高一英语各单元知识点总结及重难点解析 Unit1-2 ☆重点句型☆ 1. What should a friend be like? 询问对方的看法 2. I think he / she should be…表示个人观点的词语 3. I enjoy reading / I'm fond of singing / I like playing computer games
. 等表示喜好的 词语 4. Chuck is on a flight when suddenly his plane crashes. “when"作并列连词的用法 5. What / Who / When / Where is it that...? 强调句的 特殊疑问句结构 6. With so many people communicating in English everyday, ... “with+宾语+宾补”的结构做状语 7. Can you tell me how to pronounce...? 带连接副词 (或代词)的不定式做宾补的用法 ☆重点词汇☆ 1. especially v. 特别地 2. imagine v. 想像 3. alone adv. / adj. 单独，孤独的 4. interest n. 兴趣 5. everyday adj. 每天的，日常的 6. deserted adj. 抛弃的 7. hunt v. 搜寻 8. share v. 分享 9. care v. 在乎，关心 10. total n. 总数 11. majority n. 大多数 12. survive v. 生存，活下来 13. adventure n. 冒险 14. scared adj. 吓坏的 15. admit v. 承认 16. while conj. 但是，而 17. boring adj. 令人厌烦的 18. except prep. 除……之外 19. quality n. 质量 20. favourite adj. 最喜爱的 ☆重点短语☆ 1. be fond of 爱好 2. treat…as…把……看作为…… 3. make friends with 与……交朋友 4. argue with sb. about / over sth. 与某人争论某事 5. hunt for 寻找 6. in order to 为了 7. share…with 与……分享 8. bring in 引进；赚钱
9. a great / good many 许多… 10. have difficulty (in) doing 做……有困难 11. end up with 以……结束 12. except for 除……之外 13. come about 发生 14. make(a)fire 生火 15. make yourself at home 别拘束 16. the majority of 大多数 17. drop sb. a line 给某人写短信 18. for the first time 第一次 19. at all 根本；竟然 20. have a (good) knowledge of…精通…… ☆短语闯关☆ 下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语， 请你根据汉语在横线上填人一个正确的词， 每个 词 4 分，80 分才能过关，你一定能过关，做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我们就开始吧? l. be fond ____ 喜欢，爱好 of 2. hunt ____ 搜索。追寻，寻找 for 3. in to ____ 为了 order 4. care ____ 担心，关心 about 5. such ____ 例如，诸如 as 6. drop sb a ____ 给某人写信(通常指写短信) line 7. make oneself at ____ 别客气 home 8. ____ total 总共 in 9. except ____ 除了……之外 for 10. stay ____ 不睡，熬夜 up 11. ____ about 发生 come 12. end ____ with 以……告终 up 13. bring ____ 引进，引来 in 14. a great ____ 许许多多，极多 many 15. be ____ 对……深感兴趣，深深迷上…… into 16. ____ the Internet 上网 surf 17. ____ classes 逃学，逃课 skip 18. get ____ 聚会，相聚，聚集 together 19. be proud ____ 为……感到骄傲 of 20. keep an ____ on 照看，注意 eye 21. be curious ____ 对……感到好奇 about 22. shut ____ (使)住口 up 23. joke ____ 开玩笑 about 24. ____ the name of 以……名义 in 25. ____ the time 总是，一直 all ☆交际用语☆ 1. I think… I like / love / hate... I enjoy...
My interests are... 2. Did you have a good flight? You must be very tired. Just make yourself at home. I beg your pardon? Can you tell me how to pronounce...? Get it. ☆单词聚焦☆ 1. argue v. 的用法 ▲构词：argument n. 1. [C]争论 2. [U]讨论．辩论 3. [C]论据 ▲ 搭配： ① argue with / against sb. over / on / about sth. 与某人 争论某事 ② argue for / against sth. 辩论赞成／反对某事 ③ argue that... 主张，认为，争辩说 ④ argue sb into / out of doing sth. 说服某人做／不做某事 ▲友情提示：“说服某人做／不做某事”还可表达为：talk / persuade / reason sb. into / out of doing sth. ⑤ settle the argument 解决争端 ▲友情提示：an argument with sb about / over sth. 为某事和某人而发生的争执 【考例】 What laughing ____ we had about the socially respectable method for moving spaghetti (意大利式细面条) from plate to mouth. (2004 全国卷 I) A. speeches B. lessons C. sayings D. arguments [考查目标] argue 名词形式的词义。 [答案与解析] D argument 的词义是“争辩，辩论”。 2. compare v. 的用法 ▲构词：comparison n. 比较 ▲搭配：① compare...to... 比拟；比作 ② compare... with / to... 将……和……相比较 ③ compare notes 对笔记；交换意见 【考例】 ____ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. (2004 湖北) A. Compare B. When comparing C. Comparing D. When compared [考查目标] compare 的用法。 [答案与解析] D 本句 compare 用在句首作状语，并有“被比较”的意思。 3. consider v. 的用法 ▲构词：consideration n. 考虑，思考；体谅，顾及 ▲搭配：① consider doing sth. 考虑做某事 ② consider sb (to be / as)... 认为／觉得某 人……③ consider that- clause 认为…… ④ take sth into consideration 考虑 ⑤ under consideration 在考虑中 【考例】Charles Babbage is generally considered ____ the first computer. (NMET 1993) A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented [考查目标] consider 的几种常见用法。
[答案与解析] C consider 本身是被动语态时，后接不定式的各种结构。如果表示已经发生 的事情．用不定式的完成形式。 4. deserted adj. 空无一人的；被遗弃的；被抛弃的 (1) 空无一人的 a deserted street / area 空无一人的街道，地区；The office was quite deserted.办公室里空无一人。 (2) 被遗弃的 a deserted child 被遗弃的孩子 (3) desert ['dezot] n. 沙漠 desert [dI'zo:t] vt. 丢弃；遗弃 He deserted his wife and children after becoming rich. 5. difficulty n. (1) difficulty (通常作复数) 难事，难点，难题 She met with many difficulties when travelling. (2) 在以下句型中，difficulty 是不可数名词，不能用复数形式。 have (some) difficulty (in) doing sth. 干某事有困难 there is (some) difficulty (in) doing sth. have (some) difficulty with sth. 在某事上有困难 there is (some) difficulty with sth. do sth. with difficulty / without difficulty 困难地／轻而易举地做某事 We had a lot of difficulty in finding your house. Do you have any difficulty with your English? 【注意】 (1) 以上句型中，difficulty 前可加 some, little, much, a lot of, no, any 修饰 (2) 以上句型中，亦可用 trouble 来代替 difficulty。 6. favourite = favorite (A. E) 最喜爱的；最喜爱的人或事物 (1) adj. 最喜爱的 My favorite sport is playing football. (2) n. [C] 最喜爱的人或事物 He is a favorite with his uncle. 7. fun 的用法 ▲构词：funny adj. 有趣的．滑稽的，好笑的；奇特的，古怪的 ▲搭配： ① make fun of 取笑；嘲弄；开某人的玩笑 ② (just)for / in fun = (just) for the fun of it 取乐，非认真地，说／做着玩的 ③ be full of fun…… 很好玩 ④ have fun with sb. 和某人开一个玩笑 ⑤ have (some) fun 玩得(很)高兴，玩得(很)开心 ⑥ It's (great) fun to do sth 干某事很有趣；干某事真是一件趣事；干某事真开心 ⑦ What fun (it is) to do sth! 干某事多么有趣呀! ⑧ have a lot of fun doing sth 干某事玩得很开心 【考例】 (200 上海春招) This is not a match. We're play- ing chess just for ____. A. habit B. hobby C. fun D. game [考查目标] fun 构成的短语 for fun 的意思。 [答案与解析]C，for fun 常在句中用作状语，意思是“说／做着玩的”。 8. imagine 的用法
▲构词：① imagination n. [C / U] 想像，想像力，想像的事物 ② imaginative adj. 富有 想像力的 ▲搭配：① imagine sth / doing sth ② beyond (all) imagination (完全)出乎意料地 【考例】 I can hardly imagine Peter ___across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. (MET 1991) A. sail B. to sail C. sailing D. to have sailed [考查目标] imagine 的基本用法。 [答案与解析] C imagine 后接动词的-ing 形式，本句的 Peter 是这个动名词的逻辑主语。 9. interest 的用法 interest vt. 使……感兴趣 n. 兴趣，爱好 [U] 利息；利润 He has a great interest in politics. 他对政治极感兴趣。/ a broad interest 广泛的利益 / a common interest 共同 的利益 / a strong interest 极强的兴趣 ▲构词：① interesting 令人感兴趣的(事物) ② interested (某人对某事)有兴趣的 ▲搭配：① interest sb in sth 使某人注意，关心或参入某事；使某人对某事感兴趣 ② be interested in 对……感兴趣(关心) ③have an interest in sth. / in doing sth. 对某方面有 兴趣 (关心)； 在……中有股份、 权益等 ④ hold one's interest 吸引住某人的兴趣 ⑤ in the interest(s) of 为……利益； 为……起见； 对……有利 ⑥ lose interest in 对……不再感兴趣 ⑦ show / take (an) interest in / in doing sth. 对……表示关心(有兴趣) ⑧ have / take / feel no interest in 对……不 (不太) 感兴趣 ⑨ with interest 有兴趣地，津津有味地 ⑩ develop / find / feel interest in sth. / in doing sth. 在某方面培养／有兴趣 ? lose interest in sth. / in doing sth. 对某方面失去兴趣 有时 interest 可与不定冠词连用。He developed an interest in science. 另外：interest 作“爱好”解时，是可数名词。 His interests include reading and tennis. 【考例】____, they immediately suggested that she put them together to make a single one long story and paid Tracy a $50,000 advance. (2004 全国卷 II) A. Interested B. Anxiously C. Seriously D. Encouraged [考查目标] interest 派生词的词义和用法。 [答案与解析] A interested 指(出版商)对这件事有兴趣。 10. prove 的用法 ▲构词：① proof n. 证据。试验，考验，(印刷)校样 ▲搭配：① prove sth to sb 向某人证实…… ② prove to sb that 从句向某人证实…… ③ prove (oneself) to be 证明(自己)是，表现出 【考例】It was in the neighboring country — United States that such resistance to spray was first ____. (05 长春模拟) A. proved B. killed C. thought D. discussed [考查目标] 考查 prove 的意思。 [答案与解析] A 本题 was proved 的意思是“得到证实”，有被动意味。 11. provide 的用法 ▲构词：① provider n. 供给者，供应者，养家者 ② provided / providing conj. 倘若 ▲搭配：provide sb with sth / sth to sb 给……提供；以……装备 【考例】His son ____ the old man with all the food and the money he needed. A. provided B. fed C. afforded D. charred [考查目标]考查 provide 的词义。
[答案与解析]A provide 与 with 搭配，意思是“向某人提供某物”。 12. share 的用法 ▲搭配：① share (in) sth. with sth. 和某人分享、分担、共用某物 ② share sth (out) between / among... 将某物分配、分给…… ③ share joys / happiness and sorrows (with sb) (和某人) 同甘共苦 ④ share one's opinion 同意某人的意见 【考例】Let Harry play with your toys as well, Clare — you must learn to ____. (NMET 2000) A. support B. care C. spare D. share [考查目标] 此题主要考查在语境中选择动词的能力。 [答案与解析] D 四个选项的含义分别为： support 支持； care 在意， 关心； spare 挤出(时 间)，匀出某物；share 分享，分担，与某人合用。根据语境可知说话者是想让 Clare 学会 与人共享——把玩具(拿出来)和 Harry 一起玩，share 在此意为“合用玩具”，解此题的关键 是信息 play with your toys as well。故 D 为最佳答案。 13. solve 的用法 ▲构词：solution n. 1. [C] (问题的)解答；(困难的)解决方法 2. [U] 解答，解决 3. [U] 溶 解 ▲搭配：the solution to 解决……的办法 【考例 3】In the end, one suggestion seems to be the solution ____ the problem. (2001 北京春招) A. with B. into C. for D. to [考查目标] solve 名词 solution 的相关搭配。 [答案与解析] D “对于……的解决办法”，介词用 to。 14. total n. / adj. 全部(的) (1) in total 加起来 In total, there must have been 20000 people there. (2) a total of 总共 His expenses (支出) reached a total of $100. (3) the total of...……的总数 The total 0f the bill is 230 dollars. 15. when conj. when 并列连词，= and then，表示“就在那时，突然”，常见以下句型中： (1) be doing...when...正在做……突然……I was wandering through the streets when l caught sight of a tailor's shop. (2) had done...when...刚做了……突然……I had just sat down when the light went out. (3) be about to do...when...刚要做……突然……I was just about to go swimming when our guide saw me and shouted at me. 16. while conj. (1) while 从属连词，引导时间状语从句，从句动词用延续性动词，主句的动作发生在从 句动作发生的过程之中。Come on, get these things away while I make the tea. (2) 并列连词，表前后两个分句意义相反或相对，意为“然而”。Some people waste food while others haven't enough. (3) 放在句首， 表示“尽管； 虽然”， 相当于 although。 While we don't agree, we continue to be friendly. [牛刀小试 1] 用所给单词的适当形式填空： (compare，interest，fun，solve，argue，consider，share) 1. All the novels are considered ____ the young readers in the 1980s. (to have interested)
2. Bob thought it ____ to solve maths problems while others hated it. (fun) 3. The headmaster ignored the ____ between Mrs. Wang and his nephew. (argument) 4. We can't decide. The plan needs to be ____. (considered) 5. ____ with Class Two, ours has more boy students. (Compared) 6. I find a better way ____ this problem. (to solve) 7. Nearly half of the companies ____ the same opinion with the government. (share / shared) 【词语比较】 1. especially, specially especially adv. 特殊地；尤其是 (1)侧重于多种事物或人中比较突出的。 I like all the subjects at school, especially English. (尤其是英语) (2) especially 后可接介词短语或从句。 I like the Yuelu Mountains, especially in spring. (尤其是在春天) Noise is unpleasant, especially when you are trying to sleep. specially 侧重特意地、专门地做某事 (后面常接 for sb. 或 to do sth.) I made a chocolate cake specially for you. 2. boring, bored, bore boring adj. 令人厌烦的 The book is very boring. bored adj. 感到厌烦的 I'm bored with the book. bore vt. 令人厌烦 This book bores me. 有些表示情感的及物动词， 有与 bore 类似的用法。 如： interest, excite, surprise, amaze, frighten, astonish, move, inspire, touch, scare, disappoint, puzzle, worry 这类词的现在 分词形式，为“令人……”；过去分词形式，为“感到……”。 3. except for, except, but, besides 表示“除了”的词或短语有： except; but; except for; besides; except that (when...) 等。 (1) except 和 but 都表示“除了……之外。 没有”， 二者大多数情况下可以互换； 但在 no, all, nobody, nothing, no one 等词后多用 but。No one knows our teacher's address except / but him. (排除 him) (2) besides 除……之外，还……，有附加性。What other foreign languages do you know besides English? (English 与 other languages 都属于 know 的范围) (3) except for 只不过……，整体肯定，部分修正，用于排除非同类事物，for 表示细节 上的修正。 Your article is well written except for a few spelling mistakes. 4. know, know of, know about (1) know 用作动词，意思是“(直接地)获知，懂得，认识，熟悉”。I don't know whether he is here or not. / I know him to be honest. (2) know of 和 know about 的意思都是“(间接地)获知”，指听别人说到或从书报上看到， 二者没有什么区别。 5. for example; such as (1) for example“例如”，用来举例说明某一论点或情况。一般只举同类人或物中的“一个” 为例，作插入语，可位于句首、句中或句末。可用 for instance 替换。For example, air is invisible. / His spelling is terrible! Look at this word, for example. (2) such as “例如”，用来列举事物，一般列举同类人或事物中的几个例子。插在被列举 的事物与前面的名词之间，as 后面不可有逗号。Some of the European Languages come from Latin, such as French, Italian and Spanish.
