什么是非谓语动词呢? 它的有关题目怎么解 呢?
那么简单，谁不知道. ―非谓语”, ―非谓 语”,就是不做谓语的 动词呗! 该怎么解就 怎么解啦!
To find the finite verb(谓语动词) in the
following sentences. 1.We all like listening to music.
2. If I have a chance to enjoy music, I will not refuse it. 3. I want to make friends.
4. It is not easy to make a real friend. 5. I will try my best to help her/him out.
是动词的特殊形式，在句中可以 作除谓语外的所有成分(通俗地说， 就是不能作谓语的动词变形）
判别谓语动词及非谓语动词的方法 leaving (leave) 1. She got off the bus, ________
her handbag on her seat.
left 2. She got off the bus, but ______ (leave) her handbag on her seat.
一个句子当中，已经存在一个主句（谓语动词）,又没有 连词的情况下, 还有别的动词出现时。
opened (open) the door 1. The man took out the key, _________ and entered the room. reading (read) a book. 2. The man sat there, _________ Working (work) hard, you will succeed. 3. _______ discussed (discuss) at the meeting 4. The question ___________ yesterday is of great importance. To improve 5. ___________(improve) his spoken English, Mr. Zhang goes to the English corner every Saturday.
不定式（to do) as a noun 动名词
非 谓 语
V-ing as adj. or adv. 现在分词 V-ed
To do that sort of thing is foolish. 主语
动 词 不 定 式
I want to see you this evening.
All you have to do is to finish it quickly. 表语
We found a house to live in. 定语 She came here to study English. I warned the patient not to eat cold water after the operation. 状语
作主语 作表语 作宾语 作宾语补足语 作定语 作状语
主动语态 一般式 完成式 进行式
被动语态 to be done to have been done
to have done to be doing
to have been 完成进行式 doing
1. 不定式的动作与谓语动词同时发生时，或之后发生 用一般式 to see (see) you. 1) He wanted ___________ to see 2) I hope ___________ (see) you again. 2. 强调不定式的动作正在进行时，用进行式 When I came in, he pretended to be reading (read) a book. 3. 强调 不定式的动作在谓语动词之前发生时， 用不定式完成式 to have written (write) a novel last year. He is said _________________ 4. 强调动作从过去某时开始，一直延续到现在，并可能持续下 去时，用完成进行式 to have been working She is said (work) on the problem for many years.
? 三.不定式被动语态的用法 ? 当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式的承受者时，用被 动语态 ? It is an honor for me to be asked to speak here . to be sent (send) to work in ? She asked ______________ Tibet . to have been translated ? The book is said ________________________ (translate) into English.
如何确定动词不定式的语态 技巧：找逻辑主语 ㈠. 一般式 不定式的一般式所 表示的动作（状态） 和谓语动作同时发 生，或之后发生。
to enter (enter) the room. 1. I opened the door _________
2. Mr. Smith is going to attend the meeting
to be held __________________ (hold) tomorrow.
如果和谓语动作（情 况）同时发生，不定 用进行式。
to be working (work) with you. 1. I am very glad _______________ to have been translated 2. The book is said ________________________ (translate) into English.
Fill in the blanks with the words given. to be passing (pass) by when they 1. Tom happened _____________ spoke ill of him. to become (become) scientists. 2. We all hope ___________ to take 3. We all want ____________ (take) part in the sports meet. 4. I happened ______________ (read) the article when he to have read asked me about it. to be 5. He pretended _______________ (be) a driver. 6. When the father came home, the naughty boy pretended to be doing ________________ (do) his homework.
be writing (write) a novel now. 7. He is said to ___________
to have been sent 8. He is said ___________________ (send) to London already. to have met 9. She is said _________________ (meet) a fairy one day. to be doing 10. Alice is said _______________ (do) her homework in her own room now. 11. I don’t expect them _____________ to be waiting (wait) for me when I arrived there so late. to be praised 12. These boys are said ______________ (praise) for doing goods deeds.
To see is to believe． Not to get there in time is your fault. 注：常用it做形式主语，将to do放在位于 之后，使句子保持平衡。 句型1：It + 谓语v. …+ to do to get (get )there by bus. It takes us an hour ________
句型2：It’s + n. + to do to help (help) the poor. It’s our duty _________ to spend It is a great enjoyment ___________ (spend ) our holiday in the mountains
非谓语动词讲解 句型3：It is adj. for/of sb. to do sth.
