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研究性学习:英语完形填空解题思路与技巧(修改)


My sister and I grew up in a little village in England. Our father was a struggling ___36___, but I always knew he was ___37___. He never criticized us, but used ___38___ to bring out our be

st. He’d say,“If you pour water on flowers, they flourish. If you don’t give them water, they die.”
36. A. biologist B. manager 37. A. strict B. honest 38. A. praise B. courage

C. lawyer D. gardener C. special D. learned C. power D. warmth

I ___39___as a child I said something ___40___ about somebody, and father said,“___41___ time you say something unpleasant about somebody else, it’s a reflection of you.” He explained that I looked for the best ___42___ people, I would get the best ___43___. 39. A. think B. imagine C. remember D. guess 40. A. unnecessary B. unkind C. unimportant D. unusual 41. A. Another B. Some C. Any D. Other 42. A. on B. in C. at D. about 43. A. in case B. by turns C. by chance D. in return

From then on I’ve always tried to ___44___ the principle in my life and later in running my company 44. A. revise B. set C. review D. follow

Dad’s also always been very ___45___. At 15, I started a magazine. It was ___46___ a great deal of time, and the headmaster of my school gave me a ___47__: stay in school or leave to work on my magazine. 45. A. understanding C. serious 46. A. taking up C. picking up 47. A. suggestion C. notice B. experienced D. demanding B. making up D. keeping up B. decision D. choice

I decided to leave, and Dad tried to sway me from my decision, ___48___ any good father would. When he realized I had made up my mind, he said,“Richard, when I was 23, my dad ___49__ me to go into law. And I’ve ___50___ regretted it. I wanted to be a biologist, ___51__ I didn’t purse my ___52__. 48. A. and B. as 49. A. helped B. allowed 50. A. always B. never 51. A. rather B. but 52. A. promise B. task C. even if D. as if C. persuaded D. suggested C. seldom D. almost C. for D. therefore C. belief D. dream

You know what you want. Go fulfill it.” As ___53__ turned out, my little publication went on to become Student, a nation ___54__ for young people in the U.K. My wife and I have two children, and I’d like to think we are bringing them up in the same way Dad ___55__ me.

53. A. this B. he C. it D. that 54. A. newspaper B. magazine C. program D. project 55. A. controlled D. comforted C. reminded D. raised

一 完形填空考什么? (一) 词法及词义辨析(46,47,48,49,52等)

(二) 固定短语搭配 (44等) (三) 上下文逻辑关系(36,37,40,43, 45,47,54,55,等) (四) 文化背景及生活常识

(五) 考查综合运用语言的能力:
1) 词语辨析能力
2) 语法结构分析能力

3) 语篇理解能力
4) 逻辑推理能力

5) 文化背景透析能力
6) 作者意图剖析能力

7) 生活常识综合运用能力

二 当前完形填空的特点
?突出语篇,强调应用,注重语境

?辨析词意,以实词为主 ?题材多为记叙文,叙议结合。第一 句不设空

短文长度一般在250-300之间。首句不设 空,空间距一般在5-15词之间,总设空20。 选文内容逻辑性强,文章结构严谨,层次 分明,有一个完整的故事情节。有记叙文, 议论文,说明文,夹叙夹议文。选项以情 景意义选择为主,语法选择填空极少。所 给选项一般为同一词类,或属同一范畴, 以实词为主,虚词为辅;单词为主,词组 或短语为辅。

三,完型填空的能力目标要求
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牢固、扎实、熟练的英语语法知识和丰富的英 语词汇知识。 英语阅读理解能力,良好的阅读习惯,熟练的 阅读技巧。 分析认识文章结构,理解领会文章各部分、各 层次之间逻辑关系的能力。

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逻辑思维能力。特别是总结概括、推理 判断和分析归纳的能力。包括情景推理 判断、常识推理判断、逆向推理判断及 比较推理判断等。

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扎实的英语词汇、短语、惯用法等 英语固定搭配的知识。特别是英语 词汇意义和用法的辨析能力。 在阅读中捕捉记忆相关信息的能力。

