修饰词之间是被动关系,表示动作发生在谓语动作之前,现已经 完成或只表示状态

I have a lot of papers to type. I have a lot of papers to be typed. I haven’t decided which hotel to stay at.(介词 at 不能丢) Shall we go to the swimming pool? the boiling water / the boiled water the developing country/the developed country the falling leaves/the fallen leaves

注意:the bridge to be built 将建造的桥, the bridge being built 正在建造的桥,the bridge built 已经建好的桥

八、情态动词和虚拟语气 情态动词
I.情态动词基本用法 情态动词 用 法 能力(体力,智力,技能) can 允许或许可(口语中常用) 可能性(表猜测,用于否定句 could 或疑问句中) may might must have to ought to shall should will would dare need 可以(问句中表示请求) 可能,或许(表推测) 祝愿(用于倒装句中) 否定式 can not / cannot /can’t do couldn’t do may not do might not do Can…do…? May…do…? Might…do…? Must…do…? Do…have to do…? Ought…to do…? Shall…do…? Should…do…? Will/Would…do…? Dare…do…? Need…do…? Used…to do…? Did…use to do…? Yes,…will. No,…won’t. Yes,…dare. No,…daren’t. Yes,…must. No,…needn’t. Yes,…used. No,…use(d)n’t. Yes,…did. No,…didn’t. to. 疑问式 Yes,…can. No,…can’t. Yes,…may. No,…mustn’t/can’t. Yes,…might No,…might not. Yes,…must. No,…needn’t/don’t have Yes,…do. No,…don’t. Yes,…ought. No,…oughtn’t. Yes,…shall. No,…shan’t. 简答式

必须,应该(表主观要求) must not/mustn’t do 肯定,想必(肯定句中表推测) 只好,不得不(客观的必须, 有时态和人称的变化) 应当(表示义务责任,口语中 多用 should) 用于一三人称征求对方意见 用于二三人称表示许诺、 命令、 警告、威胁等 应当,应该(表义务责任) 本该(含有责备意味) 意愿,决心 请求, 建议, 用在问句中 would 比较委婉 don’t have to do ought not to/oughtn’t to do shall not/shan’t do should not/shouldn’t do will not/won’t do would not/wouldn’t do

敢 (常用于否定句和疑问句中) dare not/daren’t do 需要,必须(常用于否定句和疑 问句中) 过去常常(现在已不再) need not/needn’t do used not/usedn’t/usen’t to do didn’t use to do

used to

II.情态动词的重点知识 表 示 “ 能 表示能力的情态动词用 can/could 力、许可”

A computer_____think for itself; it must be told what to do. A.can’t B.mustn’t C.may not D.might not

的 can 和 may

表 示 “ 推 断、判断” 的 can may,must

need

dare

shall

should

will/would

情态动词 +have done

①—Could I call you by your first name? —Yes, you______ A.will B.could C.may D.might ②Johnny, you_____play with the knife, you_____hurt yourself. A.won’t/can’t B.mustn’t/may C.shouldn’t/must D.can’t/shouldn’t The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but 在肯定句中 could 不可以用来表示过去某一特定场合的能力, everyone_____get out. 而要用 was/were able to。 A.had to B.would C.could D.was able to Peter______come with us tonight, but he isn’t very sure yet. 在肯定句中都可以用来表示可能。在含义上 must 语气最肯 A.must B.may C.can D.will 定,may 表示的是事实上的可能性。 而 can 表示的是逻辑上的可能性: Mary is in poor health. She can be ill at any times. 在否定句中只能用 can 和 may。 所以 can’t 时用以代替 mustn’t, Michael______be a policeman, for he’s much too short. 语气比 may 更肯定。中文可以翻译为不可能。 A.needn’t B.can’t C.should D.may He may be very busy now. Can he be very busy now? 在疑问句只能用 can,不能用 may 和 must。 He must be very busy now. Can he be very busy now? need 作为情态动词只有一种形式,只用于否定句和疑问句。 If he dare come,I will kick him out. I don’t know whether he dare 作为情态动词用时有两种形式:dare 和 dared 两个词形, dare say. 除了可以用于否定句和疑问句外,还可以用于条件从句或表示 注意:He doesn’t dare(to)answer the question.(否定句) 怀疑的句子中。 Does she dare(to)enter the dark room?(疑问句) 用于第一人称:征求对方的意见。 What shall we do this evening? You shall fail if you don’t work harder. 警告 用于第二、三人称:警告、命令、允诺、威胁等。 He shall have the book when I finish reading.允诺 He shall be punished.威胁 You should(ought to) go to class right away. 劝告、建议、命令、应该做、道义上的责任。 I should(ought to) help him because he is in trouble. 请求、建议,would 比 will 委婉客气。 Would you pass me the book? I will never do that again. 表示意志、愿望和决心。 They asked us if we would do that again During the vacation he would visit me every week would 可表示过去反复发生的动作或某种倾向。 The wound would not heal.(伤口老是不能愈合) It would be about ten when he left home. would 表示估计或猜想。 What would she be doing there? could+have done:本可以做而实际上未能做。 You could have done better, but you didn’t try your best. cannot+ have done:表示对现在或过去行为的否定推测。 He cannot have been to that town. 表示许可时用 may/might ,can/could 都可以,但在问句中用 could…?或 might…? 以使口气委婉客气, 其回答一定要用 can 或 may,以使回答口气明确(must 表示一定,必须,mustn’t 表示禁止,不许可) 。

的用法

can+主语+ have done:表示对过去行为的怀疑或不肯定(用在 疑问句中) 。 might(may)+ have done:对过去发生的行为不太肯定的推测。 must+ have done:对过去发生的行为肯定的推测。 其否定式为:cannot have done。 needn’t+ have done:本来不必要做的而实际上又做了。