It is + adj + for sb to do sth （是形容事物的性质的 ） It is + adj + of sb to do sth （是形容人的品质的 ） for me to finish this work before ten. It is easy ______ for It is a great honor _______ us to be present at your birthday party. It is very kind ___ of you to give me some help. ＝You are very kind to give me some help. of you to speak to the teacher It's impolite ___ like that. ＝you are impolite to speak to the teacher like that.
2.作表语 Our most important task now is to make a plan. 当句子的主语是aim, idea, policy, question, suggestion, wish, task, duty, job, purpose等或 者主语是what引导的名词性从句时，后面可 以用不定式做表语，用以说明主语所包含内 容。 注：作表语的不定式都带 to ，但当主语部分 有实义动词do时，to可以省略。 Now the only thing we can do is wait.
谓语动词可接不定式做宾语 I want to know this matter. I don’t expect to meet you here. 常见动词有： A.
want, decide, hope, agree, want, determine, demand, expect, promise, choose, offer, wish, fail, needmanage, ,promise learn, seem, intend, refuse, decide, choose, hope, prepare, pretend, plan, 口诀：想要决定同意，希望许诺选择 agree, afford, hate, wish, attempt等 1. They wanted ____( get ) on the bus, didn’t they? 2. He said he wished ______( be ) a professor. 3. I agreed______ ( go ) there with the doctor. 4. He had promised ______ ( give ) me a hand.
? B. 常跟疑问词+不定式作宾语的动词: ? tell, advise, show, teach, find out, decide, discuss, learn, explain… know, show, discover, see(understand) ? He taught us how to use the tool. ? No one could tell me where to get the book. ? I hope you’ll advise me what to do. I don't know how to get there. I haven't decided whether to go or stay.
1. 你能告诉我该如何解决这个问题吗？ how to solve the problem. Could you tell me ______________ 2. 我们想知道下周我们去哪里? where to go We wonder _______________ next week. to do 3. We have no idea about what _________ (do) next. to learn 4. She gave us some advice on how ____________ (learn) foreign language. 5. There isn’t any difference between the two. I really don’t which to choose (该选哪个). know ______________
begin start continue
to do doing
[注意] 下列情况中begin和start后须接不定式 ? 主语是物不是人 Spring came on, and the snow began to melt. ? begin和start用于进行时态 It’s beginning to snow. ? 后接表示心理活动或状态的动词，如：understand, realize, know, see,etc. I began to realize how stupid I was. ? 后接不定式被动式 The new type of computer began to be developed in the 1980’s.
like love hate prefer
to do doing
后接动名词表示经常性的动作，多指抽象的行为或 习惯等，后接不定式表示具体的特定的某一次动作 swimming I like ____________ (swim) in summer. I didn’t like ___________ (swim) that day. to swim
remember forget regret
to do doing
. regret doing sth遗憾/后悔做过某事 . regret to do sth.表示对现在要发生的事表示“抱歉”、 “遗憾”，后面只限于用几个动词say, tell, inform等。
3.不定式与动名词含义区别很大 : remember
forget regret try mean stop go on can’t help I remember visiting his parents when I went to the town. I’ll remember to visit his parents when I go to the town. He’s forgotten switching off the light. He forgot to switch off the light when he left. I regret saying those words. I regret to say that I can’t come tonight. He tried teaching the children in a new way. He tried to teach the children as much as he could.
1. Boys, don't forget _____ the windows before you leave the classroom. A. closing B. closed C. to closing D. to close
2.She reached the top of the hill and stopped _______ on a big rock. A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest
3. Remember _______ the lights when you leave the office.
A. to turn off B. turning off C. turn off D. to turning off
1. 2. 3.
talking The teacher is coming, let’s stop _________ (talk). reading (read), but couldn’t make her She tried _________ forget her trouble. writing (write) to me, so he wrote He forgot even ________ another one. bringing (bring) the book to you last week. I remember _______ to tell I regret ________ (tell) that we can’t take your advice.
6. Revolution means ____________(liberate) liberating the productive forces. to do (do) the other exercise after you 7. Go on ________ have finished this one. getting 8. Though it began to rain, they went on _________ (get) In the crops on the field.
注意句型： it作形式宾语 如：find it +adj+ to do
I find/feel to work with him interesting ．(错误） 宾语 宾补 I find/feel _______ interesting to work with him．（正确） it 注意：不定式短语作宾语时，如果还带有宾语补足语，往往 把不定式宾语放在宾语补足语之后，而用it作形式宾语。
S+ find/think/feel/make/ consider+it +adj/n + to do sth.
to start early. 1.We thought __ it better ___ to go? 2.Do you consider ___ it better not ____ it my duty __ 3. I feel __ to change all that. it important __ 4.We think __ to obey the law. to finish so much 5.I know __ it impossible __ homework in a day.