[注意]如把前面所述情况全部举出，用 that is 或 namely。 ☆短语归纳☆ 1. 含 all 的短语 1) first of all 首先 (强调顺序) 2) in all (=in total=altogether) 总共 3) after all 毕竟，终究 4) at all 到底，根本 5) above all 最重要的是 (强调重要性) 6) not (...) at all (= not (...) in the least) 根本不，一点也不 7) all the time 始终，一直 8) all of a sudden (=suddenly) 突然，冷不防 9) all right 行，可以 10) all at once 立刘，马上 11) all day and all night 日日夜夜 12) all over 遍及 13) all alone 独个儿，独立地 14) all but 几乎，差一点 15) all in all 总的说来 16) all together 一道，同时，总共 17) for all 尽管 [例句] I woke up and didn't hear him at all. 我醒了，一点儿也没有听到他说话。/ He had so many falls that he was black and blue all over. 他摔了很多跤，以至于浑身青一块紫 一块的。/ You shouldn't scold her. After all, she is only five years old. 你不应该责怪 他，毕竟，她只有五岁。/ Children need many things, but above all, they need love. 孩 子需要许多东西，最重要的是，需要爱。/ You must have known it all the time. 你一定一 直知道这事。 【考例】 People may have different opinions about Karen, but I admire her. ____, she is a great musician. (2004 甘肃、青海) A. After all B. As a result C. In other words D. As usual [考查目标] 主要考查四个短语的用法。 [答案与解析] A after all 意为“毕竟．终究”；as a result 意为“结果”；in other words 意 为“换句话说”；as usual 意为“像往常一样”。本句意思是：虽然人们对她看法不一。但我还 是佩服她。因为她毕竟是一个伟大的音乐家。 【 考例 】 I'd like to buy a house -- modern, comfortable, and ____ in a quiet neighborhood. (2004 福建) A. in all B. above all C. after all D. at all [考查目标] 主要考查 all 构成的四个短语。 [答案与解析] B in all 意为“总共”；above all 意为“最重要的是”； after all 意为“毕竟”； at all 意为“到底”。本句话意思是：我想买一个房子，现代的、舒服的，但最重要的是在一 个安静的地区。 2. at all (1)用在肯定句中，“竟然” I'm surprised that you came at all. (2)用在否定句中，“一点也不” There was nothing to worry about at all. (3)用在疑问句中，“到底”“究竟” Have you been there at all?
(4)用在条件句中，“真的，确实” If you do it at all, do it well. 3. 含“be + 形容词 + 介词”的短语 1) be good at 擅长于 2) be interested in 对……感兴趣 3) be pleased / satisfied / content with 对……满意 4) be famous for 因……而出名 5) be kind / good to 对……好 6) be lost in 沉湎于 7) be active in 在某方面积极 8) be sure about / of 确信 9) be afraid of 害怕 10) be full of 充满 11) be filled with 充满 12) be made of / from 由……组成 13) be generous to 对……慷慨 14) be popular with 受欢迎 15) be confident of 确信 16) be fond of 喜欢，喜爱 17) be angry with / at 对……发脾气 18) be late for 迟到 19) be amazed / surprised / astonished / shocked at 对……感到惊讶 20) be busy doing 忙着做…… 21) be excited about 对……感到兴奋 22) be worried about 担心 23) be used for / as 用于 24) be curious about 对……好奇 [例句] Lin Lin is confident of his ability to get work for himself. 林林确信自己有能力 做这活。He was generous to everybody with money, as a result, he saved little. 他对 谁花钱都很慷慨，结果没有攒到多少钱。She is very active in helping the poor. 在帮助穷 人方面，她很热心。Pop music is popular with the young generation. 流行歌曲受年轻一 代的欢迎。Lost in thought, he didn't realize that I came in. 他陷入思考之中，没有意 识到我进来了。I was amazed at the sight so that I didn't know what to do. 看到这一 幕我非常惊讶， 不知道该做什么。 Students in Senior 3 are busy preparing for the coming final exam. 高三学生在忙于准备即将到来的期末考试。 【考例 l】(2005 重庆) -- You know, Bob is a little slow ____ understanding, so... -- So I have to be patient ____ him. A. in; with B. on; with C. in; to D. at; for [考查目标] 同定搭配中介词的选择。 [答案与解析] A be slow in 意为“在……方面反应迟钝”，be patient with 意为“对……有 耐心”。 4. end up with...以……结束 (1) end up with + n. 以……结束 The party ended up with the singing of Auld Lang Syne.
(2) end up as...最后成为…He will end up as a president some day. (3) end up + 地点状语最后(有……结局) If you drive your car like that, you'll end (up) in hospital. 5. “make + 名词” 短语 ① make a noise 吵闹 ② make faces 做鬼脸，做苦脸 ③ make room for 给……腾出地方 ④ make the bed 整理床铺 ⑤ make phone calls 打电话 ⑥ make friends with 交朋友 ⑦ make money 赚钱 ⑧ make use of 利用 ⑨ make a decision 做出决定 ⑩ make a mistake 犯错误 [例句] The boy made a face at his teacher when she turned her back. 老师转身时，男 孩朝老师做了个鬼脸。 Working in the kitchen made the boy into a good cook. 在厨房里干活使男孩成为一位优 秀厨师。 They were moved out to a nearby hotel, to make room for more important persons. 为 了给更重要的人物腾出 地方，他们被搬到了附近的一家旅店。 【考例】 The idea puzzled me so much that I stopped for a few seconds to try to ____. (2003 北京春招) A. make it out B. make it off C. make it up D. make it over [考查目标] 主要考查 make 短语。 [答案与解析] A make out 意为“领悟、弄明白、发现真相” make off 意为“连忙跑掉”； make up 意为“弥补、打扮、组成”；make over 意为“转让、改造”。因为受到迷惑，所以应 该是试图发现真相。 【考例】 -- When shall we start? -- Let's ____ it at 8:30. Is that all right? (2002 北京) A. set B. meet C. make D. take [考查目标] 此题主要考查 make 短语。 [答案与解析] C make it“规定时间”为固定短语。 本句话意思是“把出发的时间定在 8 点半”。 set 意思是“对时间”、“调时间”。 6. make fire 点火 有以下 fire (n.) 短语: be on fire 着火了(表示状态) / catch fire 燃着；着火(表示动作) / play with fire 玩火； 干冒险的事 / Set sth. on fire = set fire to sth. 放火烧…… / make (a) fire 点火；生火 / start (cause) a fire 引起火灾 [注意] fire 作“火灾”“一堆火”解时，为可数名词。 7. a great / good many 许多 (1) a great / good many + 名词复数，中间无“of”。A great many people have seen the film.
(2) a great / good many + of + the / these / those / one's + 名词复数 A great many of the people have seen the film. 8. make yourself at home 别拘束 (1) make yourself at home 别拘束(主人对客人说的委婉语) -- Good evening, Jim. -Good evening, Mary. Come in and make yourself at home. (2) (all) by oneself 独自(没有别人帮助) You can't possibly do it all by yourself. (3) enjoy oneself = have a good time 玩得高兴 Please enjoy yourself while you're spending your holiday in Hawaii. (4) for oneself 亲自; 为自己 The student wants to think it for himself. / One should not live for oneself alone. (5) of oneself 自动地 The door closed of itself suddenly. (6) be oneself 身体或情绪好 I am not myself today. (7) help oneself to + n. / pron. 随便…… Please help yourself to the fish． (8) in oneself 本身 This is not a bad idea in itself. (9) come to oneself 苏醒 The injured man came to him- self in five minutes. (10) between ourselves 私下说的话 All this is between ourselves. 9. the majority of... 大多数的…… (1) a / the majority of + 名词复数，作主语时，谓语动词多用复数。the majority 单独 作主语，谓语动词用单数或复数形式均可。 The majority of people seem to prefer watching games to playing games./ The majority were (was) in favour of the proposal. (2) by a majority of + 数字， 以超过……票的多数 She won the election by a majority of 900 votes. 10. treat … as … 把…看做… The kind lady treated me as her own daughter. 【比较】 表示“认为”的短语还有： regard…as… consider…(as)… think of…as… look on / upon…as… take…for… [注意] 在 consider…as…短语中 as 可省略，其他短语中不可。 [牛刀小试 2] 1. If you are ____ about Australian cities, just read the book written by Dr. Johnson. A. interested B. anxious C. upset D. curious 2. Her son, ____ whom she was so ____, went abroad 10 years ago. A. of; loved B. for; cared C. to; devoted D. on; affected 3. In order to continue to learn by ourselves when we have left school, we must ____ learn how to study in the school now. A. in all B. after all C. above all D. at all 4. -- I am sorry I didn't do a good job. -- Never mind. ____, you have tried your best. A. Above all B. In all C. At all D. After all 5. Since we can't find a bigger apartment, we'll have to ____ what we have. A. hope for the best B. make room for C. make the best of D. lay our hope on (DCCDC)
【句型归纳】 1. I don't enjoy singing, nor do I like computers. 我不喜欢唱歌，也不喜欢电脑。/ Rock music is OK, and so is skiing. 摇滚音乐还可以，滑雪也行。 这两句中 nor 与 so 用于倒装结构。例如：I don't know, nor do I care. 我不知道，也不关 心。so 的常见句型有： (1) so + be / 助动词 / 情态动词 + 主语 (意为“主语也 ……” ) (2) neither / nor + be / 助动词 / 情态动词 + 主语(意为“主语也不……” ) (3) so it is / was with sb / sth 和 so it is / was the same with sb / sth (意为“主语也……” ) (用在前文有两个或以上的从句，而且分句有不同的谓语或既有肯定又有否定以及既有系动 词义有行为动词的情况) (4) so + 主语 + be / 助动词 / 情态动词 (意为“主讲确实如此”)，表示进一步肯定。 (5) 主语 + did + so (意为“主语按照吩咐做了”)。 【考例】 Mary never does any reading in the evening, ____. (2005 全国 III) A. so does John B. John does too C. John doesn't too D. nor does John [考查目标] nor 表示“也不”引导的倒装结构。 [答案与解析] D 由 never 可以判断该句为否定句。 空格处句意为“约翰也没读书”。nor, so, neither 可引起倒装句。 2. Chuck is a businessman who is always so busy that he has little time for his friends. 查克是个生意人，他总是那么忙，几乎没有时间和朋友在一起。 该句中 so...that... 和 such...that... 都能连接结果状讲从句， 但要注意词序不同。 例如： Joan is such a lonely girl that all of us like her. = She is so lovely a girl that we all like her. 常见句型： (1) such + a / an + 形容词 + 单数可数名词 + that clause (2) such + 形容词 + 复数可数名词 + that clause (3) such + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + that clause (4) so + 形容词 + a / an + 单数可数名词 + that clause (5) so + 形容词 / 副词 + that clause (6) so + many / few + 复数可数名词 + that clause (7) so + much / little + 不可数名词 + that clause 注意：① 当 little 不表示数量“少”而表示“小”的意思时，仍然 要用 such。② 当 so + adj. / adv. 或 such + n. 位于句首时，主句需要倒装。 【考例】 So difficult ____ it to live in an English-speaking country that I determined to learn English. (2001 上海) A. I have felt B. have I felt C. I did feel D. did I feel [考查目标] so + adj. 位于句首时，主句倒装。 [答案与解析] D A、C 语序不对，排除。B 时态不对。 3. One day Chuck is on a flight across the Pacific Ocean when suddenly his plane crashes. 一天，查克在飞越太平洋时．他的飞机突然坠毁了。 该句中的“when”表示“正在这时”， 相当于 and just 或 and at that time. 这时不能用 while / as 替换。 常见句型：(1) be about to do sth when... (2) be doing sth when... (3) be on the point of doing sth when...