Can he have got the book? He may not have finished the work. If we had taken the other road, we might have arrived earlier. You must have seen the film. You cannot have seen the film. You needn’t have watered the flowers,for it is going to rain. 注意:didn’t need to(have to)do: 没有必要做而实际上也没有做 I didn’t need to clean the windows.My sister did it 2 hours ago. You should have started earlier, but you didn’t. She shouldn’t have taken away my measuring tape, for I worked to use it. 注意:He should have finished the work by now.(表推测) 虚拟语气 例 句 If he were here, he would help us. If I had been free,I would have visited you. If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go camping. ①Should he come ,tell him to ring me up. ②Were I you,I would not do it. ③Had I been free,I would have visited you. ①If he had listened to me, he would not be in trouble now. ②If he had told me yesterday,I should know what to do now. ③If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party. ①He could have passed the exam,but he wasn’t careful enough. ②You should have come earlier.The bus left a moment ago.

should(ought to)+ have done:本来应该做而实际上又没有做。 其否定形式表示某中行为不该发生却发生了。



别 与现在事实相反

If 引导的 条件从句

与过去事实相反 与将来事实相反

用 法 从句动词:过去式(be 用 were) 主句动词:should/would/could/might+do 从句动词:had+done 主句动词:should/would/could/might+have+done 从句动词:过去式/should+动词原形/were+to do 主句动词:should/would/could/might+动词原形

省略 if 的虚 拟条件句

将虚拟条件从句中的 were,had,should 放到主语之前,构成主谓倒装

不同时间的虚拟:各遵守各的规则 混合虚拟条 件句 虚拟与陈述的混合:各遵守各的规则

but for+名词表示虚拟条件

without+名词表示虚拟条件 动词不定式表示虚拟条件 含蓄虚拟 条件句 现在分词表示虚拟条件 过去分词表示虚拟条件 副词 otherwise 表示虚拟条件 连词 but 连接的句子表示虚拟条件 as if/as though 引导的状语从句中动词用 did 或 had+done 或 would/ could/might+do。 注意:as if/as though 引导的状语从句中也可以用陈述语气: 当说话者认为所述的是真实的或极有可能发生或存在的事实时: It sounds as if it is raining.听起来像是在下雨。 He talks as if he is drunk.从他谈话的样子来看他是醉了。 in order that/so that 引导的状语从句中动词用 can/could/may/ might/ would 等+do demand, suggest, order, insist 后接的从句中动词为 should+do wish 后的从句中分别用过去式,过去完成式和 should/would+do 表示 与现在,过去和将来情况相反 在 It is necessary / important / strange that… It is suggested / demanded/ ordered / requested that…等从句中, 谓语动词用 should+do It is time that…句型中动词用过去式或 should+do 其它 句型中 would rather 所接的从句中动词用过去式或者过去完成式 If only 句型中动词常用过去式或者过去完成式,表示强烈的愿望 句子或主句中的谓语动词的 形式视具体情况而定。这是 考查考生应变能力的最佳试 题。

其它 状语从句

---But for your timely warning,we ______ into great trouble. ---You know we’re friends. A. would get B. must have got C. would have got D. can’t have got Without the air to hold some of the sun's heat, the earth at night would be freezing cold. It would be only partly right to follow in this way. 如果用这种方式,仅仅对了一半。 Having known in time ,we might have prevented the accident. 要是及时得知的话,我们也许能阻止这场事故。 Given more attention, the tree could have grown better. 如果多留心的话,这树本来可以长的更好。 I was too busy at that time.Otherwise,I would have called you.我当时太忙,否则我就给你打电话了。 He _____fatter but he eats too little . A. would become B. would have become C. must become D. must have become ①与现在事实相反 He talks as if he knew where she was. ②与过去事实相反 He talks about Rome as if he had been there before. ③与将来事实相反 He opened his mouth as if he would say something. Turn on the light so that we can see it clearly. He suggested that we not change our mind. I wish I could be a pop singer. I wish I would have gone to Shanghai last month. It is strange that such a person should be our friends. It’s high time that we left/should leave. I would rather you stayed at home now. If only our dream had come true!

宾语从句

主语从句

九、句子的种类 按用途分 种 类 类 型 例 句

陈述句

肯定句 否定句 一般疑问句

We love our motherland. 我们热爱祖国。 They don’t go to work on Sundays. 他们星期日不上班。 Are you a worker? 你是个工人吗? Haven’t you seen the film? 你没看过这部电影吗? Who is the man? 这人是谁?

特殊疑问句 疑问句 选择疑问句

When do you watch TV? 你什么时间看电视? What are they doing now? 他们现在正在干什么? Do you want tea or coffee? Either will do. 你要茶水还是要咖啡?哪种都行。 Does he learn Japanese or French? He learns French. 他学日语还是学法语?他 学法语。 They are going to the airport, aren’t they? 他们要去机场,是吗? You haven’t finished your homework, have you? 你没做完作业,是吗? Be sure to get there at eight. 务必八点钟到那儿。 Don’t worry. I’ll help you out. 别担心,我会帮助你的。 What great changes we have had these years! 这几年我们有了多么大的变化啊! What a fine day it is! 多好的天气呀! How brave he is! 他多么勇敢呀! How hard they are working! 他们工作多努力呀! How time flies! 时间过得多么快呀! How nice a boy (he is) !=What a nice boy (he is)! 多好的孩子啊! 例句 They disappeared. 他们消失了。

反意疑问句 祈使句 肯定句 否定句 what + 名词 感叹句 how + 形容词或副词 how +句子 How + adj. + a (an) + n.=What a(an)+adj.+n 按结构分 种类 简单句 类型 主+谓

