高 考英语语法 复 习
非 谓 语
- ing 分词
顾名思义，非谓语动词就是在英语中不 能作句子谓语而具有其他语法功能的动词。近 年来高考命题常常通过改变熟悉的句型结构或 利用一些“ 貌合神离” 的手段，加大考生辨 别非谓语动词的难度。 一个句子通常不能有两个或两个以上的谓 语动词， 除非动词是并列谓语或者分别出现 在主从复合或并列句中；一个句子也不可能无 谓语动词（谓语省略的情况除外）。
例① At last, we found ourselves in a pleasant
park with trees providing shade and _____ D down to eat our picnic lunch. (2005上海） A. sitting B. having sat C. to sit D. sat 解析： 此题大家易受习惯心理影响选择分词，即 Ａ或Ｂ项，而and实际上作为并列连词并列的 是found及sat两个动作，而非并列providing与 sitting.
例② Prices of daily goods _____ through a computer can be lower than store prices. A. are bought B. bought C. have been bought D. buying 解析：此题学生最易错选的答案为Ａ或Ｃ。依据 上面陈述，填入Ａ或Ｃ句子都有两个谓语动词， 而此处两个动词并非并列谓语，也不是分别出 现在主从句中，故答案有误。该题正确答案为 Ｂ，bought through a computer为一过去分词 短语作后置定语，句中只有一个谓语can be lower than。当然此题如改为Prices of daily goods which have been bought through…也是正 确的，因为这一动作出现在从句中。
不定式 一般式 完成式 进行式 完成进行式 主动 被动 to do to be done to have done to have been done to be doing to have been doing
分词 一般式 完成式
主动 doing having done
被动 being done having been done
1. They went there ________ (visit) their teacher. to visit 2. The students pretended ____________(do) their to be doing homework when the teacher came in. to have given 3. I’m sorry ____________(give) you so much trouble. Not having received 4. _________________ (not receive) an answer, I wrote to him again. talking 5. They stood by the roadside _________ (talk) about the plan. Having been given 6. _________________ (give) an emergency treatment, the patient was out of danger. 7. The teacher entered the room, __________ (follow) followed by the students.
在谓语表示的动作之后 与谓语表示的动作同时 发生
doing 或 to be doing
to have done 或 having done
不定式和分词的完成被动式则表示动作的完成和被动，及 物动词的过去分词既表示被动又表示动作已完成, 个别动词 的过去分词只表示完成(多数为不及物动词)
一些及物动词常用它们的过去分词作表语、 状语、定语、补足语等，表示伴随或状态： be lost, be hidden, be seated, be dressed in, be faced with, be determined to do, be devoted to , be interested in, … 1._____ (lose)in thought, he almost ran into the Lost tree. 2.He was still ________ (devote) to the study of devoted chemistry. determined 3.I left him, ___________(determine) never to set foot in that house again. seated 4.He found Irene ______(seat) at the piano with her hands arrested on the keys.
A 1. _____ in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. A. Dressed B. To dress C. Dressing D. Having dressed C 2. _____ with a difficult situation, Arnold decided to ask his boss for advice. A. To face B. Having faced C. Faced D. Facing A 3. Faced with a bill for ?10,000, _______. A. John has taken an extra job B. the boss has given John an extra job C. an extra job has been taken D. an extra job has been given to John 4. After his journey from abroad, Richard Jones returned home, ______. B A. exhausting B. exhausted C. being exhausted D. having exhausted
区别是：表示某一具体的动作时，多用不定式；表示比 较抽象的一般行为倾向的，多用动名词。动名词作主语 时通常位于句首；不定式作主语时常置于句末，用it 作形式主语放在句首。 (抽象) 1) Smoking is prohibited here. 2) It is not very good for you to smoke so much.
3) Collecting information is very important to business men. 4) Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.
1). To make a plan first is a good idea. = It is a good idea to make a plan first. 2). It takes three hours to walk there.
What a pleasure it is to work with them!
How relaxing it is to bathe in the sun on the sand! It is possible for him to master the art of speaking.
It was careless of him to break the coffee cup. = He was careless to break the coffee cup.
2. 动名词或不定式都可以在句中作主语，但 在下列句型中常用动名词作主语。 no use/good not any use/good It is/was +doing sth. of little use/good useless It is no use crying over spilt milk.
It is of little good staying up too late every day. 若主语和表语都是非谓语动词, 应保持形式 上的一致。 Seeing is believing. To see is to believe.