【考例】We were swimming in the lake ____ suddenly the storm started. (2004 北京 春招) A. when B. while C. until D. before [考查目标] "when" 作连词，表示“正在这时”。 [答案与解析] A 意为“我正在湖中游泳， 突然暴风雨来了。 ”只有 when 才能用于这种句型。 4. He has to learn how to collect water, hunt for food, and make fire. 他不得不学会收 集淡水．寻找食物，生火什么的。 该句中的“how I to collect...”为动词不定式短语作宾语。例如：We must decide which one to buy. 疑问词 which, what, how, when, where 等与小定式构成不定式短语。 【考例】 I've worked with children before, so I knew what ____ in my new job. (NMET 2000) A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects [考查目标] what to do sth 不定式短语作宾语。 [答案与解析] B 该句需要填非谓语动词。排除 A、D。句意为“以前我与孩子在一块儿工作 过。因此我知道我的新工作需要什么。”C 不表示进行，排除 C。 5. In order to survive, Chuck developed a friendship with an unusual friend — a volleyball he called Wilson. 为了生存下去， 查克和一位不寻常的朋友--“排球”建立了友谊， 查克叫他威尔森。 1. 该句中的"in order to"，意思为“为了，以便”，作目的 状语。在句子中作同的状语的常 见句型有五种结构： to do sth / in order to do sth / so as to do sth / in order that clause / so that clause 注意：(1) so as to do sth 不能位于句首。(2) 如果主句与从句的主语一致时，四个结构可 以相互转换。 (3) 在 in order that / so that 引导的从句中， 谓语动词常与 can, could, may, might 等情态动词连用。 【考例】(2005 北京) I'd like to arrive 20 minutes early ____ I can have time for a cup of tea. A. as soon as B. as a result C. in case D. so that [考查目标] 目的状语。 [答案与解析]D as soon as “一…就…”；as a result“结果是”；in case “万一”；so that“以 便，为的是”。句意：“我想提前二十分钟到以便有时间喝杯茶”。 2. 该句子中 volleyball 是作同位语。例如： He advised farmers to choose the best seed-heads, the ones that had the best color. 注意：这种同位语(不是同位语从句)与非限制性定语从句的区别。 【考例】 (NMET 2002) Meeting my uncle after these years was an unforgotten moment, ____ I will always treasure. A. that B. one C. it D. what [考查目标] one 作同位语，指代 a moment。 [答案与解析] B that 不能引导非限制性定语从句， 排除 A； if 不能作同位语， 排除 C； what 既不能引导非限制定语从句，也不能作同位语。可以填 which，这样就成了非限制性定语从 句。 6. For a long time the language in America stayed the same, while the language in England changed. 长期以来，美国英语保持不变，但英国英语变化了。 1. 该句中的“while"用作并列连词．表示前后对比，意为 “然而”。“while"充当连词，还能 引导时间状语从句。 意为“during the time that…”； 引导让步状语从句， 意 为“although…”。
2. 该句中的 "stay" 为系动词。后接表语 (the same)。 除了 stay 外，常见的系动词还有: become, get, turn, grow, go, come, run, fall, keep, stay, remain。 【考例】(NMET 2003) Why don't you put the meat in the fridge? It will ____ fresh for several days. A. be stayed B. stay C. be staying D. have stayed [考查目标] 系动词的用法。 [答案与解析] B 系动词没有被动语态，一般不用进行 时态，排除 A、C；句意不是表示完成，排除 D。系动词表示状态。 7. for the first time 第一次 (1) for the first time 第一次，后面不加从句，在句中作状语 They came to Beijing for the first time. (2) the first time 名词短语，在从句中充当连词，后接时间状语从句，不接 that，when 等连词。有同样用法的短语还有：every time; next time; the last time They liked Beijing the first time they went there. (3) It's / This is the first time that + 从句(用现在完成时)这是……的第一次 It's the first time that I have ever been abroad at all. 8. What is it that...? 是什么……? 强调句的用法： (1) 结构：It is / It was (过去时间) + 被强调部分 + that / who (专指人) + 其他部分 (2) 用法： 除了谓语动词不能强调， 句子的每部分均可强调。 Jim met the student in the street last week. 主语 宾语 地点状语 时间状语 强调主语：It was Jim who / that met the student in the street last week. 强调宾语：It was the student whom / that Jim met in the street last week. 强调地点状语：It was in the street that Jim met the student last week. 强调时间状语：It was last week that Jim met the student in the street. (3) 注意点： 一般疑问句的强调句： Was it Dr Wang who spoke to you just now? 特殊疑问句的强凋句： Who is it that will visit our class? Where is it that he has gone? When was it that she went? not … until … 用于强调句： It was not until then that I realized I was wrong. [牛刀小试 3] 1. -- I would never ever come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible! -____. (2004 广西) A. Nor am I B. Neither would I C. Same with me D. So do I 2. We can't imagine ____ little mice can eat up ____ many crops every year. A. so; so B. such; so C. such; such D. so; so 3. Jasmine was holidaying with her family in a wildlife park ____ she was bitten on the leg by a lion.
A. when B. while C. since D. once 4. It is said in Australia there is more land than the govern- ment knows ____. (NMET 2002) A. it what to do with B. what to do it with C. what to do with it D. to do what with it 5. Roses need special care ___they can live through winter. (2004 天津) A. because B. so that C. even if D. as (BBACB) 【交际速成】 1. Talking about likes and dislikes. 谈论喜欢和不喜欢 -- I enjoy Chinese food very much. -- ____. (03 东北三校) A. Please taste quickly B. Have more, please C. Help yourself D. Eat slowly while it is hot [答案与解析]C 本题主要考查具体语境下“对事物喜好”的表达及应答。A 项不礼貌，B、D 两 项属汉语习惯，C 项符合此时英语语境。 【归纳】英语中常见表达喜欢和不喜欢态度的用语有： (1) This book is very interesting. (2) I like / love the movie (very much). (3)I like / love to play computer games. (4) I like taking photos. (5) I enjoy listening to music. (6) I'm interested in science. My hobbies / interests are... (7) He is fond of music. (8) This song is bad / awful. (9) I don't like the movie very much / at all. (10)I don't enjoy collecting stamps. (11)I hate to do homework. I hate dancing, (12)I'm not into classic music. (13)I think that classic music is terrible / boring. 2. Making apologies 道歉 -- I'm sorry I'm calling you so late. -- ____ Okay. (2003 北京春招) A. This is B. You're C. That's D. I'm [答案与解析] C 本题主要考查英语中道歉及应答用语。A、B、D 三项不符合交际英语的习 惯，故 C 项正确。 【归纳】英语中常见道歉用语有： (1) I'm very sorry. I didn't mean to (hurt your feelings). (2) I'm terribly sorry about that. (3) I'm afraid I've brought you too much trouble. (4) Please excuse me coming late. (5) Please forgive me. (6) Excuse me, please. (7) I beg your pardon.
应答表达有： (1) That's / It's all right. (2) That's / It's OK. (3) Never mind. (4) It doesn't matter. (5) It's nothing. (6) Forget it. (7) Don't worry about that. (8) Don't mention it. 3. Talking about language difficulties in communication 谈论语言交际困难 -- I'm sorry. I can't catch you. ____ -- OK, it's B—L—A—C—K. A. Would you please walk slowly? B. I don't understand you． C. What's the meaning of this word? D. Would you please repeat it more slowly? [答案与解析] D 本题主要考查语言交际困难的功能意念。catch 在整个语境中是“听见，听 清”的意思，A 项错误理解了 catch 在此处的意思，B、C 两项语义不连贯， 故正确答案是 D。 【归纳】英语中常见的谈论语言交际困难的用语有： (1) Pardon? / I beg your pardon. (2) Sorry, I can't follow you. (3) Can you speak more slowly, please? (4 )How do you say...in English.'? (5) I don't know how to say that in English. (6) I don't know the word in English. (7) How do you spell it, please? (8) I'm sorry I only know a little English. (9) Could you repeat that, please? Could you say that again, please? (10) What do you mean by killing time? [牛刀小试 4] 1. -- ____ I didn't hear you clearly. It's too noisy here. -- I was saying that the party was great. A. Repeat. B. Once again. C. Sorry? D. So what? 2. -- Do you like a house with no garden? -- ____. But anyhow, it's better to have one than none. A. Not a bit B. Not a little C. Not really D. Not specially 3. -- I'm sorry for stepping on your foot? -- ____. A. It's OK B. You are welcome C. It's your fault D. Never you mind 4. -- What you said at the meeting hurt me badly!
-- Sorry. But ____. A. I didn't mean it B. I didn't mean to C. I don't mean it D. I don't mean to 5. -- You seem to show interest in cooking. -- ____? On the contrary, I'm tired of it. A. Really B. Pardon C. OK D. What (CCABD) 【精典题例】 1. -- David has made great progress recently. -- ____, and ____. A. So he has; so have you B. So has he; so have you C. So he has; so you have D. So has he; so you have 【解析】 选 A 答句中的 he 指 David， 不倒装。 “So have you” 意为“你也一样(取得了进步)”。 2. Little ____ what others think. A. does he care about B. care he about C. about he eared D. about cared he 【解析】选 A little 为否定副词，置于句首时，句子使用部分倒装。 3. At school, what he enjoys ____ football. A. playing B. to play C. is playing D. played 【解析】选 C what he enjoys 为主语从句，谓语动词为 be，表语为 playing football。不 要误以为 playing 是 enjoy 的宾语而误选 A。 4. At the ____news, all the women present burst out crying. A. unexpecting B. disappointing C. disappointed D. interesting 【解析】 选 B 联系语境， 所有在场的妇女都哭了， 因此为 disappointing"令人失望的(消息)”。 5. He was about to tell me the secret ____ someone patted him on the shoulder. A. as B. until C. while D. when 【解析】选 D "when"表示“就在这时，突然”。 6. The wolf said in a ____ voice and the scholar felt ____. A. frightening; frightened B. frightened; frightened C. frightened; frightening D. frightening; frightening 【解析】选 A frightening“令人害怕”；frightened“感 到害怕”。 7. In our ____ life, English is ____ used. A. everyday; wide B. everyday; widely C. every day; wide D. every day; widely 【解析】选 B everyday“日常的，每天的”；widely“广泛地”。 8. -- Hello, Mary. I've got a girlfriend. -- What's she like? -- ____. A. I don't know B. She's like her mother, not father C. She likes music D. Not had! Quite pretty 【解析】选 D 表外表给人的印象。 9. The fire ____ for half an hour before the fire fighters arrived. A. had put out B. was put out
C. had been out D. had broken out 【解析】选 C be out"火熄灭”，表示状态。 10. It has been suggested that the land ____ equally among the peasants. A. be shared B. should be spared C. saved D. be spent 【解析】选 A suggest 后用虚拟语气。be shared 前可 省略 should。 11. She took ____ in physics and read ____ on the subject. A. interest; as books many as she could B. an interest; as many books as she could C. interested; as many books as she can D. interests; as books as she could 【解析】选 B 根据短语搭配和时态一致可知。 12. -- How's the young man? -- ____. A. He's twenty B. He's a doctor C. He is much better D. He's David 【解析】选 C how is sb. “某人身体如何”。 13. Let Harry play with your toys as well. Clare, you must learn to ____. A. support B. care C. spare D. share 【解析】选 D share“分享”；support“支持”；care“在意”；spare“抽出(时间)。节余”。 14. The new dress looks wonderful on you ____ the collar. A. besides B. except C. beside D. except for 【解析】选 D“美中不足的是领子”，表示部分修正。 15. -- What about your classmate, Susan? -- Our teacher ____ her a good and clever student. A. regards B. believes C. suggests D. considers 【解析】选 D consider as…“认为……是……”，as 可省略。 高一英语各单元知识点总结及重难点解析 Unit3-4 ☆重点句型☆ 1. Instead of spending your vacation on a bus, ... you may want to try hiking. Instead 和 instead 0f 的用法 2. Say "Hi" / "Hello" / "Thanks" to sb. (for me) 问候的句型 3. Is anybody seeing you off? 进行时表将来 4. She struggled and struggled, and could not get on her feet. (= keep struggling) 5. You should not go rafting unless you know... unless 引导条件状语从句，相当于 if... not 6. By staying at..., tourists can help the villagers make money so that they can take care of the fiver and the birds. 目的状语从句 7. She was so surprised that she couldn't move. 结果状语从句 8. Tree after tree went down, cut down by water. 过去分词作状语 9. The next moment, the first wave swept her down, swallowing the garden. 现在分词 作状语 10. However, before she could think twice, the water was upon her. It didn't take long before the building was destroyed. before 的用法
☆重点词汇☆ 1. means n. 方法；途径 2. experience n. 经验 3. equipment n. 设备 4. successful adj. 成功的 5. protect v. 保护 6. handle v. 处理 7. consider v. 考虑 8. benefit n. 利益 9. particular adj. 特别的 10. effect n. 效果 11. combine v. 合并 12. unforgettable adj. 不会忘记的 13. advance v. 前进 14. seize v. 抓住 15. struggle v. 奋斗 16. fear v. & n. 害怕 17. strike v. 敲打 18. destroy v. 毁掉 19. publish v. 出版 20. naughty adj. 调皮的 ☆重点短语☆ 1. get away from 逃离 2. watch / look out 注意，当心 3. go for a hike / go hiking 去徒步旅游 4. as with 正如……一样 5. see off 为某人送行 6. on the other hand 在另一方面 7. take care of 照顾 8. get close / near to 接近，凑近 9. tree after tree 一棵又一棵的树 10. as wall as 也，和……一样(好) 11. protect…from 保护……不受……的伤害 12. be surprised at 因……而吃惊 13. be caught / trapped / struck in 被……困住 14. take place 发生 15. go through 通过，经过；经历(痛苦的事) 16. be upon 临近，逼近 17. hold on to 紧紧抓住 18. refer to 提到，说到；查询(信息) 19. look into 注视……的内部；检查，调查 20. for fear of (doing) sth. 惟恐…… ☆短语闯关☆
下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语， 请你根据汉语在横线上填入一个正确的词， 每个 词 4 分，80 分才能过关，你一定能过关．做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我们就开始吧? l. get ____ from 逃离 away 2. watch ____ 注意，当心 out 3. protect sb / sth ____ 保护／保卫某人(某事物) from 4. see sb ____ 到火车站、飞机场等某处为某人送行 off 5. on the other ____ 另一方面 hand 6. as ____ as 也，还，而且 well 7. ____ place 发生，产生 take 8. ____ fire 失火 on 9. pull sb ____ 把……往上拽 up 10. get ____ one's feet 站立起来；站起身来 on 11. go ____ 通过，经受。仔细检查 through 12. ____ holiday 在度假 on 13. travel ____ 旅行社代理人 agent 14. be ____ 逼近，临近 upon 15. ____ exercise 进行体育锻炼 take 16. ____ "Hi" to sb for / from sb 代某人向某人问候 say 17. come ____ with 提出 up 18. go ____ a hike 去远足 for 19. be caught ____ 受困于……，陷于…… in 20. ____ a second 马上，一会儿 in 21. look ____ 往……里面看，调查 into 22. refer ____ 提到．涉及；参考 to 23. hold ____ 抓住，握住 onto 24. sweep ____ 冲走，刮走 away 25. sweep ____ 冲倒，吹倒 down ☆交际用语☆ 1. Where would you prefer going...? 2. How would you like to go to...? 3. Have a nice / pleasant trip ! 4. Well, I must be off. 5. It's all right． 6. I'm afraid. 7. Come on ! 8. It scares me. 9. Don't worry. 10. First..., next..., then..., finally... ☆单词聚焦☆ 1. advance 的用法 ▲构词：advanced adj. 高等的．先进的，高深的 ▲搭配： ① in advance 在前头，预先，事先 ② in advance of 在……前面；比……进步；超过