主+谓+宾 主+谓+间宾+直接宾 主+谓+宾+宾补 主+系+表

He likes swimming.他喜欢游泳。 We help each other. 我们互相帮助。 I told my friend the good news. 我把好消息告诉了我的朋友。 They sent us a telegram. 他们给我们拍了电报。 They named the boy Jack. 他们给孩子起名叫杰克。 I want everything ready by eight o’clock. 我要求一切都要在八点前准备好。 She is a university student. 她是一名大学生。 He has become a pilot. 他已成为一名飞行员。 Either you do it, or I ask for somebody else to do it. 要么你来做,要么我请其他 人来做。 Neither Tom nor Jack has finished the homework. 汤姆和杰克都没有完成作业。 Not couldn’t they complete the task, but the task was too tough. 不是他们完不成任务,而是任务太重了。 John likes playing basketball, but he didn’t play it yesterday. 约翰喜欢打篮球, 但 他昨天没打。 We must hurry, or we’ll miss the train. 我们必须快点,否则会赶不上火车。 Either you come to my place or I go to yours. 或者你到我这儿来,或者我到你 那去。 We had better stay at home, for it was raining. 我们最好呆在家里,因为天正在 下雨。 He didn’t work hard, therefore he failed in the examination. 他学习不努力,因此这次考试不及格。 从句有:名词性从句(主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句和同位语从句) 状语从句 定语从句 (详细请看以下各节罗列的内容)

并列关系 and, not only…but also, neither …nor, both…and, not…but,

转折关系 but,while(而,尽管) 并列句 nevertheless(然而;不过) 选择关系 or, otherwise or else, either?or

因果关系 for, so, thus, therefore, and so

由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成 复合句 的句子叫复合句。 在复合句中主句是全句的 主体,从句是全句的一个成分,不能独立。

十、名词性从句 种类 连 词 关联词 that whether who what which whatever when where why how that 例 句 说 明 That he will come and help you is certain. that 在引导主语从句时不可省去 他来帮助你是确实无疑的。 Whether there is life on the moon is an interesting question. 主语从句中只能用 whether 不可用 if。 月球上有没有生命是个有趣的问题。 What he wants to tell us is not clear. 他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚。 主语从句放在句首,句子常显得笨重,因此一般 Who will win the match is still unknown. 谁能赢得这场比赛还不得而知。 It is known to us how he became a writer. 把它移到句子后面,前面用引导词“it”来作形式 我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。 主语。 Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced. 英语晚会将在哪里举行,还没有宣布。 I believe(that) he is honest. 我相信他是忠诚的。 that 在句中不担任任何成分,在口语或非正式的 We must never think(that) we are good in everything while 文体中常被省去,但如从句是并列句时,第二个分 others are good in nothing. 句前的 that 不可省。 我们决不能认为自己什么都好,别人什么都不好。 I wonder whether he will come or not. whether 常与 or not 连用,不能用 if 代替。 我想知道他来还是不来。 作介词宾语要用 whether 不能用 if。 Everything depends on whether we have enough money. 从句是否定句时一般用 if 引导。 一切要看我们是否有足够的钱。 I don’t know if(whether) it is interesting. 我不知道它是否有意思。 He doesn’t care if it isn’t a fine day.他不在乎天气是否好。 Please tell me what you want.请告诉我你需要什么? She always thinks of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。 She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 宾语从句作及物动词宾语也可做介词的宾语。 凡需要帮助的人,她都会给予热情的支持。

主 语 从 句

连接 代词

连接 副词

陈述 意义

疑问 意义 宾 语 从 句

if whether

who, whom, which,whose, 特殊 what, when, 疑问 where, why, 意义 how,whoever, whatever, whichever 注1

We must make it clear that anyone who breaks the 如果宾语从句后面有宾语补足语, 则用 it 作形式宾语, law will be punished. 将 从句后置。 我们必须认清无论谁违反了法律都要受到惩罚。

think,believe,imagine,suppose 等动词引出的宾语从句,要 We don’t think you are right. 我们认为你不对。 将从句中的否定形式,移到主句中。 I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他不会这样做 的。 that The problem is(that) they can’t get here early enough. 连词 whether 问题是他们不能很早到达这里。 在非正式的文体中 that 可以省去 as if It looks as if it’s going to rain.看起来天要下雨。 表 who That’s just what I want. 这正是我想要的。 连接 语 what The question is who(which of you) will be the next speaker. 代词 从 which 问题是谁(你们哪一位)接着发言。 句 when This is where our problem lies. 连接 where 这就是我们的问题所在。 表语从句位于主句系动词之后 副词 why That is why he didn’t come to the meeting. how 那就是他为什么不到会的原因。 The news that he had landed on the moon spread all over the 同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具体内容,常用 world.他曾在月球上登陆这个消息传遍世界。 的名词如:fact, news, idea, hope, thought,question, 同 由连词 that 引导, I have no idea when he will come back home. order, fear, doubt, word, proof, belief, story 等。 位 不担任成分,也可 我不知道他什么时候回来。 语 有 when, how, The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. 从 where 等引导。 他想到可能玛丽生病了。 句 He must answer the question whether he agrees to it or not. 他必须回答他是否同意此事这样一个问题。 特别注意 what 的双重功能: ①What was once regarded as impossible has now become a reality. (what 为“所……的事”,相当于“the thing that…;all that…;everything that…”) ②After ________ seemed a very long time,I opened my eye and found myself in bed.(M ET'93) A.what B.when C.that D.which (what 相当于“the time that”,表示“……时间”) ③He is not what he was a few years ago. Who is it that has made Fred what he is now? (what 表示“……的人”,相当于“the person that…”) ④What is now the North Sahara Desert was once a civilized world. (what 表示“……的地方”,相当于“the place that…”) ⑤Our income is now double what it was ten years ago (what 表示“……的数目”,相当于“the amount /number that…”) 注2

