当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >> 2015高考英语大二轮总复习 第4部分 阅读理解 专题4 “顺藤摸瓜”——明辨词义猜测

2015高考英语大二轮总复习 第4部分 阅读理解 专题4 “顺藤摸瓜”——明辨词义猜测

Ⅰ.体验高考 (2014· 课标Ⅰ)Passenger pigeons(旅鸽)once flew over much of the United States in unbelievable numbers.Written accounts from the 18th and 19th centuries described flocks(群)so large that they

darkened the sky for hours. It was calculated that when its population reached its highest point,there were more than 3 billion passenger pigeons-a number equal to 24 to 40 percent of the total bird population in the United States,making it perhaps the most abundant bird in the world.Even as late as 1870 when their numbers had already become smaller,a flock believed to be 1 mile wide and 320 miles (about 515 kilometers) long was seen near Cincinnati. Sadly , the abundance of passenger pigeons may have been their undoing.Where the birds were most abundant ,people believed there was an everlasting supply and killed them by the thousands.Commercial hunters attracted them to small clearings with grain,waited until pigeons had settled to feed,then threw large nets over them,taking hundreds at a time.The birds were shipped to large cities and sold in restaurants. By the closing decades of the 19th century,the hardwood forests where passenger pigeons nested had been damaged by Americans' need for wood,which scattered(驱散)the flocks and forced the birds to go farther north,where cold temperatures and spring storms contributed to their decline.Soon the great flocks were gone,never to be seen again. In 1897,the state of Michigan passed a law prohibiting the killing of passenger pigeons, but by then, no sizable flocks had been seen in the state for 10 years.The last confirmed wild pigeon in the United States was shot by a boy in Pike County,Ohio,in 1900.For a time,a few birds survived under human care.The last of them,known affectionately as Martha,died at the Cincinnati

Zoological Garden on September 1,1914. 【语篇导读】 本文叙述了旅鸽逐渐消失的过程。

1.In the 18th and early 19th centuries,passenger pigeons ________. A.were the biggest bird in the world B.lived mainly in the south of America C.did great harm to the natural environment D.were the largest bird population in the US 解析 事实细节题。根据文章第一段所述在 18 和 19 世纪,美国大群的旅鸽

飞起来可以遮住天空几个小时,所以美国旅鸽的数量是最大的,故选 D。 答案 D

2.The underlined word“undoing”probably refers to the pigeons' ________. A.escape C.liberation 解析 B.ruin D.evolution

词义猜测题。根据文章第三段中“Where the birds were abundant...by the

thousands”可知旅鸽遭到捕杀,所以 ruin 和 undoing 词义相似,故选 B。 答案 B

3.What was the main reason for people to kill passenger pigeons? A.To seek pleasure. C.To make money. 解析 B.To save other birds. D.To protect crops.

事 实 细 节 题 。 根 据 文 章 第 二 段 中 “Commercial hunters attracted

them...sold in restaurants”可知旅鸽遭到捕杀的主要原因是捕杀者要赚钱。 故选 C。 答案 C

4.What can we infer about the law passed in Michigan? A.It was ignored by the public. B.It was declared too late. C.It was unfair. D.It was strict. 解析 推理判断题。 根据文章最后一段中“In 1897, the state of...for 10 years”

可知通过法律后的 10 年,鸽群数量仍然不多,所以制定法律为时已晚,故选

B。 答案 B

Ⅱ.仿真、模拟 Passage 1



时间:6 分钟

The movies just wouldn't be the same without the warm buttery taste of popcorn.Amazingly,this delicious treat started its life as a corn kernel(玉米 粒 )—and not from just any corn.Popcorn is a type of sweet corn that was originally grown in Mexico and spread to China, India and elsewhere.It is the only kind of corn that will pop.Today,most of the world's popcorn is grown in the United States. Every popcorn kernel contains a tiny drop of water,surrounded by soft starch(淀粉).When the popcorn is heated,the water turns into steam.This puts pressure on the surrounding hard kernel,forcing it to explode.The soft starch increases about 40 times in size as the corn kernel turns itself inside out. In the 1500s popcorn was an important food source for the Aztec Indians of central and southern Mexico.But it wasn't only food.It was also used in ceremonies or in headdresses and necklaces.By the time the Europeans arrived in America,popcorn had spread through most of the American Indians. Some early American settlers ate popcorn with cream and sugar for breakfast.But it wasn't until the late 1800s that popcorn became popular.The demand for popcorn increased and farmers began farming popcorn.The first mobile popping machine was invented in 1885,and popcorn was sold by street sellers much like hot dogs are sold today. During the Great Depression of the 1930s,the popcorn business still thrived as people could still afford it.Then in the 1950s television arrived and popcorn consumption decreased.People stayed home and stopped going to the theatre.But the link between movies and popcorn had already existed.Soon people began making popcorn at home on the stove.Later,microwave popcorn was introduced. Today the movies have regained popularity and popcorn has once again