4.作宾语补足语 如：tell sb.to do sth
to 1. Mother told me ____come back before 10 o’clock.
主语 谓语 宾语 宾补
2.I’ll get someone ___ to repair the recorder for you. 3. What caused him ___change his mind? to to come as soon as possible. 4.I wish you___ 5. He asked me ____do the work with him. to
advise ,allow ,ask beg, cause（促使） ,expect encourage ,force get, hate, invite order, wish, oblige（强制，迫使） want, warn ,remind promise ,permit persuade ,request…
sb. to do
to give The soldiers forced the enemy __________ (give) in. Our teacher advises us __________ (do) more reading to do aloud every morning. to risk 3. They would not allow him _________ (risk) going across the enemy line. to go 4. Will you permit me _________ (go) to the cinema? 5. The young man persuaded his father __________ to give (give) up smoking. 6. The government calls on people______________ to protect (protect) the environment. to carry 7. We can depend on the workers _____________ (carry) out the plan. 8. Greenhouse gases cause the earth’s atmosphere to heat (heat) up. _______ 1. 2.
B.当遇到下列动词时,不定式省略to: listen to 一感觉: feel 二听 hear
watch see look at notice observe
let make have
see watch look at hear listen to feel notice observe
do doing done
seen watched looked at heard listened to made noticed observed
+ to do
注意： 当这类动词转为被动语态时， 其后的不 定式则要加上“ to” 如：
to sing (sing) the song· He is often heard ________ to enter He was seen _____________(enter) the room.
理解并比较： 1. I saw someone come in. 我看到有人进来了。（强调过程） 2. I saw someone coming in. 我看到有人正往里来（正在进行） jump (jump) over the fence. 3. He had his horse ________ to leave 4. The lady was watched ___________ (leave) her room silence. clean 5. He made the boy _________ (clean) room. enter 6. Did you notice anyone __________ (enter) my room? cry (cry), 7. Though he had often made his little sister______ to cry (cry) by his little sister. today he was made _______ to sing 8. Last night the girls were heard ________ (sing) in the classroom. to leave 9. The local people were made __________ (leave). to pick up 10. Some children were observed _____________ (pick) the flowers.
括号内所给动词的适当形式填空，使句子完整、正确。 (to) water help 1.Let me ______(help) you _____________ (water) the flowers. to be taken 2.Little Sandy would love ____________(take) to the cinema this evening.
cry 3. Though he often made his deskmate ______(cry), to cry today he was made _______(cry) by his deskmate. 4. I saw him _______ into the small store. A. went B. going C. to go D. has gone 5. Tell the boy _______ out of the window.
A. not to look
C. don?t look
B. to not look
D. not look
让，要 have sb. do sth.= get sb. to do sth.
= have sth. done 让某事被做 repair 例： I have him ___________ (repair) my watch. repaired (repair). =I have my watch __________ have sb./ sth. doing 让某人或某事一直进 行某动作或保持某状态 例： I had my car waiting outside. I won’t have you smoking. have sth. to do 有某事要做 have sth. to be done 有某事要被做
Exx: 1. I had him __________ (repair) my bike. repair = I got him __________ to repair (repair) my bike. burning 2. It is too cold, we have the fire ___________ （burn) all night long. waiting (wait) for a long time. 3. He had me _________ 4. I want to have this film ___________ developed (develop) . 5. I will go to Beijing next week. Do you have anything to ________ (take ) to your son? be taken
动词不定式做定语时,应放在被修饰词的后面， 而且放在其他后置定语之后,表示将要做的事.它 和被修饰词之间有三种关系:主谓、动宾和同位.
He is the man to see you. 主谓关系 Please find me something to drink. I am very thirsty. 动宾关系
We all have a chance to go to college.同位关系
注意:如果不定式 He is the man to see you. Please find me something to drink. I am部分的动词是不 very thirsty. We all have a chance to go to college. 及物动词,则需带
Practice: I have a large house to live in .(live)
Please give me some paper to write on .(write) Can you find me a chair to sit in ? (sit)
Do you have anything to wash today? Do you have anything to be washed today?
比较： have some clothes to wash 自己洗
have some clothes to be washed 别人洗
She has a lot of work to do in the morning. 早上他有很多工作要做。
to eat 1. I’m hungry. Get me something__________ (eat). to take 2. He will show you the right path___________ (take). to ask 3. Those who have questions ________ (ask) put up your hands. be sent 4. The books to ___________ (send) to the poor mountain areas next week have been here. to do (do) today, so he can’t 5. He has a lot of work _______ go with us. to write (write). 6. We have a composition _________ to be discussed 7. He told me about the things____________ (discuss) at the next meeting. to be built 8. They have paid for the house ___________(build) next year.