十一、状语从句 种 类 从属连词 When whenever 例 句 说 明 When I came into the room, he was writing a letter.当我进屋时,他正 when 指的是“某一具体的时间” 在写信。 whenever 指的是“在任何时间” We shall go there whenever we are free.我们什么时间有空, 我们就去 那里。 I was walking along the street when suddenly someone patted me on when 意为“这时”或“在那个时候”,可以 the shoulder from behind.我正在街上走着,这时忽然有人从后面拍 看作是并列句,这种用法的 when 分句一般 我的肩膀。 位于句末。 While it was raining, they went out.天下雨的时候,他们出去了。 I stayed while he was away.他不在的时候我在。 He hurried home, looking behind as he went. 他赶快回家,不时地一边走一边向后看。 Be a pupil before you become a teacher.先做学生,再做先生。 He arrived after the game started.比赛开始后,他到了。 We waited till (until)he came back .我们一直等到他回来。 如主句动词是持续性动作,常用肯定式, 表示“直到?为止” while 指“在某一段时间里”“在?期间” , , while 引导的动作必须是持续性的 as 引导持续性动作,强调主句和从句的动 作同时发生

when

while 时 间 状 从 as before after till

until

She didn’t stop working until eleven o’clock .她到 11 点钟才停止工 如主句动词是瞬间动词,常用否定式,表 作。 示“直?才” “在?以前不”,从句放在句首 Until he had passed out of sight, she stood there. 表示强调,一般用 until 她站在那里看着,直到看不见他的身影。 Great changes have taken place in China since 1978. 状语从句在主句之前时一般用逗号与主句 自从 1978 年以来中国发生了巨大的变化。 分开,如从句在主句之后则不必用标点符 As soon as I arrive in Shanghai, I’ll write to you.我一到上海就给你写 号。 信。

since as soon as

hardly?when no sooner?than

I had hardly got home when it began to rain. hardly?when 和 no sooner?than 的意义相 我刚一到家, 就下雨了。 =Hardly had I got home when it began to rain. 当于 as soon as,但只表示过去发生的事情, No sooner had we got to the station than the train left. 主句为过去完成时,从句为过去时,如 我们刚到车站,火车就走了。 hardly 或 no sooner 位于句首时语气强,而 Hardly had we begun when we were told to stop.我们刚开始就被叫 且主句的谓语要用部分倒装 停。

Every time I travelled by boat, I got seasick.我每次乘船都晕船。 在时间状语从句中,不能用将来时或过去 every time, by the The moment I heard the song, I felt cheerful. 将来时,而要用现在时或过去时代替将来 time, the moment 等 我一听到这首歌,就感到很愉快。 时 Next time you come ,you’ll see him.下次你来的时候,就会见到他。 地 点 状 从 where wherever Where there is a will, there is a way.有志者,事竟成。 where 与 wherever 意义基本相同, 但后者语 Where there is water there is life.哪里有水,哪里就有生命。 气较强,多用于书面语 You are free to go wherever you like.你可以随意到你喜欢的任何地 方去。 Wherever you go, you must obey the law.无论你去哪都要遵守法律。 I came back late yesterday because I was on duty.昨天我回来晚了, because 用来回答 why 的问题,语气最强 因 为我值班。 Since everyone is here, let’s begin our meeting.既然大家都到了, 我们 since 表示既然或全已知的理由,稍加分析即 开始开会。 可表明的原因,多放句首 As he didn’t know much English, he looked up the word in the 从句常放在句首,说明原因,主句说明结 dictionary . 果,常用于口语中。 由于他英语懂得不多,他在字典中查阅这个单词。 seeing (that), now that 和 since, as 意义相 似, 他们都有 “鉴于某个事实” 的意思, that 可以省去 目的状语从句中常用情态动词 may (might) can (could) ,should 等放在动词之前,从句 往往放在主句之后,主从句之间不用任何 标点符号

because since 原 因 状 从

as

Now (that) the weather has cleared up, we can start our journey. 鉴于天气已经晴朗,我们可以启程了。 now that, seeing that Seeing (that) he was badly ill, we sent for the doctor. 鉴于他病情严重,我们派人去请医生去了。 目 的 状 从 in order that so that that I shall write down your telephone number that I may not forget. 我要把你的电话号码记下来,以免忘记。 We’ll tell you the truth so that you can judge for yourself. 我把真实情况告诉你,使你能自己作出判断。 They worked harder than usual in order that they could finish the work

ahead of time .他们比往常更加努力工作,为了能提前完成工作。 lest = for fear that Put on more clothes lest (= for fear that ) you should catch cold. 多穿点衣服,以免感冒。 so that 结 果 状 从 such?that so?that We turned up the radio, so that everyone heard the news. so that 前有逗号为结果状语从句 我们把收音机的音量放大,大家都听到了新闻。 so?that 的 so 后面跟形容词或副词 He was so excited that he couldn’t say a word. 他十分激动,以致一句话都说不出来。 He gave such important reasons that he was excused. such?that 的 such 后面跟名词, 如果名词是 他说出了这么重要的理由,得到大家的谅解。 单数就要用 such a /an?that 还可以转换用 It is such an interesting novel that all of us want to read it. so?that,语气较强 It is so interesting a novel that all of us want to read it. 这是一本十分有趣的书,大家都想看。 Difficulties are nothing if we are not afraid of them. unless 从句的谓语只能用肯定式。unless 和 如果我们不怕困难,困难就算不了什么了。 if?not 同义,unless 是书面语,if?not 是 We shall go there tomorrow unless it rains.除非下雨, 我们明天就去那 口语,通常二者可以换用 里。 条件状语从句中的谓语动词的时态一般要 = We shall go there tomorrow if it doesn’t rain. 用现在时或过去时代替一般将来时或过去 So/As long as you work hard, you will succeed. 将来时 只要你努力工作,你就一定能成功。 In case I forget, please remind me about it .万一我忘了,请提醒我一 下。 So far as I know, the book will be published next month. 据我所知,那本书下月出版。 Draw a cat as I taught you .按照我教你的画一只猫。 此处 as 译为:按照或正如 Do as you are told.按照人家告诉你做的去做。 as if 或 as though 的意义和用法基本一样。 She looks as if she is ill.看上去她好象是生病了。 从句中可以用现在时表示可能符合事实, He acted as if (though) nothing had happened.他的行动就好象什么也 也可以用虚拟语气 没有发生。 They treat the black boy as if (though) he were an animal. 他们对待这黑孩子仿佛他是一头牲口。