1). It’s necessary to be prepared for a job D interview. ________the answers ready will be of great help. A. To have B. Having had C. Have D. Having D 2). In fact _____ is a hard job for the police to keep order in an important match. A. this B. that C. there D. it
考点归纳三：非谓语动词作宾补和主补 1) Walking along the river, we heard someone __________ for help. A. shouting B. shout C. shouted D. having shouted 2) When she returned home, she found the window open and something ________. A. to steal B. losing C. missed D. stolen 3) My teacher told me _____ so careless. A. not be B. don’t to be C. not to be D. won’t be
4) Children should be allowed ______ their own decisions. A. making B. to make C. make D. having made 能作宾语补足语和主语补足语的非谓语 动词有不定式，现在分词，过去分词，用哪 种非谓语动词形式往往取决于前面动词的句 型和不同的非谓语动词所表示的意义。
My advisor encouraged _____ a summer D course to improve my writing skills. A. for me taking B. me taking C. for me to take D. me to take 1.能接带to的不定式作宾语补足语和主语补 足语的动词有： ask, advise, tell, force, get, allow, want, wish, like, hate, prefer, expect, encourage, persuade, permit, request, order, warn, cause等，表示宾语或主语执行 不定式的动作（具有“主动”的意义），而且 不定式的动作多发生在句子的谓语动作之后 （具有“ 将来”的意义）。
2. 使役动词，感官动词能接不带to 的不定式作 宾语补足语和带to的不定式作主语补足语。 常见的使役动词有make, let, have等； 感官 动词有see, hear, watch, observe, notice, feel 以及look at, listen to等。 B ① Paul doesn’t have to be made _____. He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning
感官动词see, watch, observe, look at, hear, listen to, notice等和使役动词have后面的宾补 有三种形式，即： do see sb./sth. doing done
leave sb. doing sth 让某人一直做某事 leave sth. undone 留下某事未做 leave sb. to do sth. 留下某人做某事 （不定式表将来的动作） leave sth to be done 留下某事要做 get … to do /doing/ done
3. 有些动词如consider, prove, think, know, feel, suppose, discover, imagine, find 等也 可跟“宾语 + to be”的形式，使用中应注意。 ① We found him (to be ) dishonest. ② We all know him to be dead. ③ We ______ Mr. Brown to be a fine writer. C A. accept B. receive C. think D. regard
4. 不定式和分词作宾语补足语或主语补足语表达 的意义不同。
sing ① I heard her ______( sing) an English song just now. singing ② I heard her ________ (sing) an English song when I passed by her room yesterday. sung ③ I heard the English song ______( sing) many times. 接不定式时，表示动作发生的全过程；接现在分词 时，表示动作正在发生或进行，或正要做分词表示的 动作；接过去分词时，表被动或完成。 ④ I looked down at my neck and found my necklace gone. （状态） ⑤ I was surprised to find my hometown changed so much. （完成）
Exercise: ① They should understand the traffic rule by now. You’ve had it ______ often enough. A. explaining B. to explain C. explain D. explained. ② The missing boy was last seen _____ near the river. A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play
③ In the dream Peter saw himself _____ by a fierce wolf, and he woke suddenly with a start. （06上海春） A. chased B. to be chased C. be chased D. having been chased ④There are hundreds of visitors _____ in front of the Art Gallery to have a look at Van Gogh’s paintings. （06上海春） A. waited B. to wait C. waiting D. wait
考点归纳四：非谓语动词作定语 不定式、动名词和分词都可以作定语，主要区 别在于它们的时态意义和语态意义。 1. 不定式作定语和被修饰的名词具有 “动宾关 系”, 即被修饰的名词是不定式的动作的承受 者; 如果不定式是不及物动词，就要在不定式 动词后加上相应的介词。 ①Their decision to give up the experiment surprised us. ②He was the last one to leave school yesterday. ③The Browns have a comfortable house to live in.
当作定语的不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不 定式动作的承受者时，不定式既可以用主动语 态，也可用被动语态，但其含义有所不同。 1). I’m going to Beijing next week. Do you to be taken have anything ___________(take) to your son? 2). Are you going to Beijing? Do you have to take anything __________(take) to your son?
2. 现在分词作定语和被修饰的名词具有“主谓关 系”，即现在分词用主动式时，被修饰的名词 正在执行其动作；现在分词用被动式时，被修 饰的名词正在承受其动作(即与名词是动宾关系) ①Please tell the children playing outside not （=…who are playing) to make so much noise. ② The factory making (= that makes) such tools is a small one run by Tom. ③They lived in a room facing (= that faced) the south. ④ Barking dogs seldom bite. ⑤ The building being built will be completed next year.