不定式为不及物动词时，须加介词 to live in He is looking for a room _________(live). to cut with Please give me a knife ______________(cut).
with I need a pen to write _______.
1. We are looking a room _______. A. to live in B. to be lived in C. to live D. for living in 2. Would you please pass me the knife _______? A. to cut the fruit with B. to cut the fruit C. cutting the fruit D. cutting the fruit with
3.I have something important to say. please find a piece of paper to write on （写上）
4.Excuse me，could I use your pen for a moment？ I have no pen to write with （写）
不定式与所修饰词的有同位关系（前抽象后具体）， 即不定式短语说明前面名词或代词的内容。 I have no chance to go there. 这样的名词常用的有：way，time，reason， chance，opportunity，need，wish，right， plan, ambition, effort等。 to get up and go to school. 如1.It's time for you ______ 你该起床去上学了。 to doubt his word. 2.There is no reason __________ 没有理由怀疑他的话。 to go abroad 3.They have now an opportunity ______ to study further. 他们现在有机会出国深造。
to stop (stop) me from going in there. You have no right ________ to build There are no plans ___________ (build) new offices. to interest (interest) The local clubs are making every effort _________ more young people. to get 4. There is no need for you _________ (get) up early tomorrow. to become (become) a 5. It has been her lifelong ambition ___________ successful writer. 6. The last man __________ the sinking ship was the captain. A. to leave B. leaving C. left D. to have left
1. 2. 3. 7. His wish _________ a doctor came true. A. becoming B. become C. to become D. became 8. He is always the first ________ and the last ________. A. of coming, of leaving B. comes, leaves C. to come, to leave D. coming, leaving
I came here to see you．(目的) We were very excited to hear the news． (原因) He hurried to the school only to find nobody there . (结果) To look at him，you would like him． (条件)
1). 目的状语: 可放于句首,也可放于句末, 前面可加in order/so as/so…as to表强调.
He went to see the artist himself. He stopped to have a look. He ran so fast as to get to school in time 2). 结果状语:主要用在enough to/too…to…/only to结构中。
The question is too difficult to answer. They worked hard enough to finish their work.
3). 原因状语: 主语+系动词+adj.+ to do
表感情的adj.有: happy, surprised, pleased, glad, sorry, anxious(忧虑), disappointed, careful, afraid, wrong.
I’m very sorry to see you. He was afraid to leave him home
掌握含有目的状语的几种句式： He got up early to catch the first bus. in order to catch the first bus. = He got up early ___ ____ ___ To catch the first bus =______________________, he got up early. In order to catch the first bus, he got up early. =_______________ =He got up early ___ in _____ order _____ that he could catch the first bus. = He got up early ___ so ___ as ____ to catch the first bus. so _____ early ___ as ____ to catch the first bus. =He got up __ 注：1、so as to do…结构不能放于句首； 2、（in order） to do 结构，可以与in order that 目的状语从句转换
掌握too…to…的不同含义。 be+形容词（副词)+enough to do sth.“足以…以至于可以干 too … to do sth.太…而不能（否定含义） too + willing / ready / glad / anxious to do sth.等时，too 的意思是very的 意思，此时是肯定含义“非常乐意做某事/非常着急想做某事 1. The question is simple enough for us to answer.
2. The question is too difficult for to answer.
3. The young man is too willing to do the old living around here.
这位年轻人非常愿意为住在这儿周围的老人做点事。 4. They seemed to be too anxious to leave. 他们似乎太着急而想赶快离开。
He bent down _________ to pick (pick) the pen lying on the floor. picked (pick) the pen lying on 2. He bent down and ________ the ground. 3. The teacher did what she could ______ me with my lessons. A. help B. helps C. helped D. to help to save (save) the 4. The doctor did everything he could _______ patient. to study (study) our 5. Every minute is made full use of ________ lessons. 6. __________ the first bus, he got up early. A. To catch B. So as to catch C. Catch D. In order catch
如to be frank（坦白地说），to be sure（确实） to begin with, to start with(首先，开始）等。
To tell you the truth, I hate you. To be frank, I don‘t think you have done the right thing. To begin with, we ought to consider the problem all-sidedly.
? 不定式在一些动词后作宾语补足语时, 不定式省略to. ? 但这种句子如果变为被动结构,to要补上.
watch see look at observe
动词用法很 make 多,要努力 记哟! have listen to
Practice: (1). She could do nothing but ________ (cry). cry She could say nothing but ________ to cry (cry). (to) find (find) (2). What I want to do now is _________ some books to read.