if 条 件 状 从 as/so long as in case so far as unless

as 方 式 状 从 as if? as though

让 步 状 从

在句子中一般用了“虽然”就不能再用“但 although 是” (but) 但可以与 yet 或 still 连用。 though though / although 意义相同,用法基本一样,前者 通俗,口语化,后者正式多放主句的前面 even if 和 even though 的意思为 “即使” “纵 even if,even though 使”有退一步设想的意味,多用于书面语 中 Child as he is , he knows a lot .虽然他是一个孩子,但他懂得很多。 as 引出的状语从句多用于书面语,它比用 Cold as it is, (= Though it is cold,)the children play outdoors. though 或 although 引导的从句,语气强, as 虽然天气冷,但孩子们仍在户外玩。 更有表现力,从句常放在句首,语序部分 倒装。 Do it no matter what others say.不管别人怎么说,尽管干。 no matter??与 who-ever 引导的让步状语 no matter (who, No matter how busy he was, he studied English every day. 从句意义基本一 样,no matter??引导的 what when, where 不管他多忙,他都每天坚持学习英语。 从句可是以位于主句前或主句后 which, how?) No matter who takes up the matter for me ,I shall be very grateful. 不管谁为我处理这件事,我都将非常感激。 Although (Though) he was over sixty, (yet) he began to learn French. 虽然他六十多岁了,但仍开始学习法语 。 We were not tired though (although) we had worked all day. 虽然我们干了一天活,但并不累。 I’ll go even if (though) it rains tomorrow.即使明天下雨,我也要去。 wh+ever (whatever Whatever happens / may happen , we shall not lose heart. whoever ,whenever 无论发生什么,我们都不要失去信心。 whichever ,however) Whoever comes, he will be welcome.无论谁来,都会受到欢迎。 Mary is as old as my sister.玛利和我姐姐一样大。 连词表示同程度级的比较,肯定句用 as? as?as , He doesn’t run so (as) fast as Jack (does).他不如杰克跑得那样快。 as 否定句可用 not as?as 或 not so?as not so/as?as His book is the same as mine.他的书和我的一样。 the same?as Henry is not such a good worker as Peter .享利这个工人不如彼得那 such?as 样好。 She has made greater progress this year than she did last year. …than… 她今年比去年进步更大。 He bought fewer books than I (did).他买的书比我买的少。

比 较 状 从

the more …the more…

The more you read, the better you understand.你看的书越多,你懂得 the more?the more 意思为越?越?,通常 的就越多。 的语序为从句在前主句在后, 这两个 the 都 The more tickets you sell, the more money you will get. 是表示程度的副词,用在比较级的形容词 你卖的票越多,你的收入也越多。 或副词前面 The harder you work, the greater progress you will make. 你工作越努力,你取得的进步就越大。 The sooner, the better.越快越好。The warmer, the better.越暖和越好。

十二、定语从句 I. 定语从句起了形容词的作用,在句中修饰一个名词或代词。被修饰的词叫做先行词,引导定语从句的词叫关系词,他的作用一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连 接作用,二是在从句中担当一个成分,并与先行词保持数的一致。 关系词 who whom 先行词 人 人 从句成分 主语 宾语 例 句 备 注

Do you know the man who is talking with your mother? Mr. Smith is the person with whom I am working The boy (whom) she loved died in the war.. whom, which 和 that 在从句中做宾 语时,常可以省略,但介词提前 时后面关系代词不能省略,也不 可以用 that

关系 代 词

whose

人或物

定语

I like those books whose topics are about history. The boy whose father works abroad is my deskmate.

that

人或物

主语, 宾语

A plane is a machine that can fly. She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much.

which



主语, 宾语

The book (which) I gave you was worth $10. The picture which was about the accident was terrible.

as 关系 副 when where

人或物 时间 地点

主语, 宾语 时间状语 地点状语

He is such a person as is respected by all of us. This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. I will never forget the day when we met there. This is the house where I was born.

as 做宾语一般不省略 可用 on which 可用 in which



why

原因

原因状语

I can’t imagine the reason why he turned down my offer.

可用 for which

II. that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别 情 况 用法说明 1.先行词为 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much,等不定代词时 2.先行词被 all, any, every, each, much, little, no, 只用 that 的情况 some, few 等修饰时 3.先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修饰时 4.先行词既指人又指物时 5.先行词被 the only, the very 修饰时 6.句中已经有 who 或 which 时,为了避免重复时 3.This is the best film that I have ever read. 4.We talked about the persons and things that we remembered. 5.He is the only man that I want to see. 6.Who is the man that is making a speech? 2.All the books that you offered has been given out. 例 句

1.He told me everything that he knows.

只用 which, who, whom 的情况

1.在非限制性定语从句中, 只能用 which 指代物, 1.He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study. 用 who/whom 指人 2.在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句中,只 2.I like the person to whom the teacher is talking. 能用 which 指物,whom 指人。 3.先行词本身是 that 时, 关系词用 which, 先行词 3.Those who respect others are usually respected by others. 为 those, one, he 时多用 who。 区 别 例 句

III. as、which 和 that 的区别 从句 限制性 定语从句中 非限制性 定语从句中 名词前有 such 和 the same 修饰时, 关系代词 用 as,不能用 which He is not such a fool as he looks. Don’t read such books as you can’t understand.

as 和 which 都可以指代前面整个主句。如果 They won the game, as we had expected. 有“正如,象”的含义,并可以放在主句前, They won the game, which we hadn’t expected. 也可以放在后面,那么用 as;而 which 引导 As is well known, he is a famous film star in the 1980s. 的从句只能放主句后,并无“正如”的意思。 the same... as 指同类事物 the same ...that 指原物 That’s the same tool as I used last week.(同类工具,不是同一把) That’s the same tool that I used last week.那就是我上周用过的工具。

