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book 3 unit 4 Reading


Unit 4

How Life Began on the Earth

Quiz
1.Who wrote “The Origin of Species ” (物种起源)? A. Newton B. Einstein C. Charles Darwin

2.How many planets are the

re in the Solar System? A 7 B 8 C9

A. frog D. fish

B. snake E. bird

C. duck F. dog

3. Which one belongs to amphibian (两栖动物) ?

A
4. Which one belongs to reptile (爬行动物)?

B
5. Which one belongs to mammal(哺乳动物)?

F

6. Which gas is the most important for life?

A. carbon dioxide (CO2 )
B. oxygen (O2) C. nitrogen (N2)

Pre-reading
1. The origin of life on earth is a question that interests astronomers. What do you know about it? How old is the universe? (several billion years ago) How old is the Earth? (between 4.5 and 3.8 million years ago) Which were the first creatures or plants on Earth?...

2. Each religion and culture has its own ideas about how life began on earth. What do you know? In China, we all know that Pangu separates the sky from the earth and Nvwa made humans.

Pangu separates the sky from the earth.

Pangu separated the earth and sky with an ax.
After he died, his breath became wind and cloud;

his voice became thunder and his left eye sun and
right one moon; arms and legs became edges and

mountains; blood became rivers and tendon (筋
脉) became roads; muscles became fields and

hair stars; teeth and bones became metals, pearls
and jade; sweat became rain.

Nvwa made humans.

Other legends(传说 ) about the
beginning of universe.

The Biblical Account上帝创世说:
Day 1: God spoke and separated light from darkness creating Day and Night. Day 2: God spoke and separated the water creating sky and ocean. Day 3: God spoke and created dry land.

Day 4: God spoke and created the sun, moon and stars. Day 5: God spoke and created living creatures in the air and sea. Day 6: God spoke and created the land animals and man. Day 7: God rested and blessed(祈福) this day calling it Holy(神的) .

India

Brahma(梵天 ) is

the god first represented
in the Hindu Triad. He is

the creator of the
universe and all living beings are said to have evolved from him.

Close reading
I. Read the passage carefully
and match the main idea with

each paragraph.

Para. 1
Para. 2 Para. 3

Para. 4 Para. 5

The formation (形成) of the earth. The importance of water for life. A widely accepted theory about the formation of the universe. The arrival of humans and their impact on the earth. The development of plants and animals on the earth.

scanning

Reading Comprehension II Put the order of development of life into a timeline. Use the reading passage to help you. 1 Insects and amphibians appeared. 2 Dinosaurs appeared. 3 The earth became a solid ball. 4 Small plants grew on the water. 5 Reptiles appeared. 6 Plants began to grow on dry land.

7 The earth was a cloud of dust. 8 Water appeared on the earth. 9 Shellfish and other fish appeared. 10 The universe began with a “Big Bang”. 11 Clever animals with hands and feet appeared. 12 Mammals appeared.

Answer: 10 7 3 8 4 9 6 1 5 2 12 11

III. Answer the following questions.
1. Why was the earth different from other planets? The water remained. 2. Why did the plants grow before the animals came? Because plants provide oxygen for animals to breathe.

3. Why is it wrong in films and
stories to show dinosaurs and people together? Because dinosaurs died out long before human beings developed on the earth.

4. There used to be nine planets in the solar system. Recently scientists have decided that one of them can no

longer be considered a planet. Do you
know the name of that planet? Do you

know why they removed it?
Pluto(冥王星). Scientists now think it

is too small to be called a planet.

5. What problem is caused by human beings? They cause global warming.

Detailed Reading

The development of the earth

Stage 1: The development of the earth (1) After the Big Bang, what happened? a cloud of dust a violent solid ball

(2) What happened next? exploded with fire and rock produced water vapour and gases

(3) What did the water vapour and gases form?

the earth’s atmosphere

(4) What appeared on the earth then?

Water appeared which is important for the beginning of life on the earth.

(5) What did the water form?

oceans and seas

How did the earth come into being?
1. Big Bang (a huge explosion around 15 billion years ago) 4. exploded with fire and rock 2. a cloud of energetic dust 3. a ball moving around the sun

5. produce the water vapour, carbon dioxide…

6. cooled down

7. water appeared

8. harmful gases were dissolved

The development of life

Stage 2: The development of life in water
(1) What life developed after water appeared? arrival of small early shellfish plants in water

(2) What life developed in water next? all sorts of fish

(3) What life developed after the life in water? green plants on land insects on land

Stage 3: The development of life on land (1) What life developed next on land?
amphibians on land and in the water forests

(2) What life developed after forests appeared?
reptiles on land dinosaurs on land

(3) What life developed after dinosaurs? mammals on land

(4) What life developed after mammals? small clever animals

Looking and thinking
Look at the following pictures and try to understand more of the reading passage.

A cloud of dust A solid globe
Explode

atmosphere water

Cells separate

Plants on land

Plants in the water

oxygen

Early shellfish and fish

Insects and amphibians

Reptiles

Mammals

Dinosaurs

Man had evolved from apes.

plants

animals

A few kinds
water simple

many kinds
land complex

low 达尔文

advanced

<进化论>

Darwin's theory of evolution

The Origin of Species

Something, somewhere went terribly wrong

low

advanced

low

Read the passage again and underline all the discourse markers (DM) and sentence connectors (SC). DM: however, after that, next, later, finally, thus, as a result of this SC: and, but, because, or

How can we protect the earth and make it a better place to live on? Design an activity on Earth Day What is the activity is about? Why is the activity is designed? When and where is the activity? Who takes part in the activity? What is to be done in the activity? …

Homework
1. Search the Internet for information of the development of life and find more solutions to global warming. 2. Finish the exercises on page 28.


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