四 完形填空的解题思路
总则:在把握整体的基础上对

句子内部的情况进行分析
跳过空格,通读全文, 把握大意

结合选项,综合考虑,初定答案
瞻前顾后,先易后难, 个个击破 再读全文,反复检查

五 完型填空解题技巧
完型填空侧重于考查学生的逻辑思维能力和对 具体语境的把握,尤其是对整体语义的理解能力。 它要求考生不但要有比较扎实的语言知识,较大 的词汇量,而且要具有一定的语篇分析能力及逻 辑思维能力。要做好这种题型,考生除了必备的 语言基础知识和基本技能之外,还应了解其命题 特点,掌握一定的解题技巧。 做完形填空时要注意文章开头提示句的点题 作用和短文中完整句的启示作用。首先要快速浏 览全文,弄清各段落之间,各层次之间的内在联 系,把握文章的完整性。只有这样才符合这种题 型的解题思路。

(一) 通览全文,重视首句,把握主旨 完形填空的首句,往往 为文章的引子,要认真体 会首句所包含的的深刻含义及所提示的信息,预测文章 的背景及情节的发生、发展、高潮和结局;有些文章的 首句,就是文章的主旨所在,透彻理解完形填空的首句, 也就抓治了文章的主题。 (二) 根据语境,寻找信息词汇,找准定位词 完形题填空给了我们丰富的上下文语境,这些上下 文是相互影响、相互印证的,充分利用上下文的相互作 用可以进行有根据的推断,从而大大提高解题的正确率。 每选一个选项,考生都要考虑到选项所在的句子与上下 文有没有必的联系,切不可由于错选而使选项所在的句 子成了与上下文毫无联系的闲句。 (三) 扎实基础,辨析词义及搭配,准确用词

(四) 合理推断,正确选用逻辑词汇 文章的逻辑关系可以通过连词、副 词等体现出来。利用逻辑词汇所表达的 并列、因果、条件、让步、递进等关系, 可以推断完形体内空所需要的未知信息 (五) 借助语法分析,选择最佳选项 (六) 重读全文,斟酌修改,调整答案 重读全文,着重看全片内容是否完整、 连贯,语言是否通顺、准确,将不合题 意的答案进行调整,尽可能的避免在解 题过程中出现“断章取义”的误选。

六: 完形填空解题技巧及运用

1.看清上下文,寻找信息词汇,找准定位词 根据上下文语境来确定最佳选项近年来的完形填空试 题在选项的设置上越来越淡化语法结构,重在文意的干扰, 即把具体的语言知识溶进具体的语言情景中去,考查考生 通过上下文的前后提示或暗示,对整体文意进行把握的能 力。这种考查方式所占的比例较大,且难度也大,若单纯 从句子或个别段落来分析,或许所给的四个答案在语法和 结构上都是正确的,若放在全局,则不一定正确。因此, 快速浏览全文,领悟文章主旨,通过上下文的语境来选择 答案是解决这类题的关键。充分利用文章的上下文和前后 句,找到对选择有提示作用的词或句。这些词有时可能是 同义词或反义词。

例如:1) Some parts of the water are very shallow.
But in some places it is very _____. A. deep B. high C. cold D. dangerous 根据转折连词but的提示,所填入的词应与 shallow相反,因此答案为A。 2) Mrs O’Neill asked_____questions and she didn’t scold us either. A. no B. certain C. many D. more and是一个并列连词;either为副词,用在否 定句或否定词后加强语势,由此可以确定所填的 词也应是一个否定意义的词,因此答案是A。

例1: I climbed the stairs slowly, carrying a big suitcase, my father following with two more. By the time I got to the third floor, I was 1 and the same time feeling lonely. Worse still, Dad 2 a step and fell, sending my new suitcase 3 down the stairs. 1. A. helpless B. lazy D. tired C. anxious D. tired 2. A. took B. minded C. missed C. missed D. picked 3. A. rolling B. passing A. rolling C. dropping D. turning

例2: But Ella Fant, who was filed with 1 , shouted at the top of her voice, 〝Look at 2 ﹗ They?re all out of 3 except my John﹗ Isn?t he the best﹗〞 1. A. sadness B. happiness B. happiness C. surprise D. regret 2. A. them B. those A. them C. that D. him 3. A. sight B. order C. mind D. step D.

例3. Every Thursday afternoon, my art history class meets not in our usual lecture hall but in our university Art Museum. We spend our one-hour class discussing two or three of the 1 , many of which are by artists that we have already studied in class. 1. A. subjects B. paintings C. speeches D. lectures

The professor begins by selecting one 2 of art. After giving us a quick background on the artist , he will open up for class 3 . 2. A. book C. text 3. A. discussion C. argument B. passage D. work B. activity D. consideration

Everyone is encouraged to give 4 on the work. Not every piece we study is 5 famous or striking in appearance and subject matter, yet we always manage to make some interesting observations.
4. A. questions C. comments 5. A. necessarily C. nearly B. ideas D. thoughts B. rather D. too

2. 寻求上下逻辑,从容确定关系 It has been many years since I was last in London?_ ____I still remember something that happened during that visit. A. and B. for C. but D. as 分析: 根据句前的many years和句后的still remember答 案应选表示转折的连词but.

