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3.缩写词扩展(10 分) (10 个) RAM (random access memory) ISP Internet Service Provider URL Uniform/Universal Resource Locator FTP File Transfer Protocol DSL (Digital Subscriber Line 数字用户专线) DBMS NIC 网卡(Network Interface Card AGP Accelerated Graphics Port(加速图形接口) OMR OpticalMarkReader VRML Virtual Reality Modeling Language)即虚拟现实建模语言 NOS NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM, 即氮气加速系统 CPU 中央处理器 (CPU, 英语: Central Processing Unit) , ALU 算术逻辑单元 (Arithmetic-Logic Unit RFID 射频识别(英文:Radio Frequency IDentification GUI 图形用户界面(Graphical User Interface RSI Relative Strength Index USB Universal Serial Bus CRT 阴极射线管(Cathode Ray Tube 4. 英译汉 (28 分) Chapter 1 Software, as we mentioned, is another name for programs. Programs are the instructions that tell the computer how to process data into the form you want. In most cases, the words software and programs are interchangeable. There are two major kinds of software: system software and application software. You can think of application software as the kind you use. Think of system software as the kind the computer uses. P4 软件,正如我们所提到的,它的另外一个名字叫程序。程序是告诉计算机如何按照你的 想法处理数据的一系列指令集。在大多数情况下,软件和程序是可以互换。主要有两个不同 种类的软件:系统软件和应用程序软件。你可以认为应用软件是你使用的那类,系统软件就 是给电脑使用的那类。 Careers in IT. One of the most important decisions of your life is to decide upon your life’s work or career. Perhaps you are planning to be a writer, an artist, or an engineer. Or you might become a professional in information technology. Each of the following chapters highlights a specific career in information technology. This feature provides job descriptions, projected employment demands, educational requirements, current salary ranges, and advancement opportunities. P6 职业生涯。 人生最重要的决定之一就是决定你一生的工作或职业。 也许你正计划成为一 个作家,艺术家,或工程师。 或者你可以成为一个专业的信息技术。 以下章节突出特定的职业 信息技术。 这个特性提供了职位描述,预计就业需求,教育需求,目前的薪水范围,和进步的机 会。 Experts agree that we as a society must be careful about the potential of technology to negatively impact our personal privacy and security. Additionally, we need to be aware of potential physical and mental health risks associated with using technology. Finally, we need to be aware of negative effects on our environment caused by the manufacture of computerrelated products. P17 专家认为,我们作为一个社会必须注意技术的潜在负面影响我们的个人隐私和安全。另 外,我们需要知道潜在的生理和心理的健康风险与使用技术有关。 最后,我们需要意识到造成

的负面影响我们的环境电脑相关产品的制造。 Chapter 2 It is easy to get the Internet and the Web confused,(troubled, chaotic, puzzled 困惑的;混乱的;糊涂的) but they are not the same things. The Internet is the actual physical network. It is made up of wires, cables, and satellites. Being connected to this network is often described as being online. The inernet connected millions of computers and resources throughout the world. The Web is a multimedia interface to resources available on the Internet. Every day over a billion users from nearly every country in the world use the Internet and the Web. P30 很容易让互联网和 Web 困惑,但是它们不是相同的东西。互联网是实际的物理网络。它 是由电线、电缆和卫星。被连接到这个网络通常被描述为在线。网络连接世界各地数以百万 计的电脑和资源。 网络是一个多媒体接口可用资源在互联网上。 每天从世界上几乎每一个国 家超过十亿个用户使用互联网和网络。 As previously mentioned, communication is the most popular Internet activity, and its impact cannot be overestimated. At a personal level, friends and family can stay in contact with one another even when separated by thousands of miles. At a business level, electronic communication has become a standard, and many time preferred, way to stay in touch with suppliers, employees, and customers. P33 正如前面提到的,沟通是最受欢迎的互联网活动,其影响不可估量的。在个人层面上,朋 友和家人可以彼此保持联系,即使相隔数千英里。在业务层面,电子通信已成为一个标准,和 许多时间优先,与供应商保持联系,雇员和顾客。 In an attempt to control spam, anti-spam laws have been added to our legal system. For example, the recently enacted CAN-SPAM Act(反垃圾邮件法)requires that every marketing-related e-mail provide an opt-out (选择退出)option. When the option is selected, the recipient’s e-mail address is to be removed from future mailing lists. Failure to do so results in heavy fines. This approach, however, has had minimal impact since over 50 percent of all spam originates from servers outside the United States.A more effective approach has been the development and use of spam blockers. These programs use a variety of different approaches to identify and eliminate spam. P35 为了控制垃圾邮件,反垃圾邮件法已经被添加到我们的法律体系。例如,最近颁布了spam 法(反垃圾邮件法)要求每一个市场营销的相关邮件,提供一个退出(选择退出)的选择。 选项被选中时,收件人的电子邮件地址从未来的邮件列表。如果不这样做 ,就会导致高额罚 款。这种方法,然而,一直以来最小的影响超过 50%的垃圾邮件都来自美国以外的服务器。一 个更有效的方法是垃圾邮件拦截器的开发和使用。 这些程序使用各种不同的方法来识别和消 除垃圾邮件。 Chapter 3 ①Word processors provide a variety of features to make entering, editing, and formatting documents easy. One of the most basic features for entering text is word wrap. This feature automatically moves the insertion point to the next line once the current line is full. As you type, the words wrap around to the next line. P66 字处理器提供的各种特性输入,编辑和格式化文档容易。 最基本的特性之一,用于输入文 本自动换行。 此功能自动插入点移动到下一行一次当前行已经满了。 当你输入下一行的文字 环绕。