“前有do,后无to; 前无do, 后有to”. 1.不定式用在介词but, except, besides后时, 如果这些介词前有行为动词do的各种形式,那么 介词后的不定式不带to,相反则带to. 2. 不定式在系动词 后作表语时, 当主语部分有行 为动词do, 作表语的不定式to可省略。
cry .(cry) ? (1). She could do nothing but ____ to go ? (2). I have no choice but____. (go) sleep to do ? (3).What do you like ____ besides____ . (do, sleep)
? 在固定词组和句型中省略to 常见的固定搭配有:
1. had better do/ had better not do 2. would rather do sth. than do sth. = would do…rather than do… 3. prefer + to do A rather than (to) do B 4. why not do sth? 表建议 why do sth? 表责备 Practice: You‘d better not ____ do (do) it. try (try) and fail than They would rather _____ give up (give up) the plan. _______
? 有两个以上的不定式并列在一起时,第 二个不定式的 to 可以省略
1.I promise to finish my homework and hand it on time. 2.Do you want to go shopping or watch a film.
3.I decided to write rather than phone.
V-ing as a noun (动名词)
主动语态 一般式 完成式 doing having done
被动语态 being done having been done
2. 动名词可带有自己的宾语和状语 Are you for or against having the meeting. I insisted on leaving at once. 口诀 动名词在句中的功能及其它 “动名”语法其功能，名词特征有动、形，
1. Swimming is good for your health. 主语 2. My favorite sport is swimming.
3. I love swimming in the sea during the summer.
4. I keep fit by swimming every day. (介)宾语 5. There is a shoe in the swimming pool.定语
动名词(v-ing as a noun)在句中的作用:
? ? ? ?
作主语 作表语 作宾语 作定语
1.可作主语 ①Seeing is believing Reading newspapers can increase our knowledge.
no use no good no fun ② It`s + a shame + doing a waste of time/money useless/of little use dangerous ③ There is no + doing...=It’ impossible to do sth.
①It is no use crying. 哭是无济于事的。 ②It is no good objecting. 反对无效。 ③Looking after the patients is a nurse`s job. ④It`s dangerous playing with fire. ⑤It`s a waste of time copying other`s homework.
⑥There is no joking about the matter.
这是不可能的事情。/这不是轻而易举的事。 There is no joking/saying/knowing/denying/debating… …不是好玩的/没人说/没人知道/没人否认/不容争辩…。
His hobby is collecting stamps.
(此句为SVC结构) 可改为：Collecting stamps is his hobby. Cf. He is collecting stamps. (is collecting是谓 语动词进行时，此句为SVO结构) 不能改为：Collecting stamps is he.
A.作及物动词的宾语 (stand, admit, dislike, imagine, delay, consider, mind, understand, avoid, enjoy, practise, miss, finish, keep, suggest, appreciate, escape等) 如:1） 你介意我在这儿抽烟吗? Would you mind my smoking here ? 2）这女孩被告知每天练习三个小时的钢琴. The girl was told to practise playing the piano for three hours every day． 3） Good news keeps coming.
be used to doing 习惯于做；look forward to doing 盼望做；devote one‘s life to doing 致力于做；spend time (in) doing 花时间做；be fond of doing 喜爱做； be good at doing 擅长做；be proud of doing 为做… 而自豪；be tired of doing 对做…感到厌倦；feel like doing 欲想做；go on doing 继续做（原来的事）；
be committed to; respond to; keep on doing 不停地做；what about doing 做…怎么样； think of doing 考虑做；be interested in doing 对做…感 兴趣；have some difficulty/trouble (in) doing 做某事有 困难；be busy (in) doing 忙于做；instead of doing 做… 而不做…；
swimming pool, waiting room, walking stick a sleeping car =a car for sleeping a sleeping child=a child who is sleeping
动名词可作前置定语，表示所修饰的词的 用途或目的，可用for改写；而现在分词作 定语时，可用定语从句改写。
一般说来，在表示比较抽象的一般行为时多用动 名词；在表示具体的动作，特别是将来的动作时， 多用不定式。 1. Smoking is not allowed here. (表习惯、爱好、 或抽象的动作、经常做的事情。) 2. To smoke so much is not good for you. (表具体的、 一次性动作、要做的事情。) 3. Their jog is building houses. (抽象、经常的动作) 4. Their work is to build another bridge across the river. (具体、要做的动作)
掌握动名词doing和动词不定式to do做主语的区别： Seeing 1. ___________ （see) is believing. To see 2. ___________ (see) is to believe. ★表语是动名词（doing)形式，主语也应用动名词(doing) 形式。主语是动词不定式(to do),表语也用动词不定式 (to do)。整个句子的非谓语动词要一致。 taking (take) pity on the snake led to 3. The old man’s _________ his own death. working (work) all night in the rain caused him to 4. His ________ catch a cold. coming (come) back made his mother happy. 5. His _______ ★在口语中用动名词做主语置于句首的情况要 比动词不定式多
to do 表示具体的动作，-ing form表示泛指的一般性的 动作
1. Her work is ______( look ) after the children. 2. My aim is ______( go ) to TsingHua University. 3. One of my bad habits is ______(bite ) nails（指甲）.
