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高中英语必修三 Unit 4 Astronomy 阅读,词汇与语法


Unit 4

Astronomy: the science of the stars

Reading

Language points

Grammar

By Li Li
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I 教学内容分析 本单元的中心话题是“天文学”。本单元的两篇文章都

采用了叙述性文体。第一篇阅读短文按照时 间顺序主要叙述了地球上生命的起源和发展过程。 第二篇阅读短文中作者用第一人称的口吻讲述了他和 朋友的登月经历。可以说本单元科学知识含量较高,更能激发学生的学习兴趣和好奇心。 Warming Up 部分共有两个问题,第一个问题让学生说出八大行星并看图指出各个行星的名称; 第二个问 题让学生说出自己对天文学哪些方面感兴趣以及天文学家所关注的方面。 在高考的重压之下, 同学们都 想能利用科学的学习方法做到事半功倍而且很多学生也一直做着将来能成为科学家的梦。 所以, 该话题 会让学生们兴趣盎然,积极思考和讨论此方面的内容,从而达到热身的目的。 Pre-reading 部分也提出了三个问题,主要是让学生区分宗教信仰、文化传统和科学思想之间的不 同。 可以以讲故事的方式让学生彼此之间分享一些有关宇宙和地球起源方面的传说或故事, 这样既能激 活他们的思维也能为阅读部分打下基础。 Reading 部分描写了地球上生命的起源和发展过程, 具体写了由于水的形成才使得地球上生命的诞生成 为可能。科学家认为,地球上的生命最初诞生于水中。数万年后,陆地上才长出了绿色植物,随后出现 了陆栖动物和水陆两栖动物。最初的动物靠孵化繁衍后代, 再之后诞生了哺乳动物,人类也随之诞生 了。文章最后讲述的现象发人深省:The earth may become too hot for the lives on it.它关系到地球上生命 的未来。 Comprehending 部分通过五个练习题检测学生对本文核心内容的理解。 练习 1 是对文章结构的分析 以及大意的概括; 练习 2 通过排序的方式帮助学生弄清本文的行文线索, 也就是地球上生命的起源和发 展历程;练习 3 提出 5 个小问题,考查学生的深层理解和推断能力;练习 4 让学生找出文章中出现的连 接词,检查学生对文章中句型的熟悉和理解程度,同时还有助于学生在写作方面得到提高;练习 5 让学 生选择一个问题进行回答并向全班汇报,开拓学生的思维并锻炼他们的语言表达能力。 。 Learning about Language 有词汇和语法两部分。第一部分练习让学生学着去应用课文中出现的词语。 第二部分是针对主语从句的练习, 其中第一题要求学生从课文中找出三个或更多的主语从句; 第二个练 习以把主语从句改写成简单句的形式让学生能对此语法有深层的了解。 第三个练习则以完成句子的方式 要求学生更进一步的运用复合句,此部分是对表语从句进行练习。 Using Language 包括“听力”、“阅读”、“说和写”三大块。这三部分的话题都是有关科学的。听力部 分主要是介绍三位伟大的科学家。 阅读部分讲了一个科幻故事。 说和写的中心话题是登月旅行中必需的 工具和可能遇到的问题。该部分的设计由浅入深,层层递进,既练习了听力又丰富了知识,还能够锻炼 同学们的想象力,拓展学生各方面能力。 Summing Up 指导学生归纳和总结在本单元学到的知识——有用词汇、惯用表达和语法结构。 II.教学重点和难点 1. 教学重点 (1)本单元的生词、短语和句型结构; (2)掌握主语从句并把它和表语从句进行区别; (3)学会运用科学知识并能结合自己的想象力去解决现实中的问题。 2.教学难点 (1)通过学习相应的科学知识培养学生的创造性思维能力; (2)学生应能够理解主语从句的用法和作用并能做到学以致用,举一反三。 单元要点预览 1. loudly / loud / aloud 2. unlike / dislike 3. remain / 词 词语 leave 汇 辨析 4. climate / weather 5. now that / since / because / as 部 词 1. violent adj.强暴的, 猛 violence n.暴力,强 violently adv. 强 暴 分 形 烈的 暴;猛烈 地;猛烈地
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变 化

重 点 单词

重 点 词 组

重点句 子

重点语 法 语言要点(模块) Ⅰ .词语辨析 (旨在提供完形填空所需材料) 1. loudly / loud / aloud 【解释】 loudly adv 响亮地,高声地 loud adj/adv 与 sing, speak, talk 连用 aloud adv 相对默读而言;出声