③ on the advance (物价)在上涨 【考例】It is said that Miss White had some difficulty in studying the ____ maths. A. improved B. developed C. advanced D. increased [考查目标] 本题考查形容词 advanced 与近义词的区别。 [答案与解析]C “高等数学”的英译是 advanced maths， advanced 意思是“先进的。 高级的”。 2. before 的特殊用法 (1) He had run out of the room before I could stop him.我还没来得及拦住他，他就跑 出了屋子。 (2) Three weeks went by before We knew it. 三周过去了，我们才意识到。(或：时间 不知不觉已过三周了。) (3) It wasn't / didn't take long before he returned.他没过多久就回来了。 It won't be long before we graduate. 不要过多久我们就要毕业了。 3. chance 的用法 ▲搭配： ① by any chance 万一，碰巧，或许 ② by chance 偶然，意外地 ③ take a / one's chance 冒一冒险，碰碰运气，利用一下机会 【考例 6】(2005 南京模拟)Most of the ___are in seasonal work, mainly connected with tourism and agriculture. A. work B. luck C. chances D. services [考查目标] chance 的词义。 [答案与解析] C chance 在本句的词义是“机会”。 4. consider v. (1) 考虑 A) consider + n. / doing I consider going abroad. B) consider + 疑问词 + to do You have to consider what to do next. (2) 认为 A) consider + n. (+as / to be) + n. / adj. I consider Mary as / to be my best friend. They considered Paris the brain and heart of the country. B) consider + n. + to have done I consider him to have acted disgracefully. 除了 consider…as…表认为外，还有 regard…as …，look on…as…，take…as…，think of…as… 5. cost 的用法 ▲ 构词：costly adj. 昂贵的，贵重的 ▲ 搭配： ① cost sb. sth. 花费某人(多少钱)；让某人付出(代价)／牺牲…… ② at all costs 不惜任何代价．无论如何 ③ at any cost 不惜任何代价，无论如何 ④ at cost (price) 按成本价格，按原价 ⑤ at the cost of 以……为代价，用……换来的；丧失；牺牲
【考例】They wondered how much this kind of car would ____ them. A. pay B. spend C. cost D. waste [考查目标] 本题考查 cost 和它的几个近义词的区别。 [答案与解析] C cost 的意思是“耗费”，主语是指物的 名词．而 pay 和 spend 等的主语是指人的名词。 6. effect n. 效果；作用 have an effect on sth. His words had a great pushing effect on his students. (1) be of no effect 无效 (2) come into effect 开始生效；开始实行 [比较] affect vt. 影响 The climate affected the amount of the rainfall. 7. experience 的用法 ▲构词: experienced adj. 有经验的，熟练的 ▲搭配: ① by experience 凭经验；从经验中 ② from experience 凭经验；从经验中 ③ gain experience in… 获得……经验 ④ be experienced in… 某方面有经验 ▲友情提示: experience 这个词作为可数名词用时，解释为“经历”，作为不可数名词用时解 释为“经验”。 【考例】 (2005 山西模拟) ____teaches that he was right. Good friendship is just not easily formed. A. Knowledge B. Teachers C. Experience D. Parents [考查目标] experience 的意思。 [答案与解析] C experience 常为不可数名词，意思是“经验”。 8. fear n. & vt. (1) n. 恐惧 (多作不可数名词) His face was growing pale with fear. 忧虑；担心的事(可数) There is no reason for your fears. for fear of 由于怕……，以防 He left an hour earlier for fear of missing his train. for fear (that) 惟恐；怕的是；以防 She worried for fear that the child would be hurt. in fear of 害怕；担心 The thief was in fear of the police. (2) v. 恐惧；害怕，接 n. / pron. Cats fear big dogs. 恐惧；害怕，接 to do Don't fear to tell the truth. 恐怕；担心，接从句 She feared that she might not find him in his room. ▲构词： fearful adj. 可怕的，严重的； 惧怕的，胆怯的；担心的， 忧虑的 fearless adj. 不 怕的，大胆的，勇敢的，无畏的
▲搭配： ① be in fear (of) (为……而)提心吊胆 ② for fear of 因为怕；以免，怕的是 ③ for fear that-clause 生怕；为了防止(某事发生) ④ have a fear that-clause 担心／怕(发生某事) ⑤ with fear 吓得，怕得 ⑥ fear (vi.) for... 担心／忧虑…… 【考例】(2004 江苏)He got to the station early, ____ missing his train. A. in case of B. instead of C. for fear of D. in search [考查目标] fear 构成的短语的用法和意思。 [答案与解析]C for fear of 常在句中作状语，意思是 “怕的是……。担心……”。 9. fun n. 高兴；乐趣；有趣的人或事 (1) for fun 为了高兴；为着好玩 I only did it for fun. (2) make fun of 开……的玩笑；取笑 It is wrong to make fun of a cripple. [比较] (1) laugh at 笑(某人)；嘲笑 It's unkind to laugh at a person who is in trouble. (2) play a joke on 开(某人的)玩笑 10. means n. 手段；办法 (1) by means of 用……；依靠…… The water may be carried by means of a pipe. (2) by all means 一定；务必；(表示同意)当然可以，没问题：务必，无论如何，千方百 计地 Try by all / every means to persuade him to come. (3) by no means 完全不是；一点也不；决不 This is by no means the first time you have been late. 还有： by this means 用这种方法； by any means 用一切可能的方法或手段 【考例】 (MET 1991)Students sometimes support them- selves by ____ of evening job. A. ways B. offers C. means D．helps [考查目标] by means of 短语的意思。 [答案与解析] C by means of 的意思是“通过某种手段”。 11. normal adj. 正常的；正规的 the normal temperature, normal behavior (1) regular 规则的；有规律的 keep regular hours 生活有规律；按时作息 (2) common 普通的；常见的 Tom is a common name in Britain. 共有的；共同的 have a common interest 有着共同爱好 (3) usual 惯常的；惯例的 It's usual with him to go to the office on foot. (4) ordinary 平凡的；普通的 in ordinary dress
12. once 的用法 ▲ 搭配： ① all at once 突然；同时 ② at once 立刻，马上；同时 ③ (every) once in a while 偶尔，有时，间或 ④ for this once (= for once，just for once) 就这一次； 破例一回 ⑤ more than once 不止一次，多次 ⑥ not once 一次也不 ⑦ once again / more 再一次 ⑧once and again 一再，再三 ⑨ once or twice 一两次；有时，偶尔 ⑩ once too often 又(多了)一次 ?once upon a time 从前 【考例】(2004 上海) ____ we have learned something, additional learning increases the length of time we will remember it. A. Before B. Once C. Until D. Unless [考查目标] 连词 once 的用法和词义。 [答案与解析] B once 在作连词使用时意思是“一旦”。 13. prefer v. 宁愿；更喜欢 (1) prefer + n. / pron. The boy preferred a detective story. (2) prefer + v. -ing Do you prefer living abroad? (3) prefer + to do She prefers to live among the working people. (4) prefer sb. to do sth. She preferred him to stay at home. (5) prefer + n. / pron. / doing + to + n. / pron. / doing 喜欢……而不喜欢 I prefer the town to the country. / While he was in the office he preferred doing something to doing nothing. (6) prefer to do...rather than do = would rather do ... than do... 宁愿……而不愿 I prefer to walk there rather than go by bus. (7) prefer + 从句(谓语动词用 should do，should 可省略) She preferred that he should do it in the kitchen. 14. protect 的用法 ▲ 构词：protection n. 保护(者/物)，防御 ▲ 搭配：protect sb from / against 防止……遭受……；使……免于，保护……使不受 【考例】 (MET 1992) Clarke was greatly admired at the club for the successful ____. A. self-satisfaction B. self-protection C. self-respect D. self-service [考查目标] protect 及其派生词的词义。 [答案与解析]B self-protection 是名词，意思是“自我保护”。 15. separate 的用法 ▲ 构词：separation n. [U]分开，分离
▲ 搭配： ① separate A from B 把 A 和 B 分开 ② A is separated from B by… A 和 B 为……所分开／阻隔 ③ separate sth (up) into… 把……分成(几分) ▲辨析：separate; divide; part 都含“分开”的意思。 separate 指 “把原来在一起的人或物分开 ” 。例如 : Separate those two boys who are fighting, will you? (你)把那两个打架的孩子拉开，好吗? divide 指“施加外力或自然地把某人或某物由整体分成若干部分”。 part 指“把密切相关的人或物分开”，还有“分手”之意。 【考例】(NMET 2001)As we joined the big crowd I got ____ from my friends. A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed [考查目标] 动词 separate 的词义。 [答案与解析] A separated 和 get 搭配有被动意义，表 示“被隔开；被分隔”。 [牛刀小试 1] 用所给单词的适当形式填空： (advance, means, cost, protect, fear, separate) 1. The teacher improved the students' English by ____ of dictation and recitation. (means) 2. All the goods ___me almost half a million dollars. (cost) 3. We must ____ the wild animals from the hunting. (protect) 4. Every baby should be ____ after he is horn. (separated) 5. None of them ____ death when the enemy came into the village. (feared) 6. There are too many people, so you should have bought a ticket in ____. (advance) ☆词语比较☆ 1. wear, put on, have on, dress, be in, try on (1) wear v. 穿着； 戴； 蓄须(发)； 磨损； (脸容)呈现， 显出 He is wearing an overcoat today. * wear out (把) 穿破； (把) 用坏； (使) 疲乏； (使) 耗尽 I have worn out my shoes. / My patience wore (was worn) out. (2) put on 穿上；戴上(侧重穿着的动作) Put on your sweater, otherwise you will feel cold. (3) dress vt. 给……穿衣服 n. 衣服；连衣裙 dress sb. (in sth.) 或 be dressed (in sth.) 注意：穿的衣服接在 in 之后。Mother dressed her baby and then they went downstairs. (4) have on 表示穿着的状态，注意不能用进行时。 At the Spring Festival, all children have on new clothes. (5) be in 表示穿着的状态 There was a girl in red. (6) try on 试穿 Mother was trying on a new dress. 2. strike, hit, beat (1) hit vt. ① 打；敲；击；击中；射中 He hit a ball over the fence. / The stone hit him on the head. ② 使……受到打击 The bad news hit every one hard. (2) beat vt. & vi.
① 连续有节奏地打；敲 The rain heat against the window. ② (心)跳动 His heart had stopped beating. ③ (鸟翼) 扑动 The bird beat its wings rapidly as it flew on. ④ 打败；打赢；取胜 Our champion can beat all runners in the country. (3) strike vt. & vi. ① 打；敲；击；砍；打中；击中 He struck me with his fist. The house was struck by lightning. ② 发起进攻；袭击 He moved away as the animal struck. ③ 撞；触(礁) His head struck the table as he fell. ④ 擦(火柴) I struck a match and held it to his cigarette. ⑤ (某种想法) 忽然出现；忽然想起，相当于 occur to。 A happy thought struck her. ⑥ 给人深刻印象(常用于被动语态) I was struck by her beauty. ⑦ 罢工 They are striking for higher pay. ⑧ (钟)敲(响) We waited for the clock to strike six. 3. complete, finish complete 可作形容词，表示“彻底的；全面的”。 complete 与 finish 表示“完成”时的区别。 (1) complete 作及物动词，只接 n. 或 pron.，常用于完成预定的任务，工程建设等 The railway is not completed yet. (2) finish vi. / vt. 指完成，结束一件事情；可接 n. 或 doing。如：finish one's homework / middle school / writing the book ☆短语归纳☆ 1. cut down (1) 砍倒 If you cut down all the trees you will rain the land. (2) 减少；削减 I have decided to cut down my smoking. 2.含 get 的短语 ① get back 回来，恢复，送回 ② get off 下来，动身，起飞 ③ get up 起床，站起来 ④ get on 上(车) ⑤ get on / along with 与某人相处．某事的进展 ⑥ get together 聚首，碰头 ⑦ get away from 逃离 ⑧ get on one's feet 站起来 ⑨ get down 下来 ⑩ get on well with 与……相处融洽 ?get married 结婚 ?get to 到达 ?get through 通过，接通
?get down to 开始着手做某事 ?get across (使)通过 ?get(a)round 传开，说服 ?get in 进入。收获 ?get out 出去，逃脱 [例句]How are you getting along with your business? 生意进展如何? / If you take Mary out for a drive you must promise to get her back for her music lesson. 如果你带 玛丽去兜风的话， 你必须答应带她回来上音乐课。 / I can't get my boots off, for they are too tight. 我脱不掉靴子， 它太紧了。 / We all try to get together at least once a year at Christmas time. 在圣诞期间我们尽量一年至少聚会一次。/ When one has business on hand it is hard to get away from home. 如果一个人手头有事，离开家很难。 【考例】(2004 辽宁) The final examination is coming up soon. It's time for us to ____ our studies． A. get down to B. get out C. get back for D. get over [考查目标] 此题主要考查 get 短语。 [答案与解析]A get down to 意为“开始着手做某事”； get out 意为“离开， 摆脱”； get back for 意为“回去拿”；get over 意为“克服，渡过”。本句话意思是：期末考试就要到了，我们 该开始学习了。 【考例】(NMET 1993)Readers can ____ quite well without knowing the exact meaning of each word. A. get over B. get in C. get along D. get through [考查目标]此题主要考查 get 短语。 [答案与解析]C get over 意为“痊愈， 克服”； get in 意为“插话”； get along 意为“进展． 继 续”；gel through 意为“接通。办完”。本句话意思是：读者不必准确知道每个词的意思就能 继续下去。 3. get away (from) (1) 摆脱 Ways must be found to get away from poverty. (2)走开；离开 She didn't get away until nine last night. (3)逃走，使离开 The bank robbers used a stolen car to get away. (4)拿走 Get all thee party dishes away! 4. get close to (1) close adj. 靠近；接近 The church is close to the shops. 亲密；密切 Are you a close friend of theirs? (2) close adv. 靠近；接近 He was standing close to the door. (3) close v. 关上；关闭(不开发)；结束 She closed her eyes. / Her eyes closed. (闭上) (4 ) closely adv. 紧密地；仔细地；密切地 He got closely in touch with the magazines of today. The little baby was closely looked after by her. [比较] (1) close 与 closely 作副词时，close 含具体之意，closely 含抽象之意。 (2) 类似的词组有 high (高) -- highly (高度地)， deep (深深地) -- deeply (深入地)， wide (很开，宽) -- widely (广 泛地)，low (低的)-- lowly (低贱的) (作形容词)
5. hand in 交上去(给老师或上级)；交来(hand v.) Each student has to hand in a composition once a week. [比较] (1) hand down 传下来；传给 Our father handed down these customs to us. (2) hand on…to…传给，传递 They will hand the photograph to those who have not seen it. (3) hand out 发给大家；散发 The teacher handed out the books at the beginning of the lesson． 6. instead of 代替…… (1) instead of + n. / pron. Give me the red one instead 0f the green one. (2) instead of + doing We walked down the stairs instead of taking the elevator. (3) instead of + 介词短语 He studies in the evening instead of during the day. [比较] (1) instead adv. 作为替代 (……而)，代替 If Harry is not well enough to go with you, take me instead. (2) rather than 而不是，与其……宁愿 He ran rather than walked. (3) in place of 代替，……而不用 The Chinese use chopsticks in place of knives and forks. 7. 含 take 的短语 ① take a picture 照相，拍照 ② take a taxi / bus, etc. 打的(坐公交车等) ③ take away 拿走，夺取，使离去 ④ take care of 小心，照料，保管 ⑤ take off 脱，去掉，取消，起飞 ⑥ take out 拿出，带……出去 ⑦ take one's place 就坐，坐某人的座位，代替某人的位置 ⑧ take place 发生，产生 ⑨ take exercise 做运动 ⑩ take a seat 坐下 ?take turns 轮流 ?take an active part in 积极参加 ?take a message 捎口信 ?take on 从事，呈现 ?take the place of 取代，代替 ?take apart 拆开 ?take down 拿下，记下 ?take...for... 误认为…… ?take in 吸收，接纳 ?take up 拿起．从事．占据 [例句] Father was convinced that Peter was unhappy at boarding school, and made arrangements to take him away. 父亲确信彼得在寄宿学校不开心，决定把他带走。/ Will