1)动名词可作动词和介词的宾语 2)动词不定式一般作动词的宾语，疑问词＋to do 可作介词的宾语。
1. They preferred walking to school to cycling. 2. They preferred to stay at home rather than go out in such hot weather. 3. Our English teacher often gives us some advice on how to learn English.
区别4：动词不定式与分词作宾补的区别 在see, hear, notice等感官动词和have等使役动词 之后，既可用分词也可用不定式构成复合宾语。 区别是：1)作现在分词时，表示动作正在进行 发生，其含义相当于进行时态；2）用不定式表 示动作已经发生，动作的过程已经结束；3）用 过去分词表示一个被动动作。 1. I saw him go upstairs. （动作全过程） 2. I saw him going upstairs. （动作正在进行） 3. －Don’t have me waiting for you outside ? －I won’t. I just have my hair cut.
① I heard her sing ______( sing) an English song just now. ② I heard her singing ________ (sing) an English song when I passed by her room yesterday. sung sing) many ③ I heard the English song ______( times. being sung (4) I heard the English song ____________( sing) when I passed by her room yesterday.
1).物主代词 / 名词所有格 + 动名词 在句中作主语: Mary`s coming late made her teacher angry. Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us. Rose’s going won’t be of much help. 2).人称代词宾格 / 名词 + 动名词 在句中作宾语: I`m sure of him coming on time. He has never heard of a woman being a pilot. I don’t mind Jack (him) going. Do you mind my reading your paper? She hates young people (them) smoking.
1) I would appreciate _____ back this afternoon .
A. you to call
C. your calling
B. you call
D. you‘re calling
2) ________ made her mother very angry. A. Mary marrying Jim B. Mary‘s married Jim C. Mary‘s marrying Jim D. Mary‘s being married Jim
3). The discovery of new evidence led to ______. A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught 4).The noise of ____ could be heard out in the street. A. desks opening and closing B. desks opened and closed C. desks being opened and closed D. desks‘ being opened and closed
六.分词作定语与动词不定式作定语的区别是： 现在分词表示主动、进行之意；过去分词表 示被动与完成；而不定式表示在谓语动词表 示的动作之后即将发生的动作。例如： discussed (discuss) at the ①The question __________ meeting yesterday is of quite importance. discussed (discuss) at the ②The question being _____________ meeting now is of quite importance. to be discussed (discuss) at the ③The question ______________ meeting tomorrow is of quite importance.
Practise 1). When _______(heat) water will be changed heated into vapour. While _______ heating (heat) water, we can change it into vapour. Seen 2) ______(see) from the hill, the city looks beautiful. _______ Seeing (see) from the hill, you will find the city beautiful. 3) Generally speaking, when ________(take) taken according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. taking If ________(take) the drug according to the directions, you will be better soon.
分词作状语时，其逻辑主语必须同句子的主语 一致；如果不一致，需在分词前加一个逻辑主语， 分词和它的逻辑主语合称独立主格结构或用状语 从句。 (True or false) 1) Being an orphan, the nurse treated him kindly. F 2) He being an orphan, the nurse treated him kindly. T 3) As he was an orphan, the nurse treated him kindly. T
八.现在分词与不定式作结果状语时的区别 1). European football is played in 80 countries , _________ it the most popular sport in the world . (NMET 1998) A. making B. makes C. make D. to make 2). He hurried to the station only ________ that the train had left . (2005广东) A. to find B. finding C. found D. to have found 现在分词作结果状语往往表示“正常出现的、 自 然而然的或意料之中”的结果。不定式作结果状 语
表示心理状态的动词如excite, interest等都是及物 动词，汉语注解不是“激动”、“高兴”，而是“使得 激 动”、“使高兴”，因而现在分词应该是“令人激动 的”、 “令人高兴的”，过去分词则是“感到激动的”和“感 到高 兴的”。所以，凡表示“令人……的”都是-ing形式， 凡 是表示“感到 ……”都用-ed形式。换句话说，若人
对……感兴趣，就是somebody is interested in...， 若人/物本身有趣时，就是sb./sth. is interesting。
delighting 令人高兴的——delighted 感到高兴的 disappointing 令人失望的——disappointed 感到 失望的 encouraging 令人鼓舞的——encouraged 感到鼓 舞的 pleasing 令人愉快的——pleased 感到愉快的 puzzling 令人费解的——puzzled 感到费解的 satisfying 令人满意的——satisfied 感到满意的 surprising 令人惊异的——surprised 感到惊异的 worrying 令人担心的——worried 感到担心的
练习： 造一个含有独立主格结 构的句子
1. All flights_____ D because of the snowstorm, we decided to take the train. A. were canceled B. had been canceled C. having canceled D. having been canceled
2. _____ D for a long time, most of the crops in this area died from lacking water. A. Being no rain B. There was no rain C. To be no rain D. There being no rain
B into consideration, they 3. Everything _______ believed themselves more and returned to their positions.