2. fundamental adj.基本 fundamentally adv. fundament n. 基础; ( 础 ) 的 n.[pl.] 基本原 基本地;根本地 根本 则(法则) 3. development n.生长, develop vt.发展;产 developed adj. 发达 发 生 的 developing adj. 发 展;新情况 vi.生长;发展 展的 4. lay vt.放下; 摆设; 产 lie vi. 躺,平放; lie n.&vi. 谎话; 说谎 (蛋) 位于 lie---lied---lied---lyin lay---laid---laid---layi lie---lay---lain---lyi g ng ng 5. prevent vt. 预防,防 prevention n.预防; preventable adj.可防 止 阻止;妨碍 止的,可预防的 6. gentle adj.和蔼的;轻 gently adv.温和地; 柔的 静静地 7. physics n.物理,物理 physicist n.物理学 physical adj.身体的; 学 家 物理(学)的;物质的 1. system n.[c] 系统;体系;制度;方法 2. lay vt. (laid, laid, laying) 把……放下;摆设;铺(地毯) ;产(蛋) 3. harmful adj. 有害的;伤害的 4. exist vi. 存在;生存 5. puzzle v.(使)迷惑;(使)苦思 n.谜;难题 6. pull v.拉,拖,拔;移动 n.拉,拖;拉(引)力 7. cheer vt.&vi. (使)高兴、振奋;(对)欢呼 1. to begin with 以……开始;由……作为开头;首先 2. in time 及时;最终;迟早 3. in one’ s turn 轮到某人;接着 4. prevent...from 使……不做事;阻止……做某事 5. block out 挡住(光线) 6. be off = set off 出发;动身;不用上班/学/开张 7. break out (灾难、战争等)突发;爆发 8. watch out 密切注视;当心;提防 1. It exploded loudly with fire and rock, which were in time to produce the water vapour, carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen and other gases, which were to make the earth’ s atmosphere. 2. That made it possible for life to begin to develop. 3. But when I tried to step forward I found I was carried twice as far as on the earth and fell over. 宾语从句和表语从句(见语法部分)

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【练习】根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词。 1). Will you please speak ______? 2). It is good for you to read English ______ every morning. 3). The bomb exploded ______. 4). Is her voice ______ enough ? 5). Action speaks ______ than words (事实胜于雄辩). Keys: 1). louder 2). aloud 3). loudly 4). loud 5). louder 2. unlike / dislike 【解释】 unlike prep. 不像,和……不同 adj. [作表语] 不相似;不同 dislike vt./n. 不喜爱,厌恶 【练习】根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词。 1). A good hotel manager should know his regular guests’ likes and ______. 2). Her latest novel is quite ______ her earlier work. 3). If you go on like that you’ ll get yourself _______ (like). 4). I was very interested in the lecture, ______ many of the students. Keys: 1). dislikes 2). unlike 3). disliked 4). unlike 3. remain/leave 【解释】 remain vi. 仍然是;留下;剩下 常用句型:remain + n. 仍然是 remain + adj./adv./prep. 仍然是 remain + v-ed/v-ing 仍然是 remain to be done 有待去做, 依然要 做 leave vt. 剩下,忽略或未拿或未带(某物) ,使或让(某人、事物)处某状态 ﹑某地等 常用句型:leave sb. sth. / leave sth. to sb. 给某人留下某物 leave sth (for sb) 留下,交待下(某物) leave sth to sb 将某物遗赠 给某人 remaining/left 两者都可以作形容词,表示“剩下的”,前者用于被修饰的名词之 前,后者用于被修饰的名词之后。 【练习】根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词。 1). Someone ______ you this note while you were out. 2). After the earthquake, little ______ of the village. 3). He used the ______ money to buy a dictionary. 4). After buying the dictionary, he had not much money______. 5). Arriving home, I found that I’ d ______ my key in the office. 6). Don’ t leave her ______ (wait) outside in the rain. 7). She remained _______ (change) after all these years. 8). A great many things remain _______ (do). Keys: 1). left 2). remained 3). remaining 4). left 5). left 6). waiting 7). unchanged 8). to be done 4. climate / weather 【解释】 climate 指从长时间的范围来看某地的平均气候或经常性的气候; weather 指某地一时的天气,如寒暖、晴雨和干湿的变化情况。