②Spreadsheet programs organize, analyze, and graph numeric data such as budgets and financial reports. Once used exclusively by accountants, spreadsheets are widely used by nearly every profession. Marketing professionals analyze sales trends. Financial analysts evaluate and graph stock market trends. Students and teachers record grades and calculate grade point averages. P 69 电子表格程序组织、分析和图表数值型数据,如预算和财务报告。曾经由会计师、独家 电子表格到几乎每一个行业被广泛使用。 市场营销专业人士分析销售趋势。 金融分析师评估 股票市场趋势和图。老师和学生成绩记录和计算平均分。 ③An integrated package is a single program that provides the functionality of a word processor, spreadsheet, database manager, and more. The primary disadvantage of an integrated package is that the capabilities of each function (such as word processing) are not as extensive as in the individual programs(such as Microsoft Word). The primary advantages are cost and simplicity. The cost of an integrated package is much less than the cost of the individual powerful, professional-grade application programs discussed thus far in this chapter. P79 一个完整的包是一个程序,它提供了一个字处理器的功能,电子表格,数据库管理器等 等。 一个集成方案的主要缺点是,每个函数的功能(如文字处理)不一样广泛的个人项目(比如 Microsoft word)。的主要优势是成本和简单。一个集成方案的成本远远低于成本的个人强 大,专业应用程序到目前为止在本章中讨论。 Chapter 4 One of the most common types of graphic files is bitmap. Bitmap images, also known as raster images, use thousands of dots or pixels to represent images. Each dot has a specific location, color, and shade. One limitation of bitmap images, however, is that when they are expanded, the images can become pixilated, or jagged on the edges. P95 最常见的一种类型的位图图形文件。 位图图像,也称为光栅图像,使用成千上万的点或像 素来表示图像。每个点都有一个特定的位置、颜色和阴影。然而 ,位图图像的一个限制是, 当他们正在扩大,图像会变得调皮捣蛋的,或锯齿状边缘。 Vector is another common type of graphic file. While bitmap images use pixels to represent images, vector images, also known as vector illustrations, use geometric shapes or objects. These objects are created by connecting lines and curves. Because these objects can be defined by mathematical equations, they can be rapidly and easily resized, colored, textured, and manipulated. An image is a combination of several objects. Illustration programs, also known as drawing programs, are used to create and edit vector images.P96 向量是另一个常见的图形文件。 位图图像使用像素来表示图像,矢量图像,也被称为矢量 插图,用几何图形或物体。这些对象是由直线和曲线连接。因为这些对象可以定义的数学方 程,它们可以快速、轻松地调整大小,颜色,纹理和操纵。一个图像结合了对象。说明项目, 也称为绘图程序,用于创建和编辑矢量图像。

Effective multimedia presentations incorporate user participation or interactivity. Interactivity allows the user to choose the information to view, to control the pace and flow of information, and to respond to items and receive feedback. When experiencing an interactive multimedia presentation, users customize the presentation to their needs. P101 有效的多媒体演示文稿包含用户参与或交互性。交互性允许用户选择查看的信息,控制 速度和信息的流动,和应对项目和接收反馈。当经历一个交互式多媒体演示、用户自定义演 示他们的需求。 Chapter 5 ①Starting or restarting a computer is called booting the system. There are two ways to boot a computer: a warm boot and a cold boot. A warm boot occurs when the computer is already on and you restart it without turning off the power. A warm boot can be accomplished in several ways. P123 启动或重新启动计算机称为引导系统。有两种方法可以引导计算机:一个温暖的引导和 冷启动。 热启动发生在电脑已经和你没有关掉电源重新启动它。 温暖的靴子可以在几个方面 来完成。 ②Most operating system store data and programs in a system of files and folders. Unlike the traditional filing cabinet , computer files and folders are stored on a secondary storage device such as your hard disk. Files are used to store data and programs. Related files are stored within a folder, and for organizational purpose, a folder can contain other folders. P124 大多数操作系统存储数据和程序的系统文件和文件夹。与传统的文件柜,电脑文件和文 件夹存储在二级存储设备,如硬盘。文件用于存储数据和程序。相关的文件存储在一个文件 夹,组织的目的,一个文件夹可以包含其他文件夹。 ③Disk defragmenter is a utility program that locates and eliminates unnecessary fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operations. P131 磁盘碎片整理程序是一个定位和消除不必要的碎片和实用程序将文件和未使用的磁盘 空间优化操作。 Chapter 6 Our voices create analog, or continuous, signals that vary represent different tones, pitches, and volume. Computers, however, can recognize only digital electronic signals. Before any processing can occur within the system unit, a conversion must occur from what we understand to what the system unit can electronically process. P152 我们的声音创造模拟,或连续,信号不同代表不同的音调,音高和体积。 然而,计算机只能 识别数字电子信号。在系统单元能够进行任何处理之前,我们理解的转换必须发生的系统单 元可以电子化过程。 Sockets provide a connection point for small specialized electronic parts called chips. Chips consist of tiny circuit boards etched onto squares of sandlike material called silicon. These circuit boards can be smaller than the tip of your finger. P154 套接字提供一个连接点为小型专业电子零件称为芯片。 芯片是由微小的电路板上的方块 sandlike 材料称为硅。这些电路板可以小于你的手指。