become the favorite. 【语篇导读】 没有温热香甜的爆米花,电影似乎也会失去味道吧。那么,

关于爆米花你又了解多少呢? 1.Popcorn was first planted in ______. A.China C.India 解析 答案 B.America D.Mexico

细节理解题。根据第一段第三句可知答案。 D

2.Why does the corn kernel pop when heated? A.Because it is covered with soft starch. B.Because the pressure inside is too big. C.Because the starch becomes bigger in size. D.Because there is water inside the kernel. 解析 细节理解题。根据第二段第二、三两句可知,玉米粒内的水并不能直

接导致它炸开,而是水蒸气产生的压力作用于四周坚硬的内核上,造成它爆 炸。故答案选 B。 答案 B

3.We can know from the passage that ______. A.popcorn began to be farmed in the late 1800s B.popcorn was only a kind of food in the 1500s C.hot dogs used to be sold by street sellers D.people stopped going to the movies without popcorn 解析 细节理解题。根据第四段第二、三两句可知,是在 19 世纪末期,随着

人们对爆米花需求的增长,农民们才开始种植这种玉米。 答案 A

4.The underlined word“thrived” in the fifth paragraph probably means “______ ”. A.started to be popular B.was seriously affected C.suffered a lot D.developed very well


词义猜测题。根据上文的 still 以及下文的 as people could still afford it

可推断出,这里指即使是在经济大萧条时期,因为爆米花仍然是人们买得起 的食品,所以爆米花产业仍然发展得很好。 答案 D Passage 2



时间:7 分钟

There was once a tiny country that was suffering from a long drought.It had gone so long without rain that the people there were starting to go hungry because of the bad harvests. It just so happened that a group of musicians were traveling the country, trying to make a living from their concerts.But with so many problems in the land,no one felt like listening to music.“But music can help overcome any problems ,” said the musicians , without anyone paying them the slightest attention. So the musicians tried to find out the reason it wouldn't rain.It was very strange,because the sky was overcast,but no one could provide an answer. “It's been cloudy like this for many months,but not a single drop of rain has fallen,” people told them. “Don't worry,we'll bring rain to the country,” the musicians responded, and they began rehearsing for a concert at the summit of the highest mountain. Everyone who heard the music was seized by curiosity and went up the mountain.And the conductor of this strange orchestra gave the order,and the musicians began to play. From their instruments came small,playful musical notes that rose and rose into the clouds.The music was so joyous,happy and fun,and the notes started playing with the clouds' soft, fluffy bellies, running here and there, up and down, and the whole sky turned into one big game of tickle torture.Before long, the giant clouds were thundering with laughter. The musicians continued playing joyfully and a few minutes later the clouds,crying with laughter,soaked the little country below with their precious

tears,bringing happiness to all. And in memory of that musical rain,everyone in the country learned how to play an instrument and, taking turns, would go up the mountain every day to bring joy to the clouds with their beautiful songs. 【语篇导读】 一个干旱已久的小国,却因为音乐家们的到来,改变了他们

的命运——音乐家通过在山顶上演奏音乐,从而为当地降下了甘霖。为了纪 念那场音乐雨,人们开始学习音乐,并轮流到山上为云彩演奏音乐。 1.Why did the country have the bad harvests? A.Because it's too hot. C.Because it's too wet. 解析 B.Because it's too cold. D.Because it's too droughty.


雨,故选 D 项。 答案 D

2.What's the attitude of the people toward the musicians? A.Active. C.Cold. 解析 B.Energetic. D.Enthusiastic.

