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基础写作指导 一、 写一个完整的句子。 这几句是正确的句子吗? 如果你认为有误, 该怎么改? 1.The meeting will until 3:00. 2.Work hard, you will succeed. 3.I have a brother, who is a doctor. 4. There are only 4 students take part in the class. 二、句子类型。 简单句: 只包含一个主谓结构的句子. 并列句: 主谓结构+ 连词(and, but, so, or……) +主谓结构 (或更多的主谓结构) 复合句: 引导词+主谓结构, 主谓结构 (从句) (主句) 三、五种基本的简单句。 1.主语+不及物动词 Birds fly. Buses run from dawn till midnight. We are studying hard. 2. 主语+及物动词+宾语 We have read many books. They do shopping at the weekend. We are learning English. 3. 主语+系动词+表语 We are students. He became a scientist. That sounds good. 4. 主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 He gave Tom a present. He offered me a job. 5. 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语 We made him our monitor. The manager thinks the plan practical. He will have his bike repaired. I won’t have you speaking to your mother like that. 四、过渡词 (1)表并列关系的过渡词: and, also, as well, as well as, or, too, not only…but also, both … and, either … or, neither…nor (2) 表递进关系的过渡词: besides, in addition (加之, 除……之外) moreover(此 , 外,而且), what’s more, what’s worse (3)表转折对比的过渡词: but, however, yet, instead, on the other hand, on the contrary, although, different from, despite, in spite of, whereas, unlike, nevertheless, not only…but also, here…there, years ago…today, this…that, the former…the latter, then…now, the first… whereas the second, once…now, on the one hand … on the other hand, some…others

(4)表原因的过渡词: because, because of, since, as, for, now that, thanks to, due to(由于) (5)表结果的过渡词: so, thus, therefore, as a result, so that, then, thereby, hence, so…that, such…that (6)表条件的过渡词: if, unless, on condition that, as/so long as (7)表时间的过渡词: when, while, after, before, until, as soon as, later, afterwards, soon, lately, recently, since, from then on, eventually, in the meantime, then, suddenly, at the same time, next, early this morning / year / century, after a while, in a few days, now, presently, finally, at last, all of a sudden, form now on, at present, immediately, the moment (8)表示顺序的过渡词 first, second, third, last firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally the first, the second, the third, the last to begin with, then, furthermore, finally to start with, next, in addition,/besides, last but not least on the one hand, on the other hand for one thing, for another thing (9)表换一种方式表达的过渡词: in other words, that is to say, to put it another way (10)表进行举例说明的过渡词: for instance, for example, like, such as (11)表陈述事实的过渡词: in fact, actually, as a matter of fact, to tell you the truth (12)表强调的过渡词: certainly, indeed, above all, surely, most important, in fact, no doubt, without any doubt, truly, obviously (13)表比较的过渡词: like, unlike, in the same way, similarly, similar to (14)表目的的过渡词: for this reason, for this purpose, so that, in order to, so as to (15)表总结的过渡词: in a word(总之,简言之), in general, in short(总之), above all, after all, generally speaking, to sum up, finally, in conclusion, at last, in summary 2. 文章段落之间的逻辑关系主要由过渡词来完成,在修辞中称为启、承、转、 合。“启”就是开头, “承”是承接,“转”是转折,“合”是综合或总结。 (1) 用于“启”的过渡词语 用于表示“启”的过渡词或过渡性的语句通常用在段落 或文章的开头: first, first of all, at first, in the first place, firstly, to being with, to start with, recently, now, at present, in recent years, in general, generally speaking, at present, lately, currently, It is often said that…, As the proverb says…,