连接词 ★They are some of the poorest people in a poverty stricken country. ____ now they have an extra source of income (收入). A. But C. However B. And D. Therefore

★English people seem very quiet ____ reserved (缄默的), usually. A. though B. and C. even D. but ★It was just getting dark; there was a touch of fog and I was on a lonely stretch of road. _____ I was going along cheerfully. A. But B. And C. Otherwise D. So

副词 ①….I raised the pistol and fired. The animal fell backwards with an angry cry. Father took the _______ smoking pistol from my hand , and fired another shot, which killed the gorilla.

A. still

B. yet

C. even

D. already

②He certainly looked the part all right, he thought as he admired himself in the mirror. He _______ thought of going out into the street to see whether he could pass as a policeman out there…..

A. just C. still

B. even D. already

③The shop had to agree. They knew that no fire on earth can ________ damage a perfect diamond. A. almost B. even C. just D. ever ④….At times, he would turn, sit down , and _______ go on his knees. A. almost B. even C. often D. rather

逻辑推理 Students generally appreciate ( 认可 ) these special 50 opportunities (机会) . They are almost always fun and interesting , and professors 51 them too because students learn so much in just a few short months.

50. A. working B, living C. teaching D. learning 51. A. hold B. like C. dislike D. discover

关联词的重要性 No one denies the 1 of classroom learning. But it can only take the students this 2 . Slides and textbooks may do a good job of carrying facts and details, but creativity of thought cannot be 3 . They can only be developed through 4 experience. 1. A. deed B. value C. effect D. success 2. A. far B. long C. way D. direction 3. A. got B, found C. taught D. practiced 4. A. self-educated B. self -service C. first-hand D. up -to -date

3.扎实基础,辨析词义及搭配,准确用词 注意固定的搭配,包括动词与介词的搭配、动词与名 词的搭配以及形容词与名词的搭配等,同时要根据内容选 择正确的短语。例如: 1) Here’s a fellow who just walked into a bank and helped himself_____so much money. A. for B. by C. to D. of 表示“自取,随便拿”这个意义的短语是help oneself …?故答案为C

2)And video cameras can be used to_____ people’s actions at home. A. keep B. make C. record D. watch 句中动作的发出者是video cameras?因此答案 是C,意思是“记录”。 Soon I heard a_____like that of a door burst in and then a climb of feet. A. sound B. cry C. voice D. shout 选项中的四个词都表示不同的声音,但B,C, D项的三个词都是指从嗓子里发出的声音,而 sound则表示各种各样的声音。因此答案是A。

根据词语的习惯用法和固定搭配来选择答案词 的固定搭配,特别是动词的搭配在完形填空题中 出现的比例也是比较大的,多数题目涉及到动词 的用法和各种搭配关系,这是由动词在句子中的 重要性决定的。动词在搭配关系上与名词、介词、 副词的用法紧密相关。 解决这类题目要求考生多读、多记,对所学习 语或固定搭配牢固掌握,并能灵活运用。?

例1:(NMET1992)Mrs. Clark was at the time. B. making 38. A. cooking B. making C. burning D. serving

38

tea

例2: The other day I was sitting in a small restaurant 1 a quiet drink and a talk with a few friends when it suddenly 2 me that almost everyone in the restaurant was smoking. It wasn’t long 3 the whole room was filled with smoke. 1. A. have B. had C. having D. have had C. having 2. A. seemed B. struck C. sank D. showed B. struck C. before D. now 3. A. ago B. after C. before

根据词汇的意义及用法辨析词义从而确定答 案要做好这种题目,必须尽量将词语辨析与情节 推理和逻辑推理结合起来,从词汇意义入手,抓 住情节线索解决问题。

例1:Dad

taught me a lot about life, especially its hard times. I remembered one of his 1 , one night when I was ready to quit (退出) a political campaign(运动)I was losing, and wrote about it in my diary. Tired, feeling the months of 2 , I went up to my study to make some notes. 1. A. classes B. advice C. lessons C. lessons D. talks 2. A. struggle B. working A. struggle C. battle D. defence