推理判断题。根据第二段中的“But with so many problems in the land,

no one felt like listening to music.”和“without anyone paying them the slightest attention.”可以推出人们对音乐家们的态度是冷淡的。故选 C。 答案 C

3.What's the meaning of the underlined word in the third paragraph? A.Cloudy C.Sunny 解析 B.Rainy D.Windy

词义猜测题。根据第四段中的 “It's been cloudy like this...” 可以推出

overcast 的意思与 cloudy 意思一样。故选 A 项。 答案 A

4.Which of the following might be the best title of the passage? A.Great musicians C.Laughing clouds 解析 B.Music for the clouds D.Music rehearsing


从而使云彩流动起来,最终降下了期盼已久的雨,为当地人们带来了快乐。 由此可以推出文章的标题应选 B 项。 答案 B

5.From the last paragraph we can learn that the people in the small country ______. A.hate music C.teach music 解析 B.love music D.practice music


器,并轮流到山上为云彩演奏音乐。由此可以推出人们喜欢音乐。 答案 B Passage 3



时间:7 分钟

The son of a piano producer,Elwyn Brooks White was born in Mount Vernon in a wealthy family.And he was raised with the mix of sophistication(高水 平) and common sense that would mark his writing. After graduation,Elwyn Brooks White spent a year as a newspaper reporter in New York City,and then decided to drive across the country with a friend.The trip gave Elwyn Brooks White a lifetime of anecdotes.“When they ran out of

money,” Elwyn Brooks White's friend,James Thurber,noted,“they played for their supper and their gasoline on an interesting musical instrument that Elwyn Brooks White had made out of some pieces of wire and an old shoe.” When Elwyn Brooks White returned to New York City in the mid1920s,he spent a few years bouncing between advertising jobs and unemployment before trying his hand again at writing.Not very seriously,he sent some essays to a new magazine called The New Yorker.Since its founding in 1925,the magazine had struggled to find its_niche,and Elwyn Brooks White's work helped put The New Yorker on the map.His essays were funny and sophisticated;they spoke equally to socialites( 社会名流 ) and cab drivers , professors and repairmen.Through his essays, which he wrote for nearly 50 years, Elwyn Brooks White helped give The New Yorker its voice and identity.

In 1945,already a leading literary figure,Elwyn Brooks White switched to his second occupation on writing children's books.He moved from New York to a farm in Maine,where he raised chickens and geese.Seeking a way to amuse his nieces and nephews , Elwyn Brooks White started to write stories for them.“Children were always after me to tell them a story and I found I couldn't do it,” he said.“So I had to get it down on paper.”

By the time he died from Alzheimer's disease in 1985,Elwyn Brooks White's essays had appeared in more literary collections in colleges than those of any other writer.Many said his essays matched his personality: sophisticated without being simple,critical without being mean. 【语篇导读】 本文介绍了 Elwyn Brooks White 的生平。

1.What can we learn from Paragraph 2? A.Elwyn Brooks White took the trip to realize his lifelong dream. B.The trip had a lasting effect on Elwyn Brooks White's personality. C.The travelling companion found Elwyn Brooks White's music talent. D.Elwyn Brooks White had many experiences to talk about after the trip. 解析 细节理解题。 根据第二段的第二句话“The trip gave Elwyn Brooks White

a lifetime of anecdotes.”可知 D 项正确。 答案 D

2.The underlined part“its niche” in Paragraph 3 means something that ______. A.suits its sponsors' tastes B.protects its social identity C.helps build its own style D.voices its authors' concern 解析 词义猜测题。根据画线部分后面的“Elwyn Brooks White's work helped

put The New Yorker on the map”以及该段最后一句话中的“Elwyn Brooks White helped give The New Yorker its voice and identity”可知 C 项正确。 答案 C

3.What do we know about Elwyn Brooks White's works? A.They originally came from the stories told by his nieces.

B.They were intended for people of different social status. C.They helped The New Yorker find its position on the map. D.They were chosen by college textbooks when they came out. 解析 细节理解题。由第三段的倒数第二句话 “His essays were funny and

sophisticated ; they spoke equally to socialites( 社会名流 ) and cab drivers , professors and repairmen.”可知,他的作品适合不同社会地位的人。 答案 B Passage 4



时间:7 分钟

Does style really sell? How can the appearance of a product be more important than what it does? The battle between form and function rose again when James Dyson,British inventor of the Dyson vacuum(真空) cleaner that has sold in millions around the world,resigned as chairman of London's Design Museum.It is widely believed that Mr.Dyson felt that the museum put too much stress on style at the expense of serious industrial design. Mr.Dyson accused the museum of not keeping true to itself.He may be right,but these days,museums everywhere can no longer afford to be unique centers of scholarship and learning.Among competition for sponsorship, they must use exhibitions of populist culture,nice cafes and shops or,best of all,a new building by Frank Gehry to increase visitor numbers. On the one hand , some producers can be too oldfashioned and too concerned with the importance of product engineering and the functionality of their goods.On the other hand,there are those who believe that how a product looks is more important.Design is indeed a broad term,involving both function and form.Typically,in any given product area,it changes from the former to the latter.Clothing is a good example.But surely you would have to be a very shallow person to think something's appearance is more important than what it does. Today nearly all goods at any given price point do much the same job.So almost the only way producers can differentiate their products from those of their competitors is to create some sort of emotional connection with the consumer,