A. to take B. taken C. to be taken
II. 巩固 练习（07高考真题检测） 1.—Come on, please give me some ideas about the project. —Sorry. With so much work _____ my mind, I almost break down.（07福建卷） A. filled B. filling C. to fill D. being filled 2. John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work ______ he gladly accepted it. （07安徽卷） A.finished B. finishing C. having finished D. was finished 3. —Robert is indeed a wise man. —Oh, yes. How often I have regretted _____ his advice!（07安徽卷） A. to take B. taking C. not to take D. not taking
4. The children talked so loudly at dinner table that I had to struggle _______.（07浙江卷） A. to be heard B. to have heard C. hearing D. being heard 5. ______ by a greater demand for vegetables, farmers have built more green houses.（07 浙江卷） A. Driven B. Being driven C. To drive D. Having driven 6. As the light turned green, I stood for a moment, not ______, and asked myself what I was going to do.（07湖南卷） A.moved B. moving C. to move D. being moved
7. “Things ______ never come again!” I couldn’t help talking to myself.（07湖南卷） A.lost B. losing C. to lose D. have lost 8. Please remain ________ until the plane has come to a complete stop.（07山东卷） A.to seat B. to be seated C. seating D. seated
9. At the beginning of class, the noise of desks _______ could be heard outside the classroom.（07全国卷II） A. opened and closed B. to be opened and closed C. being opened and closed D. to open and close 10. Peter received a letter just now ________ his grandma would come to see him soon. （07四川卷） A. said B. says C. saying D. to say 11. He is a student at Oxford University, _____ for a degree in computer science.（07北京） A.studied B. studying C. to have studied D. to be studying
12. The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons _______ for the day. （07重庆卷） A.finishing B. finished C. had finished D. were finished 13. I smell something _______ in the kitchen. Can I call you back in a minute?（07全国I） A.burning B. burnt C. being burnt D. to be burnt 14. When asked why he went there, he said he was sent there _______ for a space flight. （07江西卷） A.training B. being trained C. to have trained D. to be trained
15.—Can I smoke here ? —Sorry. We don’t allow ________ here.（07 江苏卷） A. people smoking B. people smoke C. to smoke D. smoking 16. He is very popular among his students as he always tries to make them _______ in his lectures.（07江苏卷） A. interested B. interesting C. interest D. to interest 17. As a result of the serious flood, two-thirds of the buildings in the area _______.（07陕 西卷） A. need repairing B. needs to repair C. needs repairing D. need to repair
19. The glass doors have taken the place of the wooden ones at the entrance, ______ in the natural light during the day.（07天津卷） A. to let B. letting C. let D. having let 20. After a knock at the door, the child heard his mother’s voice _______ him.（07上海卷） A. calling B. called C. being called D. to call
21. The Town Hall ______ in the 1800’s was the most distinguished building at that time. （07上海卷） A. to be completed B. having been completed C. completed D. being completed
（08高考真题检测） 1(08全国卷I‘ 26) I like getting up very early in summer. The morning air is so good _____. A. to be breathed B. to breathe C. breathing D. being breathed 2(08全国卷II‘ 12)The director had her assistant ___ some hot dogs for the meeting. A. picked up B. picks up C. pick up D. picking up 3(08北京卷’ 24) ______ that she was going off to sleep, I asked if she‘d like that little doll on her bed. A. Seeing B. To see C. See D. Seen
4(08北京卷’ 31)–Did the book give the information you needed? –Yes. But __ it, I had to read the entire book. A. to find B. find C. to finding D. finding 5(08北京卷’ 32) I feel greatly honored ____ into their society. A. to welcome B. welcoming C. to be welcomed D. welcomed 6(08北京卷’ 35) It is worth considering what makes ―convenience‖ foods so popular, and __ _ better ones of your own. A. introduces B. to introduce C. introducing D. introduced