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【练习】根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词。 1). We shall go out for a picnic tomorrow if the _______ is fine. 2). A drier _______ would be good for your health. 3). I couldn’t imagine what it would be like to live in a hot ________. 4). The _______ of our country is mild, but individual places experience bad ________. Keys: 1). weather 2). climate 3). climate 4). climate; weather 5. now that / since / because / as 【解释】 都可引导原因状语从句,语气最强的是 because,引导直接而明确的原因,也 用来回答 why 的问句或用于强调句型;其次是 since/now that,表示已知或明 显的原因,再次是 as,引导的原因是不言而喻、显而易见的;for 引导的是并 列分句,表推测或判断的原因,前面有逗号隔开。 【练习】根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词。 1). _______ everybody is here, let’s begin our meeting. 2) It was _______ he was ill that he didn’ t go to school. 3). It must have rained last night, _______ the ground is all wet. 4). _______ we are alone, we can speak freely. Keys: 1). since/now that 2). because 3). for 4). Now (that) Ⅱ .词性变化(旨在提供语法填空所需材料) 1. violent adj.强暴的,猛 violence n.暴力, 强暴; 猛 violently adv. 强暴地;猛 烈的 烈 烈地 2. fundamental adj. 基本 fundamentally adv. 基 本 fundament n. 基础;根本 (础)的 n.[pl.]基本原则 地;根本地 (法则) 3. development n.生长, develop vt.发展;产生 developed adj. 发达的 发 vi.生长;发展 developing adj. 发展的 展;新情况 4. lay vt.放下;摆设;产 lie vi. 躺,平放;位于 lie n.&vi. 谎话;说谎 (蛋) lie---lay---lain---lying lie---lied---lied---lying lay---laid---laid---layin g 5. prevent vt. 预防, 防止 prevention n.预防;阻止; preventable adj.可防止的, 妨碍 可预防的 6. gentle adj.和蔼的;轻 gently adv.温和地; 静静地 柔的 7. physics n.物理,物理 physicist n.物理学家 physical adj.身体的;物理 学 (学)的;物质的 【练习】用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空。 1). The naughty boy _______ (lie) to me that the hen that _______ (lie) there just now had ______ (lay) two eggs the day before. 2). In my opinion, ________ (prevent) is more important than treatment. 3). Some programs on the Internet are full of ________ (violent) and sex. 4). With the ________ (develop) of modern industry, more and more pollution is caused. 5). China is a ________ (develop) country belong to the third world.
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6). There are ________ (fundament) differences between your religious beliefs and mine. 7). His ambition is to become a great ________ (physics). Keys: 1). lied; lay; laid 2). prevention 3). violence 4). development 5). developing 6). fundamental 7). physicist Ⅲ .重点词汇 1. system n.[c] 系统;体系;制度;方法 systematic adj 有系统的; 有条理的 [典例] 1). The solar system includes the sun and its eight planets. 太阳系包括太阳和它的八颗行星。 2). Alcohol is bad for your system. 喝酒对身体有害。 [练习] 根据句子的意思完成句子。 1). The ______ ______ (教育系统) operates very differently in the US and China. 2). He introduced us a well-designed ______ ______ (铁路系统). Keys: 1). educational system 2). railway system 2. lay vt. (laid, laid, laying) 把放下;摆设;铺(地毯) ;产(蛋) [典例] 1). He laid his hand on my shoulder. 他把手放在我的肩上。 2). Who should we lay the blame on? 我们该责备谁? [重点用法] lay 短语: lay eggs 下蛋 lay sth. aside 把某物放在一边;积蓄(钱) lay sth. down 把某物放下 lay the blame on sb.责备某人 lay the table 摆桌子 lay emphasis / stress on sth. 把重点放在某事上 [练习] 根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。 1). The bird ______ its eggs in other birds’ nests. 2). He is a political leader that _____ _____ _____ _____ (非常强调) individual responsibility. 3). He ______ some money ______ for rainy days. Keys: 1). lays 2). lays great stress on 3). lays/puts; aside 3. harmful adj. 有害的;伤害的 harm n.&vt. 伤害(某人) [典例] Many people are aware of the harmful effects of smoking. 很多人都意识到吸烟的危害。 [重点用法] be harmful to sb./sth. 对……有害 do harm to sb.= do sb. harm = harm sb. 对……有害;伤 害…… [练习] 根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。 1). Everyone knows that smoking is ______ to your health. 2). In many cases, too much care for children from parents might even do ______ to their growth. 3). 在阳光下看书对你的眼睛伤害很大。 _______________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1). harmful 2). harm 3). Reading in the sun does a lot of harm to your eyes. = Reading in the sun does your eyes a lot of harm.= Reading in the sun is very harmful to your eyes. 4. exist vi. 存在;生存 existence n. 存在 [典例] 1). Does life exist on Mars? 火星上有生命吗?