you lake care of buying the wine for tonight's party? 你负责为今晚的晚会买酒水好吗? / The boys got into the car and took off for the drug store. 男孩们进到车里，开车去 了药店。/ He took my place in the queue so that I could go and get something to eat. 他替我排好了队，以便我能够回 去弄点儿吃的。 8. used to (1) used to do sth. 过去常常……(现在已不如此) We used to grow beautiful roses. 注意：否定句和疑问句有两种 You usedn’t to make that mistake. She didn't use(d) to do it, did she? You used to smoke a pipe, didn't you? / use(d) n't you? (2) be / get / become used to + n. / doing 习惯于 I have always been used to hard work. He got used to living in the country. (3) be used to do 被用来做…… This knife is used to cut bread. 表示“过去常常……”时，used to 与 would 区别： (1) would 只强调“过去常常……”，used to 说明现在不是如此。 The old woman would sit there for hours doing nothing. (2) would 只接行为动词， used to 可接行为动词和表状态的词。 如： be, like, know, have。 There used to be a temple at the foot of the mountain. 9. watch out 当心；注意 You'll be cheated if you don't watch out. (1) watch out for = look out for 提防；当心 You must always watch out for the traffic here! (2) watch over 照看；看守；负责 The mother bird is watching over her young. 10. 含“动词 + out”短语 ① come out 出来，出版，传出 ② go out 出去，熄灭，不时兴 ③ look out 当心，注意 ④ take out 拿出，取出，带……出去 ⑤ rush out 冲出去，匆忙大量生产 ⑥ try out 尝试，试验 ⑦ watch out 小心 ⑧ wear out 穿破，用坏，(使)疲乏，消磨 ⑨ find out 找出，查出 ⑩ make out 填写，完成．设法应付 ?get out 出去，逃离，泄露，公布 ?pick out 看出，选出 ?think out 想出 ?give out 发出，筋疲力尽 ?set out 出发，陈述
[例句]Please go out and tell the children to make less noise. 请出去告诉孩子们不要吵 闹。/ These bicycles have been rushed out and not up to our usual standard. 这些自行 车匆忙大量生产，没有达到我们的正常标准。/ Watch out. The train is coming. 小心，火 车来了。/ Your will wear out your patience in time, my friend. 朋友，最终我们会没有耐 心的。 【考例】(2005 湖北) This picture was taken a long time ago. I wonder if you can ____ my father. A. find out B. pick out C. look out D. speak out [考查目标]此题主要考查 out 构成的短语意思区别。 [答案与解析]B pick out 意为“挑选，辨别出”；find out 意为“找出．发现”；look out 意为 “留神，注意”： speak out 意为“大声说出”。 [牛刀小试 2] 请根据句意，选用所给短语的适当形式填空： (get away，take up，take on，think out，get down to) 1. -- Shall we set off right now? -- Sorry. I'm too busy to ____ for the moment. (get away) 2. The final examination is coming: you really must ____ your studies. (get down) 3. The manager doesn't have much free time as his work ____ nearly all his spare time. (takes up) 4. We also shared a number of qualities which we fell were in our favor when we ____ the task. (took on) 5. He might have ___his idea about the art exhibition much better, if he had planned what he wanted to say. (thought out) ☆句型归纳☆ 1. You shouldn't go rafting unless you know how to swim, and you should always wear a life jacket. 除非你会游泳，而且要一直穿着救生衣，否则就不应该去做漂流运动。 该句中的 unless 引导状语从句。例如：One can't learn a foreign language well unless he studies hard. unless 引导的条件状语从句，一般可以与 if...not...互换。还要注意 unless 引导的从句经常 可以省略。 【考例】(200l 北京春招)The men will have to wait all day ____ the doctor works faster. A. if B. unless C. whether D. that [考查目标]状语从句。 [答案与解析]B 句子意思是“如果医生不快点工作， 这些人将不得不等一整天。”应该选 unless。 2. Eco-travel is a way to find out what can be done to help animals and plants as well as people. 生态游可以找到既帮助别人．又帮助动植物的途径。 该句中的 as well as 是连词，连接两个并列成分。例如: He can speak German as well as French. 常见的用法: 1. well 是副词，意思是“好，优秀”，as well as 是形容词 同级比较结构。 2. as well as 是固定短语，意思是“和”，相当于"not only … but also..."。
3. as well as 连接两个并列成分作主语时，句子的谓语动词应该与前面那个名词或代词的人 称或数保持一致。 4. as well as 还可当作复杂介词用，意思是“除了……之外，还有”；相当于"besides，apart from"。 5. as well，是副词短语，意思是“也”，相当于“too / also”常位于句尾，与 too 位置相当。 6. may / might as well do sth 表示“还是……的好”。 【考例】(NMET 1994) John plays football ____, if not better than David. A. as well B. as well as C. so well D. so well as [考查目标] as well as 连接比较状语从句。 [答案与解析]B 该句中 if not better than 相当于插入语，起干扰作用，如果不予考虑， 原句就变成了同级比较结构 "John plays football as well as David"。 3. Before she could move，she heard a loud noise. 她还没有来得及动弹，就听见很响的 声音。 However, before she could think twice, the water was upon her. 但还没有回过身来， 洪水便逼近了她。 该两句中的 before 用作连词， 后接时间状语从句。 before 用作连词， 接时间状语从句时， 表示“在……之前”。 但在不同的语境中， 往往有比较灵活的译法。 例如: He knocked me down before he saw me. 他差一点把我撞倒，才看到我。 【考例】(2005 广东) The American Civil War lasted four years the North won in the end. A. after B. before C. when D. then [考查目标] 时间状语从句的引导词选择。 [答案与解析]B before 表示“直到……”。 4. Tree after tree went down, cut down by the water, which must have been three meters deep. 洪水想必深达三米，树一棵接一棵地倒了，被洪水冲断了。 该句中的 must have been 表示推测。例如：You look so tired. You must have stayed up last night. 情态动词 may，might，most．can，could 常用来表示推测。may，might，must 多用在 肯定句中，can，could 多用在否定句和疑问句中。may，might，must，can，could 后接 动词原形表示对现在的推测；may，might，must，can，could 后接 have done。表示对过 去的推测。例如： You may be a professor. / She must have met a fairy. 【考例】(2005 辽宁)This cake is very sweet. You ____ a lot of sugar in it. A. should put B. could have put C. might put D. must have put [考查目标] 情态动词表示推测。 [答案与解析] D 前文说蛋糕很甜，由此可知一定是糖 放多了。对于过去的动作的推测应使用 have done 的 结构，所以应在 B、D 之间做选择，又因为 could have done 表示本可以做而没有做，所以选择 D。 5. ... she heard a loud noise，which grew to a terrible roar. ……她听见了很响的声音，接 着就变成了可怕的隆隆轰鸣声。 该句中的 which 引导非限制性定语从句。例如：He bought some reference books, which were all about science. 他买了许多的参考资料．都是有关理科的。
which 作为关系代词． 既可以引导限制性定语从句，也可以引导非限制性定语从句。例如： The train which left for Beijing pulled in on time. 前往北京的火车按时进站了。His dog, which was now very old, became ill and died.他的狗，现在老了，生病死了。 【考例】(2005 浙江) Jim passed the driving test, ____ surprised everybody in the office. A. which B. that C. this D. it [考查目标]非限制性定语从句。 [答案与解析]A which 引导非限制性定语从句。指代 前面整个句子。that 不能引导非限制性定语从句。 ☆句型诠释☆ 现在进行时的用法(is / am / are + doing) 1. 表示现在 (说话的瞬间 )正在进行或发生的动作。 Look! The monkey is climbing the banana tree. 2. 表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。 (说话时动作不一定正在进行。) We are preparing for the meeting to be held next Friday now. 3. 表示说话人现在对主语的行为表示赞叹、惊讶、厌恶等。 ( 常与 always, constantly, continually, all the time, forever 等副词连用)， 表反复的动作。 He is always think- ing of others. (表赞许) She is always asking the same question. (表厌恶) You are always changing your mind. (表抱怨) 4. 表示在最近计划或安排要进行的动作。常用于 go, come, leave, start, arrive, return, work, stay 等表移动、方向的动词。He is starting the work in a few minutes. / He is leaving for Beijing tomorrow morning. [注意] 1. 不用进行时的词有: (1) 系动词: feel, sound, smell, taste, look, appear, seem, remain, prove 等。 (2) 表结果的感官动词: see, notice, hear 等。 (3) 非延续性的动词，此动作开始即是结束：enter, accept, receive 等。 (4) 表心理状态，存在状态，拥有的动词：love, like, hate, care, dislike, respect, prefer, know, understand, forget, remember, believe, want, wish, hope, mind, agree, belong to, depend on, own, have 等。 2. 用进行时的特殊词有系动词 get, turn, grow, become, go, come, fall 等表由一种状态转 入另一种状态时，用进行时表示渐近。Today, many rivers that were polluted are getting cleaner and cleaner. 当今，许多过去遭污染的河流又变得越来越清澈了。 [比较] 现在进行时表将来的用法与一般将来时的区别： (1) 现在进行时表近期的，事先已经计划安排好的 -- How are you getting to the airport? -- By taxi. Bob is coming with me to the airport. (2) will do 和 shall do ① 表客观将来。shall 用于第一人称，will 用于第一、 二、三人称。I will / shall finish middle school next month. ② 表有科学根据的预测。The weather report says it will rain tomorrow. ③ 表客观必然。Man will make mistakes. (3) be going to
① 表现在打算在近期或将来要做某事。I'm going to finish my homework tonight. ② 表根据已有迹象的预测。It's so dark outside, I think it's going to rain. ③ be going to 不与 come, go 连用， 而用 be coming, be going 形式。 Mary is coming here this evening. [注意] 表计划、安排、规定要做的事，用“be + to do”。此外，表示按时刻表运行的动作常用一般 现在时表将来。The meeting is to be held at 9:00 a. m. / Our plane leaves at 6:00 a. m. . [牛刀小试 3] 1. ____ you call me to say you're not coming, I'll see you at the theatre. (2004 吉林) A. Though B. Whether C. Until D. Unless 2. Now that you've got a chance, you ____ make full use of it. (NMET 1999) A. had better to B. might as well C. might as well as D. would rather 3. It was evening ____ we reached the little town of Winchester. (2004 天津) A. that B. until C. since D. before 4. There is no light in the dormitory. They must have gone to the lecture, ____? (2004 上海春招) A. didn't they B. don't they C. mustn't they D. haven't they 5. The result of the experiment was very good, ____ we hadn't expected. (2000 北 京春招) A. when B. that C. which D. what DBDDC ☆交际速成☆ 【考点 1】Talking about intentions and plans. 谈论意愿和打算 (2004 江苏) -- How long are you staying? -- I don't know. ____. A. That's OK B. Never mind C. It depends D. It doesn't matter [答案与解析]C 本题考查具体语境下被询问打算时的应答。A 项用于回答感谢和道歉，B、 D 两项用于回答道歉，C 项表示“看情况而定”。 【归纳】英语中常见表达意愿和打算的用语有： ① I'll go with you. ② I'm going to see my head teacher this afternoon. ③ I'd like to make a phone call to her after class. ④ I want / hope to find an English pen friend. ⑤ I plan to go to Hangzhou this summer. ⑥ We are ready to move to a new house. ⑦ Bill intends to spend his vocation in California. ⑧ I'm thinking of driving to Beijing. ⑨ Where would you prefer going...? ⑩ How would you like to go to...? ?When are you going off to...? ?How are you going to...? 【考点 2】Expressing good wishes 祝愿
(2005 广东) Tom: Mike, our team will play against the Rockets this weekend. I'm sure we will win. Mike: ____! A. Congratulations B. Cheers C. Best wishes D. Good luck [答案与解析]D 考查祝愿用语。在比赛前表示祝愿的话用 Good luck。Congratulations 用 于成功之后的祝贺。Cheers 意为“干杯”。Best wishes 多用于书面语，表示“万事如意”的意 思。 【归纳】英语中常见表达祝愿的用语有： ① Have a good day / time! ② Have a good journey / trip! ③ Good luck! ④ Enjoy yourself! ⑤ Best wishes to you! ⑥ Happy New Year! ⑦ Happy birthday! ⑧ Merry Christmas! 应答语有： ① Thank you. ② You, too. ③ The same to you. 【考点 3】Describing emotions 描述人物的情感 (2001 上海春招) -- I'm afraid I can't finish the book within this week. -- ____. A. Please go ahead B. That's all right C. Not at all D. Take your time [答案与解析]D 本题考查时表示遗憾情感的应答。A 项表示“请吧，说吧”，用于回答许可 或让对方先行。B、C 两项是感谢或道歉的答语，D 项表示“别着急，慢慢来”，符合语境。 【归纳】中学英语中描述人物情感的用语有： ① (恐惧) Help! / How terrible! / I'm afraid of... / I'm afraid to... / You scared me! / It scares me! ② (高兴) (It's) well done! / How wonderful! / That's great! / I'm pleased to... ③ (惊奇) Really! / Oh dear! / Is that so? / What a surprise! / How surprising! ④ (忧虑) What's wrong? / what's the matter? / Anything wrong? / What should we do? ⑤ (安慰)There, there. / Don't be afraid. ／Don't worry. / It's (quite) all right. / It'll be OK / all right. ⑥ (满意) Good! / Well done! ／ Perfect! / That's fine. / That's better. ⑦ (遗憾) I'm so sorry! / It's a great pity! / What a shame! / That's too bad! ⑧ (同情) I'm so sorry! / I'm so sorry (about your illness). / I'm sorry to hear that. ⑨ (愤怒) Damn! / How annoying! ⑩ (鼓励) Well done! / Come on! / Keep trying. / You can do it! [牛刀小试 4]
1. -- I'd like to take a week's holiday. -- ____, we're too busy. A. Don't worry B. Don't mention it C. Forget it D. Pardon me 2. -- I was so sure that our experiment was going to succeed, but something went wrong at the last moment. -- ____, but don't give it up. A. Find out the reason B. Never mind C. I'm sorry to hear that D. You don't 'mean that 3. -- I just heard that the tickets for tonight's show have been sold out. -- Oh no! ____. A. I was looking forward to that B. It doesn't matter C. I knew it already D. It's not at all interesting 4. -- We are going to travel to Italy. -- ____. A. Good bye B. Go ahead C. I like to go, too D. Have a good time 5. -- I'd rather have some tea, if you don't mind. -- ____. A. Thank you very much B. Yes, I like so C. No, it's nothing D. Of course, anything you want CCADD ☆精典题例☆ 1. Rainforests ___ and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the near future. (NMET 2002 春上海) A. cut B. are cut C. are being cut D. had been cut 【解析】选 C 本题是在语境中考查现在进行时的被动语态。本句意为“雨林以这样的速度 被砍伐和焚烧， 会导致它在不久的将来从地球上消失。 ”体会语境和句意便知此处选择 C 项， 表示现阶段在进行的动作。 2. Twenty-three hours has passed after the explosion in the mine, but rescue efforts to recover the missing ____ carried out. A. are still being B. have already been C. are always D. will soon be 【解析】选 A 本句意为“矿井爆炸已过 23 小时了，但对失踪人员的搜索还在进行中。” 3. -- When are you leaving? -- My plane ____ at 10:45. A. takes off B. took off C. is about to take off D. will take off 【解析】选 A 飞机是按时刻表运行的。 4. -- Excuse me, what time is it now? -- Sorry, my watch ____. It ____ at the shop. A. isn't working; is being repaired B. doesn't work; is being repaired C. isn't working; is repaired D. doesn't work; is repaired 【解析】选 B doesn't work 说明“手表不工作”的状态，而不只是现在才坏了。后句意为“手