It goes without saying that…, It is clear/obvious that…, Many people often ask … (2) 用于“承”的过渡词语 表示“承”的过渡词或过渡性的语句通常用在段落中的 第一个扩展句中: second, similarly, in addition, besides, then, furthermore, moreover, what is more, what is worse, for example, for instance, certainly, surely, obviously, in other words, especially, particularly, in particular, indeed, still, third, truly, in fact, at the same time, no doubt, It is true that…, Everybody knows that…, It can be easily proved that…, No one can deny that… The reason why …is that …, There is no doubt that…, To take…for an example (instance) …, We know that…, What is more serious is that… (3) 用于“转”的过渡词语 用于“转”的过渡词或过渡性的语句通常用在段落中的 第二个扩展句中: but, however, on the other hand, on the contrary, in contrast, in any case, at any rate(无论如何), nevertheless(虽然如此), otherwise, or, or else, while, whereas, but, despite, in spite of ..., yet, instead, I do not believe that…, Perhaps you’ll ask why… This may be true, but we still have a problem with regard to…, Though we are in basic agreement with …, yet differences will be found, That’s why I feel that… (4)用于“合”的过渡词语 用于“合”的过渡词或过渡性的语句通常用在段落的 结论句或文章的结论段中: in a word, in general, in short, above all, after all, generally speaking,to sum up, finally, in conclusion, at last, in summary, therefore, as a result, above all, thus,after all(毕竟), eventually, hence, in short, in conclusion, in a word, in sum(总之), on the whole(就整体而言), to sum up From this point of view … On account of this we can find that … The result is dependent on … Thus, this is the reason why we must… 五、基础写作步骤 基础写作的整体要求: 1、 认真审题。读懂、读全题目所给信息。 2、 对于文字提示的写作,根据内容和需要选择恰当的时态,确定 5 个要点,列 出提纲。 3、 对于表格提示的写作,不能逐句翻译,重组材料(有时会重组句子,调整所

给要点的顺序) ,标出 5 个要点,列出提纲, 做到条理清楚,布局合理。 4、 用自己熟悉的句型结构和词语,力求文理通顺,语言准确。没有把握的词句 不要写,确定有把握的再锦上添花。 1) 确定句子主干,特别是主语和谓语。没有则需变换或增添主谓。如: ( 参加 全市各行各业 6,000 多人 1) 人员 ( 活动 为人们提供好书、方便购书、满足人们增长 2) 感受 知识的愿望 (1)变换主语,增加谓语: 6,000 people from all works of life take part in the activities. (2)增加主语:主语用 the Book Fair 或用 it 指代. 此处谓语可并列:提供, 方便 (convenient 是形容词, made it convenient) 满足。 Book Fair provided 用 , The good books for people, made it convenient to buy books and fullfiled/satisfied people’s expectations of increasing their knowledge. 2)确定语态:我们习惯用主动语态,若用主动语态不好表达可用被动语 态。 3)一个中文意思可能有几种英文表达,要注意词和短语的词性,比如:我成 功了。可用:I succeed.(动词) I am successful.(形容词) I achieve success.(名 词) 不能说: successful. 或 I success. 又如: I 我对阅读没兴趣。 have no interest I in reading.( 名词) 或 I’m not interested in reading. (形容词) 5、 遇到一时想不起来的词或短语,不会表达的句子,需变通。 1) 可用同义词、近义词或短语代替。如:高度赞扬:sb be highly praised 不会写这个单词,则可用 think / speak highly of sb 2)用相关的意思代替该词或句子,避免出错。如:这使我们能腾出更多的时 间专心学习。若不会表达“腾出” “专心” ,可直译成:这使我们有更多的时间认 真学习→It makes / enables us to have much more time for study / to study hard.. 3)也可变换句式。 6、注意文章的长度。如果内容多,应多用并列句和复杂句(定语从句,名词 性从句,现在分词或过去分词做状语等) ,内容不多,可用简单句,并适当增补 内容。 7、 写作基础不好的同学,多选择使用简单句,先保证句子准确,少语 法错误,再循序渐进。基础好的同学,可不断尝试简单句、并列句和复杂句 并用,前提是保证语法正确、句子无误,不要因追求句子复杂而出错。 8、 时间:要求 10 分钟完成,至多 12 分钟。




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