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2). I can hardly exist on the wage I’ m getting. 我靠我挣的工资简直难以餬口。 [重点用法] exist + prep. 存在于地方 exist on sth. 靠某物生存 [练习] 用 exist 的短语或其适当形式填空。 1). This plant ______ only ______ Australia. 2). Can you ______ ______ such a low salary? 3). I doubt the ______ (exist) of alien. Keys: 1). exists; in 2). exist on to 3). existence 5. puzzle vt.&vi. (使)迷惑;(使)苦思 n.谜;难题 puzzled adj.无法了解的;困惑的 puzzling adj.令人 费解的 [典例] 1). Her reply puzzled me. 她的回答把我弄糊涂了。 2). Their reason for doing it is still a puzzle to me. 他们为什麽要做此事我仍莫名其妙。 [重点用法] sth. puzzles sb. 某事使某人迷惑/为难 sb. be puzzled by sth. 某人对……感到 迷惑 puzzle about/over sth. 对某事感到迷惑或苦苦思索(以便理解) puzzle one’ s brain 苦思苦想; 绞尽脑汁 solve a puzzle 解决一个难题 [练习] 用 puzzle 的适当形式填空或翻译。 1). To explain the ________ (puzzle) findings, he offers two theories. 2). I _______ (puzzle) that I haven’ t heard from Liz for so long. 3). She listened with a _______ (puzzle) expression on her face. 4). No one has yet succeeded in explaining the _______ (puzzle) of how life began. 5). He _______ (puzzle) what to do next. 6). _______ _______ _______ (使我困惑的事情) is why he left the country without telling anyone. Keys: 1). puzzling 2). am puzzled 3). puzzled 4). puzzle 5) was puzzled 6). What puzzles me 6. pull v.拉,拖,拔;移动 n.拉,拖;拉(引)力 [典例] 1). You push and I’ ll pull. 你来推,我来拉。 2). I felt a pull at my sleeve and turned round. 我觉得有人扯我的袖子,便转过身来。 [重点用法] pull ahead (of sb/sth) 领先(於某人/物) pull (sb) back(使某人)退却;撤回(某人) pull off (sth)(指机动车辆)驶离(道路) (至路侧停车处停下) pull out (sth.) 拉掉;使分离;掏出;驶 离(车站) pull on 穿,戴上(袜子、手套等) pull together 同心协力;通力合作 [练习] 用 pull 短语的适当形式填空。 1). I arrived as the last train was ______ ______. 2). He ______ ______ a gun and aimed at the criminal. 3). So long as we ______ ______, there’ s no mountain top we can’t conquer. Keys: 1). pulling out 2). pulled out 3). pull together 7. cheer vt. & vi. (使)高兴、振奋;(对)欢呼 cheerful adj.高兴的 cheerless adj.不高兴的 [典例] 1). The crowd cheered loudly as the Queen appeared. 女王出现时群众高声欢呼。 2). He was greatly cheered by the news. 他听到这个消息非常高兴。
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[重点用法] cheer sb. on 为某人加油 cheer (sb) up(使某人)更高兴或更快活 [练习] 用 cheer 的短语或其适当形式填空。 1). Your visit has greatly ______ him up. 2). The crowd ______ the runners ______ as they started the last lap. 3). You look as though you need ______ up. Keys: 1). cheered 2). cheered; on 3). cheering Ⅳ .重点词组(旨在提供词汇综合运用材料) 1. to begin with = to start with 以……开始;由……作为开头;首先 [典例] To begin/start with, I couldn’ t understand a single word. 起初,我一句也没弄明白。 [重点用法] begin/start with 从……开始 begin/start sth with 从……开始…… [练习] 根据句子的意思完成句子。 1). He ______ his speech ______ a poem. 2). His speech ______ ______ a poem. 3). ______ ______ ______, pets are good friends of many lonely people, especially the old. Keys: 1). began/started; with 2). began/started with 3). To start/begin with 2. in time 及时;最终;迟早 [典例] 1). They caught the bus in time. 他们及时赶上了汽车。 2). If you keep on, you will succeed in time. 如果坚持下去,你们总有一天会成功的。 [短语归纳] time 短语: in time for sth./ to do sth. 及时;不迟 in no time 立刻;马上 at no time 永不…… at one time 有个时期;曾经;一度 at a time 一次;每次 at times = sometimes 有时 all the time 一直;始终;老是 on time 按时;准时 by the time 到……的时候为止 for the time being 暂时;暂且 take one’ s time 不着急;慢慢来 kill time 消磨时间 from time to time 不时地,间或 many a time 常常;多次 once upon a time 从前 at the same time 同时;尽管如此 ahead of time 提前,提早 race against time 争分夺秒 time and again 一次又一次;重复地 keep time (钟表)走得准 keep bad time(钟、表)走得 不准 take one’ s time 慢慢来,别急 have a good/nice/hard time (in) doing sth 做某事很…… It’ s (high/about) time that sb. did/ should do sth. 