which could be through the visual appeal of the product or its packaging,or the imagery(意象) created by advertising.And what of the Dyson vacuum cleaner? Mr.Dyson may believe that people buy these machines because of the graphs showing their superior suction, but most vacuum cleaners do a good job; the main reason people pay extra for a Dyson is that it is a vacuum cleaner with a trendy brand.With its inside workings exposed,it is a bit like a Richard Rogers building with all its pipes shown in bright colors on the outside instead of being hidden inside.Functional it may be,but it is a bit of a trick,too. 【语篇导读】 英国吸尘器发明家 Dyson 因强烈反对设计博物馆太过注重外

在的风格样式而辞职,他认为这里应该是研究学问的地方。 1.Mr.Dyson left the Design Museum because he thought the museum ______. A.didn't increase the number of visitors B.couldn't provide scholarships for learners C.wasn't loyal to its original purpose of learning D.didn't have great appeal for serious industrial design 解析 推理判断题。由第一段的最后一句话和第二段的第一句可知,他辞职

是因为设计博物馆太注重风格样式。他认为这里应该是研究学问的地方,他 们的做法违背了这个初衷。 答案 C

2.Speaking of clothing,the underlined word“latter” refers to “______ ”. A.affording protection B.indicating one's identity C.providing warmth D.making someone beautiful 解析 词义猜测题。 根据文章内容可知, 这里的 latter 指的是前面一句话中的

form,即外形。因此 D 项正确。 答案 D

3.What can we learn from Paragraph 4? A.A product with convenient packaging sells well. B.The majority of consumers prefer to buy branded goods.

C.Most similarly priced products are of a comparable standard. D.Emotion contributes much to the development of advertising industry. 解析 细节理解题。由第四段的第一句可知,大多数指定价格的产品都做着

同样的工作,即大多数相似价格的产品都有可比的标准。所以 C 项正确。 答案 C

4.What is the author's attitude towards the form of a product? A.Optimistic. C.Disapproving. 解析 B.Sceptical. D.Objective.


要的,但也是个小花招,因此作者对产品外形持客观的态度。选 D。 答案 D Passage 5



时间:7 分钟

(2014· 宁夏银川一中高三月考)Sam Walton,the founder of WalMart,was born in Kingfish,Oklahoma on March 29,1918.He was raised in Missouri where he worked in his father's store while attending school.This was his first retailing(零售业) experience and he really enjoyed it.After graduation,he began his own career as a retail merchant. He soon opened his first WalMart store in 1962 in Rogers , Arkansas.WalMart specialized in name brands at low prices and Sam Walton was surprised at the success.Soon a chain of WalMart stores sprang up across rural America. Walton's management style was popular with employees and he founded some of the basic concepts of management that are still in use today. After taking the company public in 1970 ,Walton introduced his“profit sharing plan”.The profit sharing plan was a plan for WalMart employees to improve their income dependent on the profits of the store.Sam Walton believed that “individuals don't win,while teams do”.Employees at WalMart stores were offered stock options(认股选择权) and store discounts.These benefits are


commonplace today , but Walton was among the first to implement( 实施 ) them.Walton believed that a happy employee meant happy customers and more sales.He also believed that by giving employees a part of the company and making their success dependent on the company's success,they would care about the company. By the 1980s,WalMart had sales of over one billion dollars and over three hundred stores across North America.WalMart's unique decentralized(分散的) distribution system,also Walton's idea,created the edge needed to further

encourage growth in the 1980s during growing complaints that the “superstore” was stopping smaller and traditional stores from developing.By 1991,WalMart was the largest US retailer with 1,700 stores.Walton remained active in managing the company,as president and CEO until 1988 and chairman until his death.He was awarded the Medal of Freedom shortly before his death. 【语篇导读】 本文介绍了沃尔玛公司的创始人山姆· 沃尔顿。1962 年,他开 办了第一家沃尔玛百货商店。经过几十年的奋斗,他使沃尔玛公司成为全球 最大的连锁零售王国。他的经营理念现在仍然适用。 1.Sam Walton first made a hit in retailing when ______. A.he worked in his father's store B.he created Walton's management style C.a chain of WalMart stores sprang up across rural America D.he specialized in name brands at low prices 解析 细节理解题。根据第二段中的“WalMart specialized in name brands at

low prices and Sam Walton was surprised at the success.”可知,沃尔玛在低价 销售名牌产品时取得了意想不到的成功,因此选 D。 答案 2.What D is the purpose of Walton's carrying out “profit sharing plan”?