the same... as 和 the same ...that

注意:the way 做先行词时,定语从句可由 that, in which 引导或不用引导词。 IV.定语从句与其它从句(句型)的区别 类 别 区 别 例 句 定语从句与并列句的主要区别在于:并列 句有像 and,but,so 等并列连词或两个句 子用分号连接,这时就不能再用引导定语 从句的关系词了。 定语从句的前面有名词作先行词,而状语 从句没有先行词。 ①Mr Li has three daughters,none of _____ is an engineer. ②Mr Li has three daughters,but none of _____ is a dancer. 从结构上看,①小题是定语从句,故填 whom; ②小题有并列连词 but,是并列句,故填代词 them。 This is the place where we used to live a few years ago. 这是几年前我们居住的地方。 (定语从句,先行词为 the place) Let’s go where we can find a better job. 我们到能找到更好的工作的地方去吧。 (地点状语从句) Do you know the time when the class is over? 你知道下课的时间吗? (定 语从句) It was already five o’clock when the class was over. =When the class was over, it was already five o’clock. 当下课时己经是 5 点了。 (时间状语从句) This is the factory in which (where) his father once worked. 这就是他的父亲曾经工作过的那个工厂。 (定语从句) Put back the book where it was. 把书放回原处。 (状语从句) It is such an interesting book as we all like. 它是我们大家都喜欢的如此 有趣的书。 (as 用作动词 like 的宾语,它引导的是定语从句) It is such an interesting book that we all like it. 它是一本如此有趣的书,我们大家都喜欢它。 (that 不充当句子成分,故它引导的是结果状语从句) The news that she had passed the exam made her parents very happy. 她考试及格的消息使她父母亲很高兴。 (同位语从句) 此句中的同位语从句 The news that she had passed the exam 可以改写成表语从句:The news is that he passed the exam. The news that he told us interested all of us.

定语从句 与 并列句

定语从句 与 状语从句

定语从句修饰、限制、说明名词,只能放 在先行词的后面,而状语从句说明动作发 生的情况,并且可以放在主句的前面。 When, where 和 why 在引导定语从句时可 以用“介词+which”的结构来替换,在引 导状语从句时却不行。 定语从句中的关系词在从句中充当某种句 子成分,因此去掉它则从句成分不完整; 而结果状语从句中的连接词在从句中不作 任何成分,去掉后从句的成分仍然完整。 定语从句在复合句中相当于形容词,对先 行词起修饰、描述或限制的作用,与先行 词之间有从属关系。同位语的作用相当于 名词,对前面的名词给予补充说明或进一 步解释,是前面名词的具体内容,与先行词

定语从句 与 同位语从句

之间是同位关系。

他告诉我们的消息使大家都感兴趣。 (定语从句) The news that he told us 是定语从句,此句不能改写为:The news is that he told us. ①It is on the morning of May 1st _____ I met Liang Wei at the airport. ②It is the factory _____ Mr Wang works. 从结构上看: ①小题是强调句,故填 that。 ②小题则是定语从句,用上述方法转换便知 the factory 前差个介词 in, 故填 where。 十三、强调句

定语从句 与 强调句

强调句的结构为“It is/was+被强调部分 +that+从句” 。被强调部分可以是除谓语 以外的任何成分,当被强调部分是人时, 还可用 who 代替 that。这一句型中,一定 不能因为被强调部分是表时间或地点的词 就用 when 或 where 代替 that。

强调的类别









为了强调句子的某一成分 (通 原始句:Last night I saw a film in the Youth Palace. 常是主语、宾语或状语) ,常 强调主语:It was I that (or: who) saw a film in the Youth Palace last night. 用强调结构: 强调宾语:It was a fiml that I saw in the Youth Palace last night.

It is (was) + 被 强 调 部 分 强调地点状语:It was in the Youth Palace that I saw a film last night. +that(who)… 表示强调的 it 在这种结构的 It is (was) +被强调部分 +that(who)… 句子中作主句的主语。 强调时间状语:It was last night that I saw a film in the Youth Palace. 一般讲,原句的谓语动词如果是现在或将来各种时态,用 It is…that (who)…; 如果原句谓语动词是过去各种时态, 则用 It was… that(who)…。 ①在强调主语时,that 后的谓语动词要与被强调者保持人称和数的 It is I who am a teacher. ②即使被强调的主语是复数,主句中的谓语动词也用单数 注意点 It is they who often help me with my lessons. ③在强调时间、地点、原因、或方式状语时,不要用 when,where,why 或 how ,而用 that It was because her mother was ill that she didn't go with us.

④在强调 not … until 结构中由 until 短语 (或从句) 表示的时间状语时, 要用固定的强调句型 It is(was) not until ...that...。that 从句中的谓语动词用肯定式。 My father didn't come home until 12 o'clock last night. It was not until 12 o'clock last night that my father came home. ⑤在强调一般疑问句中的某一成分时,主句要用一般疑问句的语序: 把 is/ was 提到 it 前面。 Did this happen in Beijing? Was it in Beijing that this happened? ⑥特殊疑问句中只有疑问词可以强调,其强调结构是“被强调部分(通 常是疑问代词或疑问副词)+ is/was + it + that/ who + 其它部分?" Where were you born? Where was it that you were born? ⑦not …until…句型的强调句
[来源:学|科|网 Z|X|X|K]

句型为:It is/ was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其它部分 原始句:He didn’t go to bed until/ till his wife came back. 强调句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed. 此句型只用 until,不用 till。但如果不是强调句型,till, until 可通 用;因为句型中 It is/ was not … 已经是否定句了,that 后面的从句 要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。 谓语动词的强调 It is/ was … that …结构不能 Do sit down. 务必请坐。

强调谓语, 如果需要强调谓语

He did write to you last week.上周他确实给你写了信。

时, 用助动词 do/ does 或 did。 Do be careful when you cross the street. 过马路时,务必(千万)要小心啊! 此种强调只用 do/does 和 did ,没有别的形式;过去时用 did,后面的 谓语动词用原形。

十四、省略句 类别 词 具体内容 名词所有格后修饰的名词在以下情况可以省略 ①如果名词所有格修饰的名词在前文已出现,则 可以省略。 ②名词所有格后修饰的名词如果是指商店、住宅 等地点时,这些名词也常常省略。 冠词的省略 ①为了避免重复 ②在副词的最高级前面的定冠词常可以省略。 ③在某些独立主格结构中。 ④在 as 引导的让步状语从句中, 当作表语的单数 名词提前时,不定冠词要省略。 例句 These are John's books and those are Mary's (books). 这些是约翰的书,那些是玛丽的书。 at the doctor's 在诊所 at Mr. Green's 在格林先生家 to my uncle's 到我叔叔家 at the barber's 在理发店