例2:She noticed how nervous he was and suggested he should stand near the stage where he could watch and follow the play. It was a good 1 of getting rid of his nervousness, she said. She was right, it seemed to 2 . 1. A. idea B. way C. path D. plan B. way C. work 2. A. do B. win C. work D. act

4.了解生活常识,确定相关知识

根据生活常识及文化背景知识进行逻辑推理 完形填空往往以自身的内容提供完整的语篇信息, 其间交织渗透着各类相关的文化背景知识和生活 常识,考查考生灵活运用该方面知识的能力。解 决这类题目,考生不仅要有广博的知识、丰富的 生活经历,还要能够驾驭全文,不仅理解文章的 表层意义,而且要弄清文章的深层意义。当对语 言的把握不很准确时,可充分利用社会文化知识 和生活常识来帮助判断。

例1: It was an early morning in summer. In the streets, sleepy-eyed people were moving quickly, heading towards their 1 . This was the beginning of another 2 day in New York City. 1. A. jobs B. homes A. jobs C. buses D. offices 2. A. working B. hot D. ordinary C. same D. ordinary

例2:(NMET1998)Every morning she would give him breakfast 29 bed and bring him the papers to 30 . 29. A. to B. at C. in D. by C. in 30. A. check B. read C. keep D. sign B. read 例3.(Immediately?)the officers jumped into their cars and rushed to the_____hospital. A. animal B. biggest C. plant D. nearest 在这样的紧急情况下,人们的第一个反应是到最 近的医院就医,因此答案为D。

2、语法结构方面 对语法结构的考查集中在 1)虚拟语气; 2)定语 从句(连接词,限定与非限定定语从句的区别,定语 从句与其它主从复合句的区别); 3)状语从句; 4) 非谓语动词(动词不定式,现在分词,过去分词,动 名词);5)主谓搭配一致 (时态,语态,语气,人称, 数); 6)并列句,省略句,倒装句及割裂的复杂句 子 ;7) 逻辑主语(主要是非谓语动词的逻辑主语),在 句法上不是主谓关系,但在语义上为施动者与动作的 关系;8)词类之间的搭配要求,如名词需要形容词, 名词,冠词,非谓语动词,词组及定语从句修饰;动 词需要副词词组修饰;及物动词后应加宾语等。做这 一类题除了要有系统准确的语法知识之外,还要注意 上下文的逻辑关系和语篇内容,这样才能确保答案的 正确。

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(1) For example,if consumers buy only small cars,manufactures will keep on making_____If consumers buy only large automobiles, manufacturers will make these instead. Sometimes,the quality of the service that is available will decide which cars are bought. 〖分析〗选them,代替cars。 A.which B.it C. ones D.them (2) Of course he did not understand a thing,but he nodded his head as_______he. ?[分析]选did,代替understood A.did B.had C.understood D.could (3)The strange Dr had been loved by someone:he had given his life,as Charley _____, for a cause he believed right. his life。 [分析]选had,代替had given A./ B.had been C.had D.had done

(4) A philosopher said that we have no right to oppose a position until we can state that position in a way that fully satisfies those who hold; until,indeed,we can make out a better case for it than the proponent himself_____. ? A.can do B.may C.do D.can ?分析:填can,是前边can make out a better case for it的省略。

三、解此类题主要从以下四步做起:

第一步 重视首句,把握开篇。完形填空一般无标题, 首句一般不留空白,是完整的一句,全文信息从此开始。 细读首句,可判断文章体裁,预测全文大意和主旨。 第二步 速读全文,掌握大意。速读全文要一气呵成, 尽管有空格、生词或不明白的地方,仍要快速读下去。 读时要注意找出关键词、中心词,划出某些代表人物和 情节的词,以便于形成思路。要注意不要在未掌握大意 的基础上,边阅读,边做题,这样速度慢、准确率低。

第三步 瞻前顾后,灵活答题。“瞻前顾后”,即先 读所填词的句子,回顾上一句,兼顾下一句。如果一句 中有两个空白待填,在初定答案时要“双管齐下”,在 两处同时试填,然后通读全句,确定答案。答题方法: 1)择优法:根据文章及结构边读边填,如果能够立刻 判定最佳答案的,不必再去逐个考证其余答案。2)排 除法:如答案一时难以确定,可按空格位置,从语法结 构、词语搭配、上下文语境、习惯用法、词义辨析等方 面,对选项逐项分析试填。排除干扰项,从而确定正确 答案。