是做某事的时候了 [练习] 用 time 短语填空。 1). They sent the mail to me just _______ _______, before I 1eft. 2). William arrived at the theatre just _______ _______ for the play was to be on. 3). Hurry up! The concert will begin _______ _______ _______. 4). _______ _______ _______ will I give up. 5). The boy laughed and cried _______ _______ ______ ______. 6). _______ _______ _______ he was addicted to playing web games, but now he devotes himself to writing, which delights his parents. 7). Don’t try to do everything at once; take it a bit _______ _______ _______. 8). You’ll have your own office soon, but _______ _______ _______ _______ you’ ll have to share one with me. Keys: 1). in time 2). in time 3). in no time 4). At no time 5). at the same time 6). At one time 7). at a time 8). for the time being
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3. in one’ s turn 轮到某人;接着 [典例] I will see you, each in your turn. 我将要一个接着一个地看你。 [短语归纳] turn 短语: in turn 轮流;一个接着一个 by turns 轮流;一阵……一阵…… take turns (to do sth.)轮流(做某物) It’s one’s turn to do sth. 轮到某人做某事了 [练习] 用 turn 短语填空或翻译句子。 1). She went hot and cold _______ _______. 2). 我们轮流着开车。 ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3). 今天轮到谁发言了? ____________________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1). by turns 2). We drove the car by turns / in turn. = We took turns to drive the car. 3). Whose turn is it to give a speech today? 4. prevent...from = stop...from = keep....from 使……不做事;阻止……做某事 [典例] His back injury may prevent him from playing in tomorrow’ s game. 他背部的伤可能使他参加 不了明天的比赛。 【用法辨析】注意: prevent / stop sb. from doing sth.中的 from 可省, keep sb. from doing sth.中 from 不可省略,因为 keep sb. doing sth.是“使某人一直做某事”之意;但如在被动语态中, 三者的 from 都不可省;当后接 sb’ s doing sth. 作宾语时,只能用 prevent 或 stop,不能用 keep, 因为没有 keep sb’ s doing sth. 的句型。 [练习] 根据句子的意思完成句子或翻译。 1). Doctors took action to _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ (防止这种疾病的蔓延). 2). Of course I can’ t _______ your going abroad. 3). 警察阻止他们携带武器。 _______________________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1). prevent/stop/keep the disease from spreading 2). prevent / stop 3). The police prevented/stopped/kept them from carrying weapons. = They were prevented/stopped/kept from carrying weapons. 5. block out 挡住(光线) [典例] That wall blocks out all the light. 那堵墙把光线都遮住了。 [短语归纳] out 短语: break out 爆发,发生 burst out 大声喊叫,突然…起来 go out 外出;过时; ( 灯 ) 熄 put out 关(灯);扑灭;生产 come out 出现,显露;出版,结果是 help out 帮助解决难题 ( 或摆脱困 境) look out 留神;注意 watch out 注意;提防 find out 找出,查明,发现 pick out 挑出,辨认出,分辨出 speak out 大声地说,大胆地说 think out 仔细思考某事;想出 (主意等) hang out 挂出,闲逛 knocked out (拳击中)击倒,打昏 sell out 售完(某种货物),脱销 turn out 结果证明是 run out (of) 用完,耗尽 check out 结帐离去,办妥手续离去 hand out 分发,散发 give out 分发;用完,消耗尽;发出(光、声音等) [练习] 用 out 短语填空。
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1). At the end of the race his legs _______ _______ and he collapsed on the ground. 2). It’ s easy to _______ him _______ in a crowd because he is very tall. 3). His nwe book will _______ _______ next month. 4). We thought it was going to rain; it _______ _______ to be a find day. 5). We _______ _______ of/from our hotel at 5 a.m. to catch a 7 a.m. flight. Keys: 1). gave out 2). pick; out 3). come out 4). turned out 5). checked out 6. be off = set off 出发;动身;不用上班/学/开张 [典例] Then we were off. 随后我们就启程了。 [短语归纳] off 短语: get off 下车 fall off 从……摔下来 take off 脱下;起飞 turn off 关闭 pay off 付清,还清 set...off 给……送行 jump off 跳下 give off 散发 show off 炫耀 [练习] 用 turn 短语填空或翻译。 1). It is a Sunday and we _______ _______ (不用上班) today. 2). Her husband _______ _______ on a business trip somewhere. 3). There we saw a sign reading, “_______ _______ the grass”. 4). After ten years of hard work, she finally _______ _______ all her debts. Keys: 1). are off 2). was off 3). Keep off 4). paid off