①The lightning flashed and thunder crashed.电闪雷鸣。 (thunder 前省略了定冠词 the) ②She sings best in the class.她在班上唱歌唱得最好。 ③Our teacher came in, book in hand. (=Our teacher came in, with a book in his hand.) 我们的老师手里拿着一本书进来了。 ④Child as he is, he knows a lot. 虽然他还是一个孩子,却懂得很多 介词的省略 ①Both (of) the films were interesting. 这两部电影都很有趣。 ①both 后常跟 of 短语,其后可以接名词复数形 She invited both of us to her birthday party. 式, 也可以接代词宾格复数形式。 接复数名词时, 她邀请我们俩去参加她的生日派对。 介词 of 可以省略,但接代词宾格时,of 不能省 ②These shoes are worn out. They have lasted (for) a long time. 略。 这双鞋穿破了,已经穿了很长一段时间了。 ②在现在完成时表持续和重复的句型中,一段时 ③Trees can prevent the earth (from) being washed away. 间前的介词 for 可以省略。 树能阻止泥土被冲走。 ③和一些动词搭配构成的短语中的介词, Can you stop him (from) going swimming in the river? consider... (as)..., prevent / stop... (from)doing..., 你能阻止他下河洗澡吗? have trouble / difficulty... (in) doing...,spend... (in / I have some difficulty (in) answering the question. on) doing... 等中的介词可以省略。 回答这个问题我有点困难。





①有些动词,believe, find, think, feel, consider, ①I consider him (to be) lazy.我认为他懒。 imagine, prove 等后作宾补的结构。 His mother found him (to be) a clever boy. to be + n. / adj.中的 to be 可以省略。 他母亲发觉他是一个很聪明的孩子。 ②感官动词 see, hear, feel, watch, notice 等以及 ②They made the boy go to bed early.他们强迫这个男孩早睡。 使役动词 let, make, have 后作宾补的动词不定式, The boy was made to go to bed early. 这个男孩被迫早睡。 其中的不定式符号 to 要省略,但变为被动结构 注: help 后作宾补的动词不定式中的 to 可以省略也可保留。 时,to 必须保留。 ③在 can not but, can not choose but, can not help ③We have nothing to do now but wait. but 之后的动词不定式一般不带 to; 之前有实 but 我们现在除了等没有别的事可做。 义动词 do 的某个形式 do, does, did, done 时,也 I can not but admire his courage. 我不能不钦佩他的勇敢。 不带 to, 否则要带 to。 He has no choice but to accept the fact. 除了接受这个事实他别无选择。 ④在并列结构中为了避免重复。 ④I'm really puzzled what to think or say. 我真不知道该怎么想,怎么说才好。 但两个不定式有对照或对比的意义时, 则后一个 to 不能省。 I came not to scold but to praise you. 我来不是责备你,而是赞美你。 ⑤在 why, why not 引导的特殊问句中后跟省略 ⑤Why talk so much about it?为什么大谈这个事呢? to 的动词不定式。 Why not try it again? 为什么不再试一试呢? ⑥动词不定式中动词原形部分是否省略,主要看 ⑥They may go if they wish to(go). 句子前面是否已出现过同样的动词。如果句子前 如果他们想去,他们就可以去。 面出现过同样的动词,为了避免重复,句子后面 Don't go till I tell you to.直到我告诉你去,你才可以去。 的不定式常省略动词原形,而保留不定式符号 在 一 些 动 词 afford, agree, expect, forget, mean, pretend, to。 remember, want, refuse, hope, wish, would like (love), try 等后 跟动词不定式作宾语,不定式中的 to 可以承前(后)省略。 —Will you go to the cinema with me? 你愿和我一起去看电影吗? —Well, I'd like to (go with you). 我愿意。 I would do it for you, but I don't know how to (do it for you). 我想为你做这事,但我又不知如何做。 在某些形容词, afraid, glad, willing, happy, eager 等后承前省 略动词原形,只保留不定式符号 to。 —Will you join us in the game? 你愿和我们一起做这个游戏吗? —Sure, I'll be glad to(join you in the game). 当然,我愿意。 有些动词, tell, ask, allow, expect, force, invite, permit, persuade, order, warn, wish, would like,forbid 等后跟动词不定式作宾语 补足语、主语补足语时,不定式承前省略动词原形, 保留动 词不定式符号 to。 He didn't come, though we had invited him to (come).

句 简单句中的省略 ①感叹句中常省略主语和谓语。 ②在一些口语中可以省略某些句子成分。

①What a hot day (it is)!多热的天啊! How wonderful!多妙啊! ②—(Will you)Have a smoke?你抽烟吗? —No.Thanks.不,谢谢了。 (Is there)Anything else to say?还有别的要说吗?





①John must have been playing football and Mary (must have been) doing her homework. 并列句中的省略 ①如果主语不同,而谓语动词中的一部分相同, 约翰一定在踢球,而玛丽一定在做作业。 则省略谓语动词中相同的那部分。 ②His suggestions made John happy, but (his suggestions made) ②主语相同,谓语动词也相同,则二者都可以省 Mary angry. 略。 他的建议使约翰高兴,却使玛丽很生气。 ③主语相同,而谓语不同,则可以省略主语。 ③Old McDonald gave up smoking for a while, but (he) soon ④在并列复合句中,如果 that 从句从属于 returned to his old ways. 第二个并列句且它的谓语动词和宾语等其它一 老麦克唐纳戒了一阵子烟,可很快又抽上了。 些成分与第一个并列句相同时,这个 that 从句通 ④Jack will sing at the party, but I know John won't (sing at the 常可以省略这些相同的部分。 party). 杰克将在晚会上唱歌,但我知道约翰不会在晚会上唱歌。

复合句中的省略 ▲名词性从句中的省略 ①作宾语的 what 从句中的谓语动词与主句的相 同,则 what 从句可以省略谓语,甚至主语 的 ②有时候也可以根据说话的情景来省略主句中 的一些成分。 ③在某些表虚拟语气的主语从句、宾语从句、表 语从句和同位语从句中,从句谓语动词中的助动 词 should 可以省略。 ▲定语从句中的省略 ①在限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词 that, which, who (whom)常可以省略。