Plug and Play is a set of hardware and software standards developed by Intel, Microsoft, and others. It is an effort by hardware and software vendors to create operating systems, processing units, and expansion boards, as well as other devices, that are able to configure themselves. Ideally, to install a new expansion board, all you have to do is insert the board and turn on the computer. P160 即插即用硬件和软件标准的是一组由英特尔、微软、和其他人。它是由硬件和软件供应 商的努力创建操作系统,处理单元,和扩展板,以及其他设备,能够配置本身。理想情况下,安 装一个新的扩展板,所有你需要做的就是在剪贴薄中放入董事会和打开电脑。 Chapter 7 ①A mouse controls a pointer that is displayed on the monitor. The mouse pointer usually appears in the shape of an arrow. It frequently changes shape, however, depending on the application. A mouse can have one, two, or more buttons, which are used to select command options and to control the pointer on the monitor. Some mice have a wheel button that can be rotated to scroll through information that is displayed on the monitor. P184 鼠标控制指针显示在监视器上。 鼠标指针通常出现在一个箭头的形状。 它经常改变形状, 然而,这取决于应用程序。鼠标可以有一个、两个或更多的按钮,用来选择命令选项,控制显 示器上的指针。一些老鼠轮按钮,可以旋转滚动信息显示在监视器上。 ② A light pen is a light-sensitive penlike device. The light pen is placed against the monitor. This closes a photoelectric circuit and identifies the spot for entering or modifying data. P185 发光笔是一种对光敏感的笔状装置。 发光笔垂直放置于显示器上。 这样做可以闭合光电 电路,并可以识别输入或修改数据的点。 ③Radio frequency card readers are not as common but more convenient because they do not require the card to actually make contact with the reader. The card has a small RFID (radio frequency identification) microchip that contains the user’s encoded information. Whenever the card is passed within a few inches of the card reader, the user’s information is read. P187 射频读卡器不常见但更方便,因为他们不需要卡实际接触读者。卡有一个小的 RFID(射 频识别)芯片,其中包含用户的编码信息。每当卡传递几英寸的读卡器,读取用户的信息。 5.汉译英 (4-5)20 分 Chapter 1 Almost all of today’s computer systems add an additional part to the information system. This part, called connectivity, allows computers to connect and to share information. 今天几乎所有的计算机系统添加一个额外的部分信息系统。这部分称为连接,允许电脑 连接和共享信息。 Chapter 2 While there are numerous advantages to e-commerce, there are disadvantages as well. Some of these disadvantages include the inability to provide immediate delivery of goods, the inability to “try on” prospective purchases, and question relating to the security of online payments. P43 电子商务虽然有许多优点,也有缺点。这些缺点包括不能提供货物立即交货,不能“试 穿”未来的购买,和在线支付的安全相关的问题。

Chapter 3 Spreadsheet programs typically provide a variety of different types of functions, including financial, mathematical, statistical, and logical functions. Some of these functions are presented in Figure 3-7. 电子制表软件通常提供会提供多种多样不同类型的函数,包括金融的,数学的,统计的 以及逻辑的函数。 Chapter 4 There are numerous Web image galleries. (See Figure 4-6.)Some of these sites offer free images and clip art while others charge a fee. P96 有很多 Web 图片画廊。(见图 4 - 6。)这些网站提供免费的一些图片和剪辑艺术而其他 人收取费用。 Chapter 5 Microsoft’s Windows is by far the most popular microcomputer operating system today with over 90 percent of the market. P125 微软的 Windows 是迄今为止最受欢迎的今天微机操作系统拥有超过 90%的市场份额。 Chapter 7 A joystick is the most popular input device for computer games. you control game actions by varying the pressure, speed, and direction of the joystick. P185 操纵杆输入设备是最受欢迎的电脑游戏。你控制游戏行为通过改变压力,速度和方向操 纵杆。 6. 名词解释,用英语解释单词的含义。(?分 4-5 个) 12 分 1.connectivity P18 2.protocols P32 3.database P74 4.master slide P77 5.vector images P96 6.graphical map P111 7.device drivers P122 8.control unit P155 9.clarity P192 10.worms P287 11. morphing P104



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