第四步 复核全文,调整答案。把填好的短文通读一遍, 进行核查同时注意以下三点: 1.上下文的一致性:即时态语态的一致;代词、名词、 单复数的一致。 2.从语法和惯用法及习惯搭配、甚至语感入手,看是否 符合上下文的逻辑。 3.段与段、句与句之间的衔接是否连贯。 这次复核至关重要,常能纠正一两处甚至多处错误。同时 对极难确定的答案,也要凭语感任猜一个,决不可不选。

解题误区
做完形填空时,除了依据所学语言知识和解题技 巧外,还应避免几个误区。 1、单纯求快,忽略语篇理解,只看局部的词义辨析、 搭配和语法结构,试图用语言知识解决所有问题。很 多考生一拿到完形填空题就急于选择答案,不认真分 析通篇文章。表面上解题速度挺快,但是这种见树不 见林的做法只会影响解题的质量的效率。

2、时间安排不当,在几个选项上过分纠缠,追求完 美,导致许多本可以做出的题来不及做。正确的做法 是由易到难,先做会

做题三忌:
?急于求成,未通读全文便忙于答题,不了 解文意,无整体概念边读边填,两眼忙于空 白与选项之间,欲速则不达。 ?只抠字眼,语法,不顾文意,抓不住关键。
?断章取义,就题论题,不管前后联系,互 不照应,前后矛盾。

2008高考试题英语(湖北卷完形填空部分) On a warm Monday, Jenny Neilson bought a sandwich and parked her car under some trees. Rolling down the windows to 41 in fresh air, she settled back to enjoy her lunch. Suddenly she 42 a big bald(秃顶的)man running through the parking lot. Before she came to 43 what would happen, the man was there, shouting through her window, “Get out!” Neilson 44. Pulling open her door, the man seized her 45 the neck and hair, and threw her out of the car onto the ground. She screamed, 46 her purse and the keys. Two reporters of the local newspaper, Robert Bruce and Jeff Jackson, just outside their office building on a 47, heard the screams and began running . When they 48 Neilson’s car, the attacker had

keys. Bruce opened the door, and he and Jackson dragged the man out. The attacker 50 back. But even in his cornered panic, he was no 51 for the two athletic men. Reggie Miller, a worker of the local newspaper, heard the screams, too. He rushed back to the office to 52 the police, and then ran back with some plastic ropes —— used to tie up newspapers. With his arms 53 tight behind him, the prisoner looked up and said 54 , “I hope you guys feel good about yourselves—— you just caught one of the most wanted men.” They 55 him and waited for the police. Later, Bruce and Jackson were shocked to learn the man was the 56 carjacker (劫车者)and suspected murderer, whose 57—— but with a full head of hair—— had been recently printed in their own newspaper.

?Neilson

considers herself lucky 58 she suffered injuries. She believes the story might have had a 59 ending if those good people had not come to her aid. “Unfortunately,” she said, “many people would 60 have done what they did, and that? the real truth.”

41. A. bring B. let C. gather D. send ? 42. A. recognizedB. watchedC. noticed D. met ? 43. A. realize B. understand ? C. imagine D. conclude ? 44. A. escaped B. struggled C. refused D. obeyed ? 45. A. by B. around C. with D. on ? 46. A. burying B. forgetting C. offering D. grabbing ? 47. A. trip B. visit C. break D. holiday ? 48. A. started B. stopped C. entered D. reached ? 49. A. carefully B. madly C. disappointedly D. patiently ? 50. A. fought B. turned C. jumped D. shouted
?

51. A. match B. target C. equalD. companion ? 52. A. remind B. phone C. invite D. beg ? 53. A. rolled B. folded C. bent D. tied ? 54. A. angrily B. kindly C. coldly D. warmly ? 55. A. caught B. thanked C. comforted D. ignored ? 56. A. ordinary B. professional ? C. honest D. outstanding ? 57. A. picture B. background ? C. characterD. story ? 58. A. and B. but C. though D. when ? 59. A. ridiculous B. similar ? C. strange D. different ? 60. A. sometimesB. never C. often D. forever
?

? 答案:

? 41.BCACA

? 51ABDCD

46.DCDBA 56.BACDB

反思:
1 要重视文章首句 2 注重语篇与逻辑 3 字里行间找信息 个别填空借常识 4 注意设身处地 身临其境 把自己当主角 5 复读反思再核 6 多读原汁原味英文 培养语言感觉

Thank you


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