表正在商店里修理”，故应用 is being repaired。 5. John, who is considered ____ a warm-hearted man, is considering ____ his neighbor out of trouble. A. to be; to help B. to be; helping C. being; to help D. being; helping 【解析】选 B be considered to be “被认为是……”；consider doing “考虑做某事”。 6. He made a mistake, but then he corrected the situation ____ it got worse. A. until B. when C. before D. as 【解析】选 C 意思是“在事情还未变得更糟之前及 时纠正错误”。 7. -- There is something wrong with my bike. -- It doesn't matter. I ____ lend you mine. A. am to B. am going to C. was going to D. will 【解析】 选 D be to 表示按计划安排将来的动作， be going to 表示最近打算做某事， will 在 此是情态动词，表示“意志；意愿”。如：I will tell you all about it. 8. Children at the beginning of this century ____ a lot and ____ themselves greatly even without television. A. used to read; enjoying B. used to read; enjoyed C. were used to reading; enjoy D. were used to read; enjoying 【解析】选 B 前后时态要保持一致。 高一英语各单元知识点总结及重难点解析 Unit5-6 ☆重点句型☆ 1. While still a student, she played roles in many plays. 连词 + 名词做时间状语 2. When asked about the secret of his success, Steven Spielberg said… 连词+过去 分词做时间状语 3. When drinking to someone's health, you raise your glasses. 连词 + 现在分词做 时间状语 4. It's a custom in China to have some tea before the meal is served. It 做形式 主语 5. Many people like this film not just because..., but also because... 并列连词 6. Having good table manners means knowing... 动名词做主宾语 ☆重点词汇☆ 1. comment v. 评论 2. marry v. 结婚 3. create v. 创造 4. attack v. 进攻 5. cruelty n. 残酷 6. escape v. 逃跑 7. advice n. 忠告；建议 8. afford v. 花得起(钱、时间)
9. encourage v. 鼓励 10. research n. 研究 11. interrupt v. 打断；打扰 12. apologize v. 道歉 13. pray v. 请求；祈祷 14. forgive v. 原谅；宽恕 15. match v. 相配；相适应 16. manners n. 礼貌 17. impression n. 印象 18. live adj. & adv. 活的；直播的(地) 19. custom n. 习惯；风俗 20. introduce vt. 介绍；引进 ☆重点短语☆ 1. take off 脱掉；起飞；成功 2. go wrong 出错；出问题 3. can't help doing 情不自禁做某事 4. take one's place 代替某人 5. run after 追逐；追踪 6. win a prize 获奖 7. think highly of 赞扬……；对……高度评价 8. call for 需要；索取 9. in all 总共 10. play a role 扮演角色(作用) 11. make money 挣钱 12. win over 争取过来 13. work on 从事，致力于 14. owe success to 把成功归功于某人 15. start with 以……开始 16. run away from school 逃学 17. on the air 正在播出的 18. do research 进行调查 19. speed up 加速 20. follow the fashion 追随时尚 ☆短语闯关☆ 下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语，请你根据 汉语在横线上填入一个正确的词，每个词 4 分，80 分才 能过关。你一定能过关，做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我 们就开始吧? l. ____ screen 银幕，电影(业) 2. take ____ 成功；成名；脱掉(衣服)；(飞机)起飞 3. ____ wrong 走错路；误入歧途；不对头；出毛病 4. owe sth ____ sb 把……归功于某人 5. ____ all 总共；总之
6. stay ____ 不在家，外出 7. ____ school 小学 8. lock sb ____ 将某人锁于某处不得进出；将某人监禁起来 9. run ____ 追赶 10. bring sb ____ 送回某人 11. ____ the air 正在播出的 12. think highly ____ 对……高度评价 13. leave ____ 省去；遗漏；不考虑 14. stare ____ 盯着 15. make ____ about sb 以某人为笑柄 16. drink (a toast) ____ 为……祝酒；为……干杯 17. win ____ 战胜 18. ____ comments on 对……加以评论 19. look sb ____ 看望，拜访某人 20. ____ a role in 在……中扮演角色；在……方面起作用 21. ____ a prize 获奖 22. to sb for (doing) sth 因某事向某人道歉 23. make a good impression ____ 给……留下好印象 24. ____ silent 保持沉默 25. pay a visit ____ 拜访 ☆交际用语☆ 1. What do you think has happened? 2. What do you know about…? 3. How do you like…? / What do you think of…? / What db you feel...? 4. May I interrupt you for a moment? 5. Excuse me / Forgive me for... / I apologize for… 6. I'm (very / so / terribly) sorry. It's all my fault. 7. That's all right. / That's OK. / No problem. 8. I wish you all the best. 9. I'm sorry. I didn't mean to... 10. Let's drink (a toast) to...! ☆单词聚焦☆ 1. afford (1) (和 can，could，be able to 连用) 有 (时间、经济等) 条件(做某事) + to do We can't afford to pay such a price. afford + n. / pron. (出得起；买得起等) They donot consider whether they can afford it or not. (2) 经得起 (做某事或发生某事) (多+to do) He could not afford to lose his fortune entirely. 2. apologize 的用法 ▲ 构词：apology n. 辩解，道歉 ▲ 搭配： ① apologize to sb for (doing) sth = make an apology 的 sb for (doing) sth 向某人为某 事(为做了某事)道歉
② apologize for oneself 为自己辩解或辩护 【考例】[NMET 1993]The captain ____ an apology to the passengers for the delay caused by bad weather. A. made B. said C. put D. passed [考查目标] apologize 及其名词的用法和搭配。 [答案与解析]A make an apology 的意思是“道歉”。 3. choice 的用法 ▲搭配： ① make a choice 选择 ② make choice of 挑选，选择，选定 ③ make / take one's choice 任意挑选 ④ have no choice but to do sth 非……不可，除……之外别无他法 【考例】[MET 1993] We've missed the last bus, I'm afraid we have no ____ but to take a taxi. A. way B. choice C. possibility D. selection [考查目标] choice 的意思和习惯搭配。 [答案与解析]B choice 是 choose 的名词形式．意思是 “选择”，在本句中构成固定搭配 have no choice but to do sth“不得不干……”。 4. determine 的用法 ▲ 构词：determination n. 决心，决断，决意；决定，确定 ▲ 搭配： ① determine to do sth 决定做某事 ② determine on / upon (doing) sth 决定 ③ a man of determination 有决断力的人 ▲ 辨析：decide；determine 这两个词都有“决定”的意思。decide 的含义是“不再迟疑不 定”，而 determine 含义是“把某件事确定下来”。 在 be determined to do…这个固定的结构中。 过去分词 determined 的词义为“下定了决心”。 decide 的名词为 decision，determine 的名词为 determination。例如：At first，she decided to go to the police，…起初，她决定去找警察…… ▲ 友情提示: decide 后跟宾语从句时，其含义有时是“断 定”。I decided that I must have taken a wrong turning somewhere. 我断定我一定是在 某处拐错弯了。The determination of the meaning of a word is often difficult without a context. 脱离上下文来确定一个词的含义常常是困难的。 注：在 determine to do...，determine on (upon)... 和 determine that...。(宾语从句)三个 搭配中，determine 的词义和 decide 几乎没有多大差异。He determined / decided to learn medicine. 他决定学医。 注：decide sb to do sth 决定使某人做某事 What decided you to give up your job? 什 么因素使你决定放弃你的工作? 【考例】[2001 京皖春招] Before Sam can repair his bicycle, he must know why it does not work. For example, he must ____ the parts that are wrong. A. check B. determine C. correct D. recover [考查目标]determine 的用法。
[答案与解析]B determine 和 decide 在一般情况下意思相同。 5. encourage 的用法 ▲ 构词： ① encouraging adj. 鼓励的，给予希望的，振奋人心的。令人欢欣鼓舞的 ② encouraged adj. 被激励的，受到鼓舞的 ③ encouragement n. 鼓励，激励 ④ discourage v. 使泄气；劝阻 ▲ 搭配：① encourage sb to do sth 鼓励某人做某事 ② be encouraged by 受……鼓励 ／鼓舞 【考例】 [2004 北京]My advisor encouraged ___a summer course to improve my writing skills. A. for me taking B. me taking C. for me to take D. me to take [考查目标] encourage 的用法。 [答案与解析]D encourage sb to do sth 鼓励某人干某事。句意为：我的导师鼓励我参加一 个夏季课程来提高我的写作技巧。 6. escape (vi, vt ) escaped, escaping (1) 逃走；跑掉 + from / out of = run away from The soldier escaped from the enemy's prison. (2)逃脱；逃避 + n. / doing He narrowly escaped death / being killed. There's no way to escape doing the work. escape 还可表示： ①（液体等）漏出 gas escaping from the pipe 煤气从管中漏出 Water escaped rapidly from the drainpipe. 水从排水管中迅速流出。 ② 避免 escaped death 免于一死 There is no escaping him. 怎么也避不开他。 ③ 疏忽，忽略 Nothing escaped his attention. 什么也逃不过他的注意。 You cannot expect that something may escape the teacher's attention. 你不要奢望有什么能逃过 老师的注意。 escape n ① 逃走 The thief made his escape. 小偷逃走了。 ②（气体）漏出，泄出；解闷 She reads love stories as an escape. 她读爱情小说解闷。 7. hunt 的用法 ▲ 构词：hunter n. 猎人，搜寻者 ▲ 搭配： ① hunt for / after 追猎；寻找，搜寻 ② hunt out 找出；调查出 【考例】He wandered in the street, ____ a new jacket for his nephew. A. hunting for B. waiting for C. shooting for D. aiming for [考查目标]本题考查 hunt for 的意思。 [答案与解析]A hunt for 原来是“猎取”的意思，引中为“搜寻，寻找”。 8. impression n. 印象 (1) impression (on sb.) (给某人)印象 His speech made a strong impression on his
audience. (2) impression (of sth.) (对某事物)印象；想法 That's my first impression of the new college. (3) impress sb. with sth. 给予某人深刻印象 = impress sth. on sb. 使某人铭记 The teacher impressed on his students the importance of speaking. = The teacher impressed his students with the importance of speaking. 9. interrupt 的用法 vt, vi ① 阻断；中断 Don't interrupt me. 别打断我。Traffic in the city was interrupted by a snowstorm. 市内交通被暴风雪所阻断。 ② 打岔；插嘴 It is rude to interrupt. 打断别人的话，是不礼貌的。 “Don't interrupt,” he said.“别插话, ”他说。 ▲构词： ① interrupter n. 打岔者，打断者 ② interruption n. 打岔．打断，使中断的事物 【考例】[2005 山西模拟] Be quiet! It's rude to ____ people when they are talking. A. stop B. introduce C. prevent D. interrupt [考查目标] interrupt 的词义。 [答案与解析]D interrupt 的意思是“打断；使中断”． 后接指人或指物的各种名词。 10. marry (1) vi. 结婚 He didn't marry until he was fifty. (2) vt. 和……结婚 Jean is going to marry Hubert. (3) vt. (父母)嫁(女儿) He married his daughter to a businessman. (4) vt. (教士等) 为……主持结婚仪式 We've come to ask if you will marry them. [比较] (1) get married (to sb.) 强调动作 His oldest girl got married last month. (2) be married (to sb.) 强调状态 How long have you been married? 11. moment 的用法 n. ① 片刻； 瞬间 He will be here in a moment. 他一会儿就来。 At the moment I am working. 此刻我正在工作。 ② 时机；机遇；时宜 Choose your moment to visit him. 你选个合适的时机去拜访他。 ③ 重要性 a matter of great moment 一件极重要的事情 ▲搭配： ① at any moment 随时；在任何时候；马上 ② at the last moment 在最后关头 ③ at the moment 此刻；(正当)那时 ④ every moment 时时刻刻 ⑤ for a moment 片刻 ⑥ in a moment 一会儿，不久；立即，马上 ⑦ the moment(that)... 一……就…… 【考例】 [NMET 2004 II] "Can I? I don't think I can," Racy said with a laugh. "But I do
have ____ when things come to me for no reason." A. events B. chances C. feelings D. moments [考查目标] moment 的词义。 [答案与解析] D moment 可以指“时刻”，在本句中用了复数，意思是“一些次”。 12. owe 的用法 owed, owing ▲ 搭配： ① （常与 for 连用） 欠， 欠债 I owe you for your help.我感谢你的帮助。 (也可以是 owe sth. 或 owe sb. sth) The food cost ￡4 , but I only paid ￡3 so I still owe ￡1. 食品要 4 英 镑，可我只付了 3 英镑，因此我还欠 1 英镑。I owe you an apology. 我该向你道歉。 ☆ owe sb sth for sth 或 owe sth to sb for sth 为…欠某人… ② 对…负有义务；感恩；感激 We owe our parents a lot. 我们十分感激父母。 ③（常与 to 连用）归功于；由于 She owes her success to good luck. 她把成功归功于幸 运。The young writer owed his success to his teacher's encouragement. 年轻作家把自 己的成功归于他老师的鼓励。 【考例】[2004 湖北] "How much do I ____ you?" "Oh, no," Paul said. A. Owe B. lend C. give D. offer [考查目标]考查 owe 的词义和用法。 [答案与解析]A owe 表示“欠”的时候是及物动词，可以接双宾语。 13. reason n. 原因；理由 (1) + to do sth. You haven't any reason to leave me. (2) + for sth. / doing People must have a reason for saying such things. (3) + 从句；从句用 why / for which 引导 That is the reason why you should leave. (4) for + reason，为了某种原因 He is retiring for reasons of health. [比较] cause“原因；起因” the cause of the fire 火灾的起因(引起某种后果的起因) the reason for being late 迟到的理由(做某件事的理由) 14. role (1) (戏剧中的) 角色 Oliver played (acted) the role / part of Hamlet. (2) (现实生活中的) 身份；作用 What is your role on the Committee? (3) play a...role in... = play a...part in 在……中扮演……角色或作用 The headmaster plays an important role / part in the good running of a school. 15. serve v. (1) 为……服务／工作 A slave serves his master. (2) 接待(顾客) The shop assistant is serving a customer. (3) 侍候吃饭，端(菜)；供应(饭菜) Lunch is served now. (4) serve as 充任(某职务)作……用 She served as a model for several painters. / This box will serve as / for a seat. 16. speed 的用法 ▲搭配： ① at a high speed 以很大的速度 ② at full / top speed 用全速，开足马力，尽力(快)地； ③ with great / an speed 用全速，开足马力 ④ speed up 加速，快点
【考例】We had tried our best but the boss still shouted, " ____!" A. Speed up B. No hurry C. Wait a minute D. Slow down [考查目标]本题考查 speed 及其构成的短语的意思。 [答案与解析]A speed up 意思是“加速，快点”的意思。 17. stare 的用法 vi, vt -- stared, staring 凝视，注视 He stared at the word trying to remember what it meant. 他盯着这个单词，努力想记 起它的意思。 [习惯用语] stare one in the face 近在眼前；摆在眼前 ▲辨析：gaze；stare；glare 这组动词的一般含义是“凝视”。 gaze 表示“目不转睛地看”， 并含有“惊叹”、 “羡慕”或“入迷”的意思。 例如： She gazed at the carpet for some time, and then added, "You don't need bookcases at all." 她对地毯凝 视了一会儿，然后补充说：“你根本不需要书柜。” stare 特别表示“睁大眼睛凝视”，并含有“惊奇”、“傲慢” 或“茫然”的意思。例如：The noble stared at the blank sheet of paper for a few seconds. 那位贵族对那张空白纸凝视了几 秒钟。 glare 表示“凶狠而且带有威胁性的瞪眼睛”的意思。 例如： The trapped eagle glared at his captors. 被诱捕到的雄鹰凶狠地瞪着捕获它的人。 【考例】[NMET 1999] ____ him and then try to copy what he does. A. Mind B. Glance at C. Stare at D. Watch [考查目标] stare 等近义词辨别。 [答案与解析]D watch 意思是“观察”， 是长时问关注； 而 stare at 却是“盯着”。 含有惊奇、 傲慢的感情色彩。 18. trouble (1) 麻烦； 烦恼； 烦心的事 (可数， 不可数) It is a pity to give you so much trouble. / Life is full of troubles. (2) 困难；费事 (不可数) have trouble with sth. / have trouble (in) doing sth. (= difficulty) Did you have much trouble in finding the post office? / I hope you won't have any trouble with the work. [相关短语] (1) ask for trouble 自寻烦恼；自找麻烦 What made you write such a letter? It was asking for trouble. (2) (be) in trouble 有烦事； 有困难； 出事； 惹麻烦 He never came except when he was in trouble. (3) put sb. to trouble 给某人造成麻烦；增添麻烦 I am sorry for putting you to so much trouble. (4) take trouble to do sth. 费心做某事；费心 It was good of you to take the trouble to help us. [牛刀小试 1] 用所给单词的适当形式填空：(speed，owe，encourage，decide，moment， apologize) 1. will never forget the ____ given by Mr. Wang, which helped me overcome a lot difficulty. 2. I have made a ___that every department in our company should buy a computer of this kind.