复合句中的省略 ▲名词性从句中的省略 ①Someone has used my bike, but I don't know who (has used it). 有人用了我的自行车,但我不知道是谁。 He has gone, but no one knows where (he has gone). 他走了,但没人知道他去哪儿了。 ②(I'm)Sorry I've kept you waiting so long. 对不起,让你久等了。 ③It's important that we (should) speak to the old politely. 我们对老人说话要有礼貌,这很重要。 ▲定语从句中的省略 ①The man(who/whom)I saw is called Smith. 我见到的那个人名叫史密斯。 Where is the book (which) I bought this morning? 今天上午我买的那本书在哪儿? ②I shall never forget the day (when) we first met. 我永远也不会忘记我们第一次见面的那一天。 The reason (why) he came so early is his own affair. 他来这么早是他自己的事。 The way (that) you answered the questions was admirable. 你回答这些问题的方式令人钦佩。 ▲状语从句中的省略





②关系副词 when, where, why 以及 that 在 the time(day, morning, afternoon, evening, night, week, month, year 等) when, the place(desk, table, room, spot, house, town, country, school 等)where, the reason why, the way that 结构中引导限制性定语 从句时,在非正式场合下,可以省略关系副词 when, where, why, that。 ▲状语从句中的省略 当状语从句中的主语和主句的主语一致,或状语 从句中的主语是 it,并且又含有 be 动词时,常可 以省略从句中的主语和 be 动词。 ①在 as, before, till, once, when, while 等引导的时 间状语从句中。 ②在 though, although,等引导的让步状语从句中。 ③在 if, unless(=if... not)等引导的条件状语从句 中。

①While(I was)waiting, I was reading some magazines. 我一边看杂志,一边等。 ②Though (they were) tired, they went on working. 虽然他们累了,但他们仍继续工作。 ③You shouldn't come to his party unless (you were) invited. 除非你被邀请,否则你不应该来参加他的宴会。 ④在 as, as if, as though 引导的让步状语从句中。 ④He did as (he had been) told. 他按照被告知的那样去做了。

十五、倒装句 类 型 情 况 Not a word did I say to him. 句首状语为否定词或半否定词的句子。 这类词或短语主要有 never, neither, nor, little,seldom,rarely,hardly,scarcely,no sooner, not only,in no way,at no time,few, not,no 等 部分倒装 (部分倒装 是把 be 动词、 情态动词、 助 动词放到主 语之前。 如果 句子中没有 这些词,要在 主语之前加 助 动 词 /did do/does so 或 so 引导的短语放在句首,要部分倒装 “Not only+分句,but also+分句”句型中的前 also + 分句”句型中的前一分句要部分倒装 Not until 放在句首,从句不倒装,主句倒装 only+状语放在句首,要部分倒装 Never have I found him so happy. Little does he care about what I said. I can’t swim. Neither can he. No sooner had he gone to bed than he fell asleep. Hardly/Scarcely had he gone to bed when he fell asleep. Only by this means is it possible to explain it. (介词短语) Only then did I realize the importance of math. (副词) Only when the war was over in 1918 was he able to get happily back to work. (从句) 注意:如果 only 后面不是状语,则不用倒装。 OnlyWang Ling knows this. I saw the film, so did she. So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him. Not only does John love Chinese, he is also good at speaking it. Not only the mother but also the children are sick. Not until last week did they find the lost bike. (简单句) Not until my son had entered the university did he realize the importance of time. (复合句) Proud as these nobles are, he’s afraid to see me. Tired as he was, he kept on running. as/though 引导的让步状语从句 Tired though he was, he kept on running. =Though he was tired,he kept on running Child as he is,he knows a lot.(注意:child 前没有冠词 a) 在以 often, well, many a time, now and again 等方式或频度副词(短语)开头的句子中,要 用部分倒装结构 Many a time has John given me good advice. Often have we made that test. 例 句

一分句要部分倒装“Not only + 分句,but 但 not only...but also...连接主语时,不倒装。

等,而把原来 的谓语动词 变成原形放 在 主 语 之 后。 )

在虚拟结构中,条件从句的谓语含有 were, Had I time (= If I had time), I would go and help you. had 和 should 这三个词是,可省去 if,将 这些词移至主语之前。 用于某些表示祝愿的句子里 There be 结构。另外,在此结构中可以用来 代替 be 动词的动词有:exist, seem, happen, appear,live, rise, stand 等 Were I you (= If I were you), I would go abroad. Should he come (=If he should come), tell him to ring me up. May you succeed! There stood a dog before him. There exist different opinions on this question. Here comes the old lady! “Here,There, Now, Then + come (或 be 等) + 主语” 结构 说明:本句型中 there 是副词,应重读,强调地 点。 而前一句型中的 there 是引导词,本身没 意义 Then came the hour we had been looking forward to. There comes the bus. Now comes your turn. 除了 then 引导的句子用过去式以外,其余的均用一般现在时,表示一种生 动的描述。其次,如果主语是人称代词,就不用倒装。 Here you are. There she comes. 完全倒装 表示方向的副词 out, in, up, down 等置于句 首,要用全部倒装。 表示地点的介词短语 (如 on the wall, under the tree, in front of the house,in the middle of the room 等)放在句首时,要全部倒装 In came Mr White. Up went the arrow into the air. Away went the boy. On the top of the hill stands a pine tree. In front of the classroom is a playground. They arrived at a house, in front of which sat an old man. Present at the meeting was Mr. Green, a headmaster.(形容词短语) Such was the story he told me.(代词) 其它形式的完全倒装 East of the city lies a new railway. (副词短语) First to be completed was the seven-storey teaching building. (不定式短语) Gone are the days when my heart was young and gay. (过去分词) Lying on the floor was a boy aged 15. (现在分词短语) 用于某些表示祝愿的句子里 Long live the People’s Republic of China!


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