keep off 远离 kick off 踢球 shut off 关闭

7. break out (灾难、战争等) 突发;爆发 [典例] Fire broke out during the night. 夜间突然发生了火灾。 [短语归纳] break 短语: break away from 脱离(党派) ;摆脱(控制) break down 毁掉;坏掉;(计划/谈判)失败 break up 打碎;拆散;(会议)结束;分裂(解体) break off (使)停止;中断;折断 break into sth. 强行进入某处 break one’ s word/promise 食言;说话不算数 [练习] 用 break 短语填空。 1). A terrible tsunami _______ _______ in the southeastern countries of Asia at Christmas, 2004. 2). When do you _______ _______ for Christmas? 3). Negotiations between the two sides have _______ _______. 4). His house was _______ _______ last week. Keys: 1). broke out 2). break up 3). broken down 4). broken into 8. watch out 密切注视;当心;提防 [典例] Watch out! There’ s a car coming. 小心! 汽车来了。 [重点用法] watch out for sb/sth 警惕或注意某人/事物 watch over 保护;照看 [练习] 用 watch 短语填空。 1). There must have been an angel _______ _______ me that day. 2). What problems should I _______ _______ _______ when buying an old house? 3). You’ ll become an alcoholic if you don’ t _______ _______. Keys: 1). watching over 2). watch out for 3). watch out Ⅴ .重点句子 1. It exploded loudly with fire and rock, which were in time to produce the water vapour, carbon dioxide,
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oxygen, nitrogen and other gases, which were to make the earth’ s atmosphere. 它(地球)巨大的爆炸喷出了 烈火与岩石。最终产生了水蒸气、二氧化碳、氧、氮和其他多种气体,从而形成了地球的大气层。 [解释]“be + 不定式”结构通常用来表示“按计划或安排将要做的事情”,或表示上级对下级、父母对子女 下命令,“应该做某事”或表示某事“将必然发生”。例如: 1). Here is a message for you from your head teacher: you are to go to her office after class. 你的班主任给你 一个口信,要你下课后到她的办公室去。 2). The worst is still to come. 更糟糕的事情还会发生。 3). We’ ll hold a meeting tomorrow. = We are to hold a meeting tomorrow. = A meeting is to be held tomorrow. 我们明天将开会。 4). The train is to arrive in Beijing at 10: 25 am. 这趟火车将于上午 10: 25 到达北京。 [练习] 完成句子或翻译。 1). Here is a message for you from your head teacher: you ______ ______ ______ to her office after class. (你 的班主任给你一个口信,要你下课后到她的办公室去。) 2). The worst is still ______ ______ (come). 3). We’ ll hold a meeting tomorrow. = We ______ ______ ______ a meeting tomorrow. = A meeting is ______ ______ ______ tomorrow. 4). 这趟火车将于上午 10:25 到达北京。 ________________________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1). are to go 2). to come 3). are to hold; to be held 4). The train is to arrive in Beijing at 10: 25 am. 2. That made it possible for life to begin to develop. 那使生命的生长发育成为一种可能。 [解释] 此句中的 made 后跟带形式宾语 it 的复合结构, 其中 it 是形式宾语, 真正宾语是不定式复合结构, “for live to begin to develop”,宾语补足语是 possible。再如:She made it her business to find out who was responsible. 她非要弄清楚是谁的责任不可。 提示:常用于此结构的动词还有 think,feel,find,consider 等。例如: 1). We make it a rule to get up at 6 o’ clock every morning. 2). I find it hard to get along with him. 3). He found it impossible to leave Germany for the USA. 他发现不可能离开德国去美国了。 4). I think/find/feel/consider it my duty to help you.我觉得我有责任帮助你。 [练习] 完成句子或翻译。 1). We ______ ______ ______ ______ (规定) to get up at 6 o’ clock every morning. 2). I ______ ______ ______ (发现很难) to get along with him. 3). 他发现不可能离开德国去美国了。 _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___ 4). 我觉得我有责任帮助你。 _________________________________________________________________________________________ ___ Keys: 1). make it a rule 2). find it hard 3). He found it impossible to leave Germany for the USA. 4). I think/find/feel/consider it my duty to help you. 3. But when I tried to step forward I found I was carried twice as far as on the earth and fell over. 而当我试着 向前迈步的时候,我发觉我被送出去很远,步子的跨度竟是地球上的两倍,因而我摔倒了。 [解释] twice as...as... “是……的两倍”,英语常见倍数的表示句型: 1). 倍数+ as + adj./adv. + as “是……的几倍” My room is twice as large as his. 2). 倍数+ adj./adv.比较级+ than “比……(多/大)几倍”My room is twice larger than his. 3). 倍数+ the +表示长度/高度/宽度等的名词+ of “是……的长度/高度/宽度几倍” My room is twice the