3. I recognized the man the ____ I saw him at the corner. 4. Since it was a bit later，we had to ____ up. 5. We must ____ our success to our parents and teachers. 6. The parents came from the far-away village, making an ____ for their naughty son. ☆词语比较☆ 1. win, beat, defeat 表示获胜、取胜的词语 (1) win v. 赢……，获胜，接比赛或奖项 win a game / a prize / an honor / a race. / Our team won the game 8 to 7. / He won by five points. / He won her love at last. / He won the first place in the competition. (2) beat + 对手，表打败(尤指体育比赛) I can easily beat him at golf. (3) defeat 表战胜，接对手 The enemy was defeated in the battle. 2. in the end, finally, at last 三者均可表示“(经过周折、等待、耽误)最后，终于”之意。不同的是： finally 一般用在句中动词前面，而 at last 与 in the end 的位置则较为灵活； 三者中 at last 语气最为强烈， 且可单独作为感叹句使用。 After putting it off three times, we finally managed to have a holiday in Dalian. / At last he knew the meaning of life. / At last! Where on earth have you been? / But in the end he gave in. 另外， finally 还可用在列举事项时， 引出最后一个内容， 相当于 lastly。Firstly, we should make a plan; secondly, we should carry it out; finally we should make a conclu- sion. 3. by sea, by the sea, in the sea, on the sea, at sea (1) by sea “走海路，乘船”，用来表示交通方式，同 by ship 同义。 These heavy boxes should be sent by sea. (2) by the sea “ 在海边 ” ，相当于 by (at) the seaside 。 The children enjoyed themselves by the sea on Children's Day. (3) in the sea “在海里，在海水中” There are many plants and animals in the sea. (4) on the sea “在海面上”，“在海岸边”。I want to live in a town with a beautiful position on the sea. (5) at sea 在海上；在航海 When he woke up, the ship was at sea. 4. be afraid, be afraid to do sth., be afraid of (doing) sth. (1) be afraid 意为“担心，害怕”，多用于口语， 常用来表示一种歉意， 或遗憾，后可接 so 或 not，也可接 that 从句。I'm afraid (that) 其语意相当于 I'm sorry, but...。 -- Are we on time? 我们准时吗? -- I'm afraid not. 恐怕不准时。I'm afraid you'll get caught in the rain. (2) be afraid to do sth 常表示“由于胆小而不敢做某事”。She is afraid to be here alone. / He is afraid to jump into the river from the bridge. (3) be afraid of (doing) sth. 常表示“担心或害怕某事(发生)”。I was afraid of hurting her feelings. 5. live, living, alive, lively (1) live adj. ① 活的； 活生生的； (只修饰生物； 只作前置定语) The laboratory is doing experiments with several live monkeys. ② 实况直播的 (不是录音)It wasn't a recorded show. It was live. ③ 带电的；燃着的；可爆炸的 This is a live wire. (2) living adj. 活着的，有生命的(作表语或定语) She was, he thought, the best living
novelist in England. / The old man is still living. (或 alive) (3) alive adj. ① 活着的；② 有活力的；有生气 作后置定语：Who's the greatest man alive? 作表语：Was the snake alive or dead? / My grandmother is more alive than a lot of young people. 作补语：Let's keep the fish alive. (4) lively adj. 活泼的； 有生气的； 活跃的(作表语或定语) The music is bright and lively. 6. take off, take down, take in, take on, take up (1) take off ① (飞机)起飞 A helicopter is able to take off and land straight up or down. ② 脱下(衣裳等)；取下 He took off his wet shoes. / Who took the knob off the door? ③ 休假；请假；歇工 When his wife was sick he took off from work. ④ (指观念、产品) 大受欢迎；(事业)突然发达，成功 The new type of cell phones has really taken off. / His business began to take off when he was in his forties. (2) take down ① 拿下来；取下来 He reached up to the third shelf of the bookcase and took down a dictionary. ② 记下来 He read out the names and his secretary took them down. (3) take in ① 接受 (房客，客人等)；收留 The farmers took in the lost travelers for the night. ② 理解；领会；明白 The boys could not take in his meaning. ③包括；涉及 The study of physics takes in many different subjects. ④使上当；欺骗 We were completely taken in by her story. (4) take on ① 接受；从事(某工作) After his father died, Bill took on the management of the factory. ② 雇用 Is the supermarket taking on any more assis- tant? ③ 具有(新面貌、意思等) The city has taken on a new look. (5) take up ① 从事某项活动；发展某种爱好 So many young men want to take up writing. ② 开始做(某项工作)；开始学习(某个课程) Then she took up the task of getting the breakfast. / He dropped medicine and took up physics. ③ 占去 (时间或空间) The meeting took up the whole morning. / The table takes up too much room. ④ 接受 I'd like to take up your offer of a ride into town. 7. call for, call on, call up (1) call for ① 来找(某人)；来取(某物) I'll call for you at your house. ②要求；需要 Success in school calls for much hard work. (2) call on ① call on / upon sb. 拜访； 去会(某人) I hope to call on you at your office at 3 o’clock today. ② call on / upon sb. to do sth. 请／叫某人做某事 He called upon me to speak
immediately. ③ 号召；呼吁；要求 The President called on his people to serve the country. (3) call up ① 给……打电话 (英 ring up) I tried to call you up last night, but no one answered the phone. ② 征召入役；调用 (后备部队) Three boys in our street were called up last week. 8. too much, much too (1) too much “太多”之意，可以作形容词，修饰不可数 名词，也可作副词，修饰动词。 There is too much rain here in spring. / She talked too much at the meeting. (2) much too “简直太，过于”，只能作副词，用来修饰 形容词或别的副词，不能修饰动 词。This book is much too difficult for me. / The old man walks much too slowly. 9. custom, habit (1) custom 指传统风俗、习俗，也可指生活习惯，后接不定式。They broke some of the old customs. / It is the custom in China to eat dumplings during the spring Festival. (2) habit 指个人生活习惯。“(有)养成……习惯”常 用 be in / fall into / get into / form / have the habit of doing sth. 句型；“戒掉……习 惯”常用 give up / kick / break away from / get out of the habit of doing sth. 句型。 It's easy to get into a bad habit but its hard to give it up. / The drug easily get one into the habit of smoking. 10. arise, rise, raise raise vt.“使……上升；升起；提高”等； rise vi.“上升；升起”； arise vi.“站起来(stand up)”， “起床(get up)”， rise 和 arise 用作站起， 起床都属正式用法； arise 主要表示“出现、 发生”等意思。 She raised her voice in anger. (抬高) The wind raised the fallen leaves from the ground. (刮起) The child rose from the ground and ran to his mother. (=The child raised himself from the ground and ran to his mother.) (爬起) She rises before it is light. (起床) Difficulties will arise as we do the work. (出现) ☆短语归纳☆ 1. can't help doing sth. 禁不住做某事，不由得不做某事 She couldn't hep smiling. [比较] (1) can't help but do 不得不……；不能不 When the streets are full of melting snow, you can't help but get your shoes wet. (2) cannot but 不能不，只能 He could not but feel disappointed. [归纳] (1) help (sb.) (to) do sth. Help me get him back to bed at once. / By helping them we are helping save ourselves. (2) help...with sth. 帮助……做某事 In those days he used to help her mother with her gardening. (3) help oneself / sb. to sth. 给自己 / 别人夹菜 / 拿烟 等；擅自拿用 May I help you to some more vegetables? (4) help...in sth. 在……方面帮助某人 She offered to help Rose in the housekeeping when I am not here. (5) help out 帮忙 (做事； 克服困难等) I've often helped Bob out when he's been a bit
short of money. 2. 含 go 的短语 ① go around 到处走／跑．(疾病)流传，(谣言)传开；go after 追求；go ahead 说吧，请 吧，做吧；go away 离开，出去 ② go back 走网头路，翻悔改变；go bad 变坏；go boating 去划船 ③ go fishing 去钓鱼；go for a walk 去 散步 ④ go hiking 去徒步旅行；go home 回家 ⑤ go in for 喜爱，从事于；go into 进入，加入 ⑥ go mad 发疯 ⑦ go off 离去，去世；go on 继续，进展，依据；go on doing 继续做；go out 出去，发 出去，熄灭，不时兴；go over 研究，检查，搜查 ⑧ go shopping 去商店；go skating 去滑冰；go straight along 沿着；go swimming 去 游泳 ⑨ go through 通过，经受，仔细检查；go to bed 上床 ⑩ go up 上升 ?go wrong 走错路，误入歧途 [例句] We'll go through the items one by one. 我们要逐条研究。She has gone back to her old habits. 她又回到了已往的习惯。Come on Sunday by yourself - we can go over the house together. 星期天你要过来． 我们一起检查一下房子。 His speech went on for so long that people began to fall asleep. 他的演讲持续很长时间，结果人们开始想睡。That expression has gone out. Nobody Uses it today. 那个短语已经过时了，现在没有人在用 它。The young fellow hasn't realized that he has gone wrong. 这个年轻人还没有意识到 他已经误入歧途。Tired of going shopping with his wife，Mr. Liu pretended to have something important to do. 厌烦与妻子一起去购物，刘先生假装有重要的事情要做。 【考例 2】(2004 北京) I don't ____ rock' n' roll. It's much too noisy for my taste. A. go after B. go away with C. go into D. go in for [考查目标] 此题主要考查四个动词短语的意思。 [答案与解析]D go after 追求；go away with 带走；go into 进入，加入；go in for 喜 爱，爱好。根据句子意思“摇滚音乐太嘈杂。不合乎我的口味．所以我不喜欢”。 【考例】(NMET 1998) Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to ____. A. be put up B. give in C. be turned on D. go out [考查目标]此题主要考查四个短语的意思。 [答案与解析] D put up 挂起；give in 屈服；turn on 打开；go out 熄灭。本句话意思 是“没有人注意到贼溜进了屋子，因为灯碰巧熄灭了”。 3. go wrong (1) 走错路；弄错方向 (2) 失败；不顺利 All our plans went wrong. / Everything went wrong in those days. (3)发生故障 The clock went wrong. [比较]表示“变为”的系动词 (1) go 表示由积极向消极方面变化 Fish soon goes bad in hot weather. 又如：go mad / pale / blind / hungry
(2) become / get 表示由积极向消极或消极向积极方 面变化 The weather is getting quite warm. / Gradually he became silent. (3) turn 多接表颜色的词 This ink turns black when it dries. / He used to be a teacher till he turned writer. 注意：become a writer (4) grow 侧重变化过程 The sea is growing calm. (5) fall 进入某种状态 All three children fell asleep. 4. owe...to... 受到恩惠；归功于…… (1) 欠(钱)owe sb. money = owe money to sb. I owe ￡50 to my tailor. = I owe my tailor ￡50. (2) 得过(某人的)好处；欠(某人的)人情债 We owe a great deal to our parents and teachers. (3) 应当给予 You owe me an apology. (4) ……应归功于；……都亏得 We owe the general theory of relativity to Einstein. [拓展]表示“由于”的词组：owing to / because of / thanks to / due to / as a result of 5. take one's place (1) 入座，站好位置，取得地位 Take your places, please. We are about to start. (2) take one's place = take the place of sb. 代替(职务或工作等)；接替 Electric trains have now taken the place of steam trains in England. [比较] (1) in place (of)代替； ……而不用 The grown-ups had coffee but the children wanted milk in place of coffee. (2) take one's seat 在自己座位上坐下；有时等于 take one's place：More men entered and took their seats. 6. think highly of 赞扬 表赞赏的词有： (1) think / speak highly / well / much...of: The people think very highly of him. 表认为不好的词有： (2) think little / badly / poorly / nothing...of: Joan thought little of walking two miles to school. 7. 含“动词 + away”的短语 ① do away with 去掉 ② get away 逃脱，(使)离开 ③ go away 离去，出去 ④ put away 放好，把……收拾起来，存(钱)以备它日之用 ⑤ run away 逃走，离开 ⑥ smooth away 去除，克服 ⑦ stay away (from) 不在家，外出 ⑧ take away 拿走，带走，夺去，使离去 ⑨ throw away 扔掉．浪费．坐失(良机) [例句]Don't throw away such a good chance. Or you'll regret. 不要放弃这么好的机会， 不然的话，你会后悔 的。Put away the tools before you leave. 离开前把工具收拾好。Why did you stay away
from school? 你为什么不去上学? I had hoped to take a good holiday this year but I wasn't able to get away. 我本打算今年好好去度假，但是我离不开。 【考例】(2004 重庆)Before the war broke out, many people ____ in safe places possessions they could not take with them． A. threw away B. put away C. gave away D. carried away [考查目标]此题主要考查“动词+away”四个短语的意思。 [答案与解析]B throw away 扔掉；put way 放好，把 ……收拾起来；give away 分发．泄露；carry away 冲 走。本句话意思是“在战争爆发以前，许多人把他们不 能带走的财产藏在了安全的地方”。 8. 含“动词 + off”的短语 ① drop off 放下，下车 ② fall off (从……)掉下来 ③ get off (从……)下来，动身，起飞，脱下来 ④ give off 发出，放出 ⑤ jump off 跳离 ⑥ put off 推迟，延期 ⑦ set off 出发，引起，启程 ⑧ see sb off 为某人送行，为……送行 ⑨ switch off 关掉 ⑩ take off 脱，去掉，起飞，匆匆离开，成名 ?throw off 匆忙脱掉 ?turn off 关掉，避开，拐弯 [例句]The electricity supply must be turned off at the mains before you change the lighting circuit. 在改变火线前， 主干线的电力供应必须切断。 Mrs Garey as usual went to the door to see him off. Garey 夫人像通常一样把他送到门口。He had to put off an appointment with me on account of illness. 因为疾病的缘故，他不得不推迟了与我的约 会。 Before the body of the car can be properly repaired, all the external fittings must be taken off. 车身适当修理前， 所有外部的配件必须拿下来。 The fire doesn't seem to be giving off much heat. 这炉火好像不大热。 【考例】(2005 广东) John is leaving for London tomorrow and I will ____ him ____ at the airport. A. send...away B. leave...off C. see...off D. show...around [考查目标]此题主要考查短语 see off 的用法。 [答案与解析]C see off 意为“给某人送行”；send away 意为“派遣”；leave off 意为“停 止，不再穿”；show around 意为“带领某人参观”。 [牛刀小试 2] 在下列句子的空白处填上适当的介词或副词。 1. My grandmother had put ____ over$50,000 when she was sixty—five years old. 2. His mother had thought it would be good for his charac- ter to get ____ home and earn some money on his own.