A.To make sure all the employees had their own shares. B.To encourage the employees to work hard and make joint efforts. C.To select excellent employees for his stores. D.To make more profit for himself.



细节理解题。根据第四段的第二句“The profit sharing plan was a plan

for WalMart employees to improve their income dependent on the profits of the store.”可知,雇员的收入与商店的利润挂钩,这个计划就是为了鼓励员工努 力工作。 答案 B

3.Which of the following statements is TRUE? A.With Walton's management style,employees treated the stores as their own. B.Walton wasn't one of the merchants who first implemented stock options. C.The smaller and traditional stores were well affected by Walton's stores. D.In his old age,Walton gave all the management to his men. 解析 细节理解题。根据第四段的最后一句“He also believed that by giving

employees a part of the company and making their success dependent on the company's success,they would care about the company.”可知,沃尔顿的经营 理念就是让员工把公司当成自己的一样去关心。 答案 A

4.What does the underlined word“edge” in the last paragraph mean here? A.Danger. C.Advantage. 解析 B.Disadvantage. D.System.


分散配送体系创造优势以进一步鼓励发展,因此 edge 表示“优势”,故答案 为 C。 答案 C Passage 6



时间:7 分钟

(2014· 河南新乡许昌平顶山高三调研)Gretchen Alexander is sightless.But she refuses to allow her blindness to limit her life activities.She enjoys archery, golf, softball, sailing and water skiing, as well as a number of other activities that those of us who are sighted have yet to learn.She also speaks to groups about living life fully.When speaking to a group of high school students,she was once

asked if there was anything she wouldn't try.“I've decided to never sky dive,” she answered.“It would scare the heck out of my dog.” Why do some people rise above their problems and live life fully,while others become defeated? Merle Shain explains it this way:“There are only two ways to approach life: as a victim or as a gallant fighter.And you must decide whether you want to act or to react...” When discouraged, a victim reacts, perhaps in pain or selfpity.But a fighter will act.A fighter will make a decision to change that set of circumstances that left him or her discouraged.Or a fighter will decide to accept those circumstances with grace and move ahead anyway.A fighter will decide to act with courage.A fighter will take responsibility for his or her happiness.No matter how afraid,a fighter will refuse to give in to the most defeating of all human emotions—helplessness.A victim reacts.A fighter acts.It's your decision.It's a decision about whether you will live your life fully with courage ,or you will be forever defeated by harsh circumstances.Make it well, for it may be one of the most important decisions you ever make. Will you be a victim or a gallant fighter? 【语篇导读】 这是一篇议论文。文章以 Gretchen Alexander 为例,论述了

在生活中当你遇到不愉快的事情时,你应该做一名受害者还是做一名勇敢的 战士。 1.The best title for this article would be ______. A.Gretchen Alexander's Life B.Merle Shain's Attitude to Life C.Victims and Fighters D.The Way of Life 解析 标题归纳题。文章的最后一段 “Will you be a victim or a gallant

fighter?”点出了文章主题。故 C 项最适合作为文章标题。 答案 C

2.What can we learn about Gretchen Alexander from this passage? A.She is more athletic than those of us who are sighted. B.She is discouraged when her dog is scared.

C.There is no limitation to her life activities. D.She is a brave fighter. 解析 推理判断题。根据第一段中的“Gretchen Alexander is sightless.But she

refuses to allow her blindness to limit her life activities.”和“She also speaks to groups about living life fully.”可知, Gretchen Alexander 在生活中是一位勇敢的 战士。 答案 D

3.The underlined word “it” in Paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to “______”. A.life C.courage 解析 B.choice D.circumstance

词义猜测题。从下文的“for it may be one of the most important decisions

you ever make”可知,画线词的含义是“选择”。 答案 B

4.The third paragraph mainly talks about ______. A.the difference between a victim and a fighter B.the reactions to helplessness C.decisionmaking D.a fighter's responsibility 解析 段落大意题。本段主要介绍了受害者和战士在遇到一些不好的事情时

各自不同的表现——受害者是有反应,而战士则是行动起来。故选 A。 答案 A



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