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size of his. 注意:此结构中常用的名词有:size, height, weight, length, width depth 等。例如: 1). This ruler is three times as long as that one. = This ruler is three times longer than that one. = This ruler is three times the length of that one. 这把尺子是那把的三倍那么长。 2). There are four times as many students as we expected. 到的学生是我们预计的五倍。 [解释] twice as ... as... 是的两倍,英语常见倍数的表示句型: 1). 倍数 + as + adj./adv. + as “是……的几倍” My room is twice as large as his. 2). 倍数 + adj./adv.比较级 + than “比……(多/大)几倍”My room is twice larger than his. 3). 倍数+ the +表示长度/高度/宽度等的名词+ of “是……的长度/高度/宽度几倍” My room is twice the size of his. 注意:此结构中常用的名词有:size, height, weight, length, width depth 等。 [练习] 完成句子或翻译。 1). 这把尺子是那把的三倍那么长。 _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 2). 到的学生是我们预计的五倍。There are ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ we expected. Keys: 1). This ruler is three times as long as that one. = This ruler is three times longer than that one. = This ruler is three times the length of that one. 2). four times as many students as Grammar Purpose: To get Ss to recognize noun clauses as the subject and to make sure that they can do some simple exercises. 1. Divide Ss into four groups and ask them to finish Ex1 of Discovering Useful Structures on P29. And then let them draw a conclusion about the grammar point. See which group understand it best and have a member of the group present before the class. 2. After the presentation, explain the grammar point for Ss. 3.Let Ss complete Ex2 on page 29 after learning the grammar. Purpose: To get Ss to understand the usage of noun clauses as the subject. (1) 主语从句的语序 主语从句要求使用陈述句语序,而非一般疑问句语序。如: What surprised me most was that the little girl could play the violin so well. 使我感到惊讶的是这个小女孩的小提琴拉得太好了。 How he was successful is still a puzzle. 他是如何成功的仍然是个谜。 (2) 连接词的选用 ①that 和 what 的选用 that 和 what 都可引导主语从句。what 除起连接作用外,还在名词性从句中充当某些成分可作从句的 主语、宾语或表语。而 that 在名词性从句中不充当任何成分,无词义,只起连接词作用。如: What he wants is a book. 他想要的是一本书。 That light travels in straight lines is known to all. 众所周知,光线沿直线运行。 ②if 和 whether 的选用 引导主语从句,不能用 if,只能用 whether。如: Whether we will hold a party in the open air tomorrow depends on the weather. 我们明天是否在户外开晚会要看天气而定。 ③ 其它连接代词和副词的选用 根据主语从句的具体意义,正确的选择 who, which, when, where, why, how 等连接词,这些连接词 既有疑问含义,又起连接作用,同时在从句中充当各种成分。如: When we shall hold our sports meet is not decided.
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我们何时举行运动会还没有决定。 Who broke the glass yesterday is not clear. 还不清楚昨天谁打破了玻璃。 Which car you will choose to buy makes no difference. 你决定买哪一辆车都不会有任何区别。 ④ whatever / whoever 的功用 whatever, whoever 在主语从句中不含疑问意义。它引导主语从句,并在从句中作主语、宾语、表语 等。whatever = anything that; whoever = anyone who。要注意和 whatever,whoever 引导的让步状语从句的 区别。如: Whoever breaks the law should be punished. (主语从句) (=Anyone who breaks the law should be punished. ) Whoever breaks the law, he should be punished. (让步状语从句) (=No matter who breaks the law, he should be punished.) (3) it 构成的主语从句 ① 由连词 that 引导的主语从句,在大多数情况下会放到句子的后面,而用代词 it 作形式主语。如: It is well-known that the earth moves around the sun. 众所周知,地球围绕太阳转。 需要注意的是,it 作形式主语代替主语从句时,要注意和 as 引导的定语从句的区别。试比较: It was reported that the US was under the terrorist attack. (主语从句,有 that,无逗号) As was reported, the US was under the terrorist attack. (定语从句,无 that,有逗号) 上两句意为“据报道,美国遭到恐怖分子的袭击”。 ② 常见用 it 作形式主语的复合句结构 ◆ It is a fact (a good idea / a pity / a shame / no wonder / good news…)that…如: It’s a pity that you missed the film. 你没有看那部电影真是太遗憾了。 ◆ It is necessary (clear / true / strange/ important /wonderful / possible / likely…)that… 需要注意的是,这类主语从句中,谓语动词很多为“(should)+动词原形”,即要用虚拟语气。如: It is necessary that you (should)master the computer. 你很有必要掌握电脑。 It is important that a student learn English well. 学生学好英语很重要。 It’s clear that they badly need help. 很明显,他们急需援助。 It is likely that a hurricane will arrive soon. 飓风很可能马上就要到达了。 ◆ It is reported (well-known / hoped / thought / expected /said /believed/decided /suggested /order-ed…) that…如: It is said that he was killed in the earthquake. 据说他在地震中丧生了。 ◆ It seems (happened / appears / doesn’t matter / makes no difference / …)that …如: It seems that they will win the game. 看起来他们好像会赢得这场比赛。 It makes no difference whether he will attend the meeting or not. 他是否会参加会议都无关紧要 (4) 主语从句不可位于句首的五种情况: ①if 引导的主语从句不可居于复合句句首。 ② It is said /reported…结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: It is said that President Jiang will visit our school next week. √ That President Jiang will visit our school next week is said. ×
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③ It happens/occurs…结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: It occurred to him that he failed in the examination. √ That he failed in the examination occurred to him. × ④ It doesn’t matter how/whether …结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: It doesn’t matter whether he is wrong or not. √ Whether he is wrong or not doesn’t matter. × ⑤ 含主语从句的复合句是疑问句时,主语从句不可提前。例如: Is it likely that it will rain in the evening? √ Is that will rain in the evening likely? × 3.练习 1. ________ makes mistakes must correct them. A. What B. That C. Whoever D. Whatever 2. It worried her a bit ____ her hair was turning grey. A. while B. that C. if D. for 3. When and why he came here ________ yet. A. is not known B. are not known C. has not known D. have not been known 4. _____ surprised me most was ____ such a little boy of seven could play the violin so well. A. That...what B. What...that C. That...which D. What...which 5.The subject of "What is interesting is that I do not even know him." is_______. A. what B. interesting C. What is interesting D. I 6.What a pity _____is _____you didn’t arrive by daylight. A. there, because B. it, that C. he, when D. that, for 7. _____ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. A. There B. This C. That D. It 8.It is important that ______ our education in all available ways. A. we must develop B. we shall develop C. we would develop D. we should develop 9.It is necessary that ______ by the end of the week. A. we got everything ready B. we have got everything ready C. We get everything ready D. we must get everything ready 10.It was natural that _______. A. my pictures would surprise them B. my pictures surprised them C. my pictures should surprise them D. my pictures would have surprised them 11. __________we can’t get seems better than _______we have. A. What; what B. What; that C. That; that D. That; what 12. ___________we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where 13. It worried her a bit ________her hair was turning grey. A. while B. that C. if D. for 14. — I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. —Is that ______you had a few days off. A. why B. when C. what D. where 15. It was a matter of _______ would take the position. A. who B. whoever C. whom D. whomever Suggested Answers: 1~5 CBABC 6~10 BDDCC 11~15 ABBAA

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