7(08上海春卷’ 32) As a new driver, I have to practise _________ the car in my small garage again and again A. parking B. to park C. parked D. park 8(08上海春卷’ 34) Due to the heavy rain and flooding , ten million people have been forced _____their homes A. leaving B. to leave C. to be left D. being left 9(08上海春卷’ 38) Throughout history, the language _____ by a powerful group spreads across a civilization A. speaking B. spoken C. to speak D. to be spoken
10(08上海春卷’39) If we have illegal immigrants ________ in, many local workers will lose their jobs A. came B. coming C. to come D. having come 11(08上海卷’30) My sister , an inexperienced rider, was found sitting on the bicycle ____ to balance it . A. having tried B. trying C. to try D. tried 12(08上海卷’33) If there‘s a lot of work ______, I am happy to just keep on until it is finished. A. to do B. to be doing C. done D. doing
13(08上海卷’35) Something as simple as ______ some cold water may clear your mind or relieve pressure. A. to drink B. drinking C. to be drinking D. drunk 14(08上海卷’37) Ideally _____ for Broadway theatres and Fifth Avenue , the New York Park is a favourite with many guests. A. locating B. being located C. having been located D. located 15(08天津卷’ 04)_____ their hats into the air, the fans of the winning team let out loud shouts of victory. A. To throw B. Thrown C. Throwing D. Being thrown
16(08重庆卷’ 29) to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead A. Fail B. Failed C. To fail D. Having failed 17(08辽宁卷’ 27)He was busy writing a story, only ______ once in a while to smoke a cigarette. A. to stop B. stopping C. to have stopped D. having stopped 18(08辽宁卷’ 31)Please remain ______; the winner of the prize will be announced soon. A. seating B. seated C. to seat D. to be seated 19(08山东卷’ 35)Lucy‘s new job paid twice as much as she had made ______ in the restaurant. A. working B. work C. to work D. worked
20(08江苏卷’ 29)—They are quiet, aren‘t they?— Yes. They are accustomed ______ at meals. A. to talk B. to not talk C. to talking D. to not talking 21(08江苏卷’ 34)To learn English well, we should find opportunities to hear English ______ as much as we can. A. speak. B. speaking C. spoken D. to speak 22(08江西卷’24)I hear they‘ve promoted Tom, but he didn‘t mention _____ when we talked on the phone. A. to promote B. having been promoted C. having promoted D. to be promoted
23(08江西卷’28)We finished the run in less than half the time ____. A. allowing B. to allow C. allowed D. allows 24(08安徽卷’30) ____ in the fields on a March afternoon, he could feel the warmth of spring. A. To walk. B. Walking C. Walked D. Having walked 25(08浙江卷’10)______that he was in great danger, Eric walked deeper into the forest. A. Not realized B. Not to realize C. Not realizing D. Not to have realized 26(08浙江卷’13)It is one of the funniest things ______ on the Internet so far this year. A. finding B. being found
27(08湖南卷’26)The trees _____ in the storm have been moved off the road. A. being blown down B. blown down C. blowing down D. to blow down 28(08湖南卷’30)_____ the project as planned, we‘ll have to work two more hours a day. A. Completing B. Complete C. Completed D. To complete 29(08湖南卷’34)Susan wanted to be independent of her parents. She tried _____ alone, but she didn‘t like it and moved back home. A. living B. to live C. to be living D. having lived 30(08陕西卷’11) The message is very important, so it is supposed as soon as possible. A. to be sent B. to send C. being sent D. sending
31(08陕西卷’14) around the Water Cube, we were then taken to see the Bird‘s Nest for the 2008 Olympic Games. A. Having shown B. To be shown C. Having been shown D. To show 32(08四川卷’14)We had an anxious couple of weeks _____ for the results of the experiment. A. wait B. to be waiting C. waited D. waiting 33(08福建卷’22) ___ in the queue for half an hour, the old man suddenly realized he had left the cheque in the car. A. Waiting B. To wait C. Having Waited D. To have waited
34(08福建卷’30)– Who should be responsible for the accident? – The boss, not the workers. They just carried out the order _____. A. as told B. as are told C. as telling D. as they told 35(08福建卷’33)– Can those ____ at the back of the classroom hear me? A. seat B. sit C. seated D. sat 36(08福建卷’34) You have no idea how she finished the relay race ____ her foot wounded so much. A. for B. when C. with D. while
copyright ©right 2010-2020。