3. The market was filled ____ salted fish, giving the worst smell that you can imagine. 4. -- What do you think the contest? -- I was told that the English Speech Contest went ____ successfully last night. 5. If you had gone ____ your test paper carefully before handing it in you would have made fewer mistakes. ☆句型诠释☆ 1. The reason why he could not go there was that his grades were too low. 他没能上电 影学院是因为他的分数太低了。 该句巾的 why 引导一个定语从句，而 that 引导表语从句。 1. 句中 that 引导的表语从句说明主语 reason 的具体内容，往往被看作是固定句型：The reason is / was that clause. 当主语是 reason / cause 时，一般不能用 because 或 why 引 导表语从句，以免造成语意重复。当主语是 This / That 时，可以由 because / why 引导表 语从句。例如：One reason is that people traveled to America from all European countries. 【考例】(NMET 1999) -- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. -- Is that ____ you had a few days off? A. why B. when C. what D. where [考查目标] 表语从句。 [答案与解析]A 句子的意思是“那就是你请了几天假的原因吗?”因此可知答案为 why。 2. why 在句中是关系副词，引导定语从句，修饰先行词 reason，同时它在定语从句中作状 语，此时 why = for which，但要注意：关系词在定语从句中作主语或宾语时，要用关系代 词 that 或 which。 【考例】 (2002 上海春招)Is this the reason ____ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work? A. he explained B. what he explained C. how he explained D. why he explained [考查目标]定语从句。 [答案与解析]A what，how 不能引导定语从句，排除 B、C 两项；the reason 在定语从句 中作 explained 的宾语，可填 that / which，或者也可以省略。 2. Many people who saw the film were afraid to swim in the sea when they remembered the scenes in which people were eaten by the shark. 好多看过这个片子的 人一想起片中鲨鱼食人的场面．就不敢下海游泳了。 该句是一个复杂长句， 从 when 到句子末尾是状语从句， 在从句中包含一个由 which 引导的 定语从句，修饰先行词 scenes; 在前面的主句里面。包含一个由 who 引导的定语从句，修 饰先行词 people。 例如： Those who want to go camping next Sunday sign your name here before class is over. 定语从句关系词的选择，要遵循“瞻前顾后”的原则，所谓“瞻前”即看前面的先行词指人还是 指物；“顾后”即后面的定语从句，看关系词在定语从句中作什么成分。例如： This is the factory where he works. (状语) / This is the factory (that / which) he visited. (宾语) 【考例】 (NMET 1992)In the dark street， there wasn't a single person ____ she could turn for help. A. that B. who C. from whom D. to whom [考查目标]定语从句。
[答案与解析]D “turn to sb for help”为固定短语，意思是“向某人求助”，所以选 to whom。 3. When asked about the secret of his success, Steven Spielberg said that he owes much of his success and happiness to his wife and children. 当有人问起他成功的秘诀时。 史蒂文· 斯皮尔伯格说起他的成功和幸福主要来自于妻子和孩子。 该句中的 "when" 是时间状语从句的省略形式。在状语从句中，如果从句主语与主句主语 一致或从句主语是 it，而且从句谓语动词是 be 或包含 be 时，常常将从句主语与 be 省略。 例如：Although born in Chicago, the author is famous for his stories about New York. 【考例】 (2003 上海春招 ) Unless ___to speak ， you should remain silent at the conference. A. invited B. inviting C. being invited D. having invited [考查目标]状语从句的省略现象。 [答案与解析]A unless 为连词，后面省略了 you are，所以选 invited。 4. Having good table manners means knowing, for example, how to use knives and forks, when to drink a toast and how to behave at the table. 在餐桌上，懂礼节意味着 你知道如何使用刀叉，何时祝酒以及如何在用餐时举止得体。 该句中 having good manners 为 v-ing 形式作主语。例如：Collecting stamps is one of his hobbies. ▲友情提示：在 v -ing 形式前加形容词性物主代词或名词所有格，构成 v -ing 复合结构， 在句中作主语、宾语。 【考例 5】(2001 上海)Fishing is his favorite hobby, and ____. A. he'd like to collect coins as well B. he feels like collecting coins, too C. to collect coins is also his hobby D. collecting coins gives him great pleasure [考查目标]v -ing 作主语。 [答案与解析]D A、B、C 三项句法都无错误，但在 and 连接的并列句中，两个简单句的 主语要保持一致的形式 fishing and collecting coins 分别做两个简单句的主语。 5. It's polite to finish eating everything on your plate, so don't take more food than you need. 餐盘里的东西要吃光才礼貌，所以不要多拿。 该句中的 it 为形式主语，真正的主语为 to finish eating …例如：It's not right to tell lies. 撒谎是不对的。 it 作为形式主语，真正的主语是动词不定式短语。常见的句型有： 1. It + be + adj. + to do sth 2. It + be + n. + to do sth 3. It + be + PP. to do sth 【考例】(2001 上海) In fact ____ is a hard job for the police to keep order in an important football match. A. this B. that C. there D. it [考查目标] 形式主语。 [答案与解析]D 只有 it 才可以作形式主语。 【句型归纳】 1. When / While / Though / Unless / If + n. / adj. / 现在分词／过去分词…… 状语从句有些成分有时可省略，一般是主语和 be 省略；有时 it 和 be 可以省略： He made no answer when (he is) spoken to. /Though (he was) born in Chicago, the author is
most famous for his stories about New York. / Come back early if (it is) possible. [注意]用法详见 Chapter 10 语法活用“省略和插入语”。 2. Not only / just…but (also) 连接相同的句子成分 Not only the teacher but all the students are going to visit the Science Museum. (连 接主语时根据就近原则) / They not only sang but (also) danced for a whole night. / Many people go to see this film not just because the film is interesting, but also the leading actors and actresses are all world famous. / Not only do we learn for our country, but we'll work for her in the future. (连接句子时，not only 后的句子要部分倒 装) [牛刀小试 3] 1. The reason ____ you failed, I think, was ____ you had turned a deaf ear to your mother's advice. A. that; because B. why; because C. why; that D. for that; that 2. The English play ____ my students acted at the New Year's party was a great success. (2004 全国卷 I) A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which 3. When ____, the museum will be open to the public next year. (2002 上海春招) A. completed B. completing C. being completed D. to be completed 4. ____ the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. (2003 上海) A. The president will attend B. The president to attend C. The president attend D. The president's attending 5. I don't think ____ possible to master a foreign language without much memory work. (NMET 1990) A. this B. that C. its D. it 【交际速成】 1. Giving opinions and Making comments 询问看法与作出评价 (2003 北京西城) -- How do you find the talk given by Mr．Smith? -- ____. A. Very well B. Excited C. Boring D. Not at an [答案与解析]C 本题考查对事物提出看法或作出评价的用语。A、B 两项词法错误，若改为 Very good 或 Exciting，就可回答提问了。D 项不合语境。此句完整为：(It's) Boring. 【归纳】英语中询问看法的用语有： ① How do you like / find...? ② What do you think of / about...? ③ What do you feel about...? 2. Describing sequences 按次序描述事件发生的过程 Mother first did some washing and then did some cooking, ____ she had a rest. A. finally B. in the end C. by the end D. at last
[答案与解析] A 本题考查如何描述事情发生的顺序。finally 用于在列举一系列内容之后。 要引出最后一项内容的场合；也可与 at last 互换，表示所盼望的事迟迟到来。in the end 强调结果。有时可与口 at last 意义相同。 【归纳】英语中常见描述事件发生次序的用语有： ① First,.... Next,....Then.... Finally, ....例如: First, we went to Leshan. Next, we climbed Mount Emei. Then we played with some moneys. Finally, towards evening we were on the way back to Chengdu. ② What did you do next? 3. Thanks 致谢 (2002 北京) -- It's been a wonderful evening, Thank you very much. -- ____. A. My pleasure B. I'm glad to hear that C. No, thanks D. It's OK [答案与解析]A 本题考查英语中如何表达感谢及应答。 My pleasure 是回答感谢的客套话。 【归纳】英语中表达感谢的用语有： ① Thank you (very much). ② Thanks a lot. ③ Thank you for your help. ④ It's very kind / nice of you. ⑤ Many thanks. ⑥ I appreciate your help. ⑦ I can never thank you enough. ⑧ I'm extremely grateful to you. 应答用语有： ① It's a pleasure. ② My pleasure. ③ That's OK / all right. ④ You're welcome. ⑤ Not at all. ⑥ Don't mention it. ⑦ No trouble at all (没什么). ⑧ At your service (愿为你效劳). ⑨ Think nothing of it. [牛刀小试 4] 1. -- Thank you ever so much for your help. -- ____. A. Glad to hear that B. Not worth thanking C. Think nothing of it D. You're too polite 2. -- How did you find your visit to the museum, Jane? -- ____. A. Oh, wonderful, indeed B. By taking a No. 3 bus C. I went there alone D. A classmate of mine showed me the way 3. -- ____ the articles of Times? -- I'm not sure. I glanced through them but I haven't formed an opinion yet. A. How do you think of B. What did you like
C. How did you like D. What do you think of 4. -- Thank you very much for the meal. -- Not at all. ____. A. I'm very glad to hear that B. I'm glad you could come C. Make yourself at home D. With pleasure ☆精典题例☆ 1. Generally speaking, ____ according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. (2003 年上海) A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take D. when to be taken 【解析】选 B take 和 drug 是动宾关系，要用过去分词作状语。可看作是 when it is taken 的省略。 2. Unless ____ to speak，you should remain silent at the conference. (2003 年春季上 海) A. invited B. inviting C. being invited D. having invited 【解析】选 A you 与 invite 是动宾关系，要用过去分 词 invited 作状语。 3. The research is so designed that once ____ nothing can be done to change it. (NMET 2002) A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun 【解析】选 D once begun 在句中作状语；once 这里是连词，“一旦”。 4. ____ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. (2004 年 湖北) A. Compare B. When comparing C. Comparing D. When compared 【解析】选 D 相当于 when it is compared。 5. ____ snacks and drinks, but they also brought cards for entertainment when they had a picnic in the forest. (2004 年 上海) A. Not only they brought B. Not only did they bring C. Not only brought they D. Not only they did bring 【解析】选 B not only...but also 引导的并列句；以 not only 开头的句子要部分倒装。 6. ____, he used to helped his father on the farm. A. When was a boy B. As he was a boy C. As a boy D. During a boy 【解析】选 C as 在这里是连词；as a boy = when (he was) a boy。
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