① Some of the experiments ____ in the book C are easy to perform. A. describing B. to be described C. described D. to describe ② It is said that Beijing University was the first A institute of higher learning_____ in China. A. established B. being established C. to be established D .having been established
Exercise: 1). The wild flower looked like a soft orange blanket _______ the desert. A A. covering B. covered C. cover D. to cover. D 2). There have been several new events _____ to the program for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A. add B. to add C. adding D. added A 3). The disc, digitally ______ in the studio, sounded fantastic at the party that night. A. recorded B. recording C. to be recorded D. being recorded
4). Reading is an experience quite different from watching TV; there are pictures _____ in your C mind instead of before your eyes. A. to form B. form C. forming D. having formed 5)—The English exam is not difficult, is it? —_____. Even Tom _____ to the top students C failed in it. A. Yes; belongs B. No; belonged C. Yes; belonging D. No; belonging
B 6). The flowers ____ sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. （04上海） A. to smell B. smelling C. smelt D. to be smelt 该题的谓语动词是 attract，“闻起来很香”用来作定
语修饰主语 flowers。 C 7). A man is being questioned in relation to the ________ murder last night. （04江苏） A. advised B. attended C. attempted D. admitted “谋杀”只能被预谋，故该用过去分词作定语表示被动。
3.分词作定语与动词不定式作定语的区别是： 现在分词表示主动、进行之意；过去分词表 示被动与完成；而不定式表示在谓语动词表 示的动作之后即将发生的动作。例如： discussed ①The question __________ (discuss) at the meeting yesterday is of quite importance. ②The question being discussed (discuss) at the _____________ meeting now is of quite importance. to be discussed ③The question ______________ (discuss) at the meeting tomorrow is of quite importance.
不定式和动名词都可作动词或介词的宾语。 1. 有些动词后只跟不定式作宾语，如： want, wish, hope, manage, demand, promise, refuse, pretend, plan, offer, decide, agree, expect等。 A I don’t want ______ like I’m speaking ill of anybody, but the manager’s plan is unfair. A. to sound B. to be sounded C. sounding D. to have sounded
2. 有些动词后只跟动名词作宾语，如：admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, forgive, imagine, keep, mind, miss, practise, resist, risk, suggest, deny... C 1) I can’t stand ______ with Jane in the same office. She just refuses _____ talking while she works. A. working; stopping B. to work; stopping C. working; to stop D. to work; to stop 2) He got well-prepared for the job interview, B for he couldn’t risk ____ the good opportunity. A. to lose B. losing C. to be lost D. being lost
3.有些动词如start, continue后既可以跟不定式 又可以跟动名词作宾语，意义上无多大区别。 但love, like, hate, prefer后接动名词表示经 常性的行为；接不定式表示具体的行为。 C 1). I like __________ very much, but I don't like _________ this afternoon. A. swimming, swimming B. to swim, to swim C. swimming, to swim D. to swim, swimming
A 2). Little Jim should love __________ to the theatre this evening A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taking 但要注意: 如果like, love, prefer前有would/ should, 后面则应该接动词不定式。 I’d like to go swimming this weekend.
式用被动式的形式；动名词用主动式的形式。 句子的意思没有差别。但句子的主语一般是 一表物的名词或代词。这类动词主要有： want、need、require等。 1) Your watch needs repairing / to be repaired. 2) The windows need painting again / to be
5. 1). If you think treating a woman well means always _____ her permission for things, think D again. A. gets B. got C. to get D. getting 2). When asked by the police, he said that he remembered _____ at the party, but not C ______. A. to arrive; leaving B. to arrive; to leave C. arriving; leaving D. arriving; to leave
有些动词后既可以跟不定式，又可以跟动名词作宾 语，但意义上有区别。如forget, remember, mean,
regret, stop, try, go on, can’t help等。
6. 1). I have no choice but to accept (accept)the fact. _______ 2). Isn’t it time you got down to ______ the D papers? A. mark B. be marked C. being marked D. marking 3). Victor apologized for _____ to inform me C of the change in the plan. A. his being not able B. him not to be able C. his not being able D. him to be not able 介词后接动名词作宾语。
Exercise: 1) As the twentieth century came to a close, the raw materials for a great national literature were at hand, waiting ______. A. to use B. to be used C. to have used D. to be using 2) After he became conscious, he remembered ______ and _____ on the head with a rod. A. to attack; hit B. to be attacked; to be hit C. attacking; be hit D. having been attacked; hit
能作状语的有不定式、现在分词和 过去分词。作什么样的状语往往取 决于它们的位置和在句中的意义。
1、不定式做状语，只表示目的、结果或原因： He hurried home only to find his money stolen. （结果状语） To make himself heard, he raised his voice. （目的状语） All of us are surprised to see his rapid progress. (原因状语) 不定式短语放在句首多作目的状语，在句
1). Given a chance, I can surprise the world. （条件状语） 2). Coming into the room, he found his father angry. （时间状语） 3). Being tired, they went on working. （让步状语） 4). Having been hit by the big boy on the nose, the little boy began to cry. （原因状语） 5). He put a finger in his mouth, tasted it and smiled, looking rather pleased. （伴随状语）
heated 1). When _______(heat)， water will be changed into vapour. heating While _______ (heat) water, we can change it into vapour. Seen 2) ______(see) from the hill, the city looks beautiful. Seeing _______ (see) from the hill, you will find the city beautiful. taken 3) Generally speaking, when ________(take) according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. taking If ________(take) the drug according to the directions, you will be better soon.
分词作状语时，其逻辑主语必须同句子的主语 一致；如果不一致，需在分词前加一个逻辑主语， 分词和它的逻辑主语合称独立主格结构或用状语 从句。 (True or false) 1) Being an orphan, the nurse treated him kindly.F 2) He being an orphan, the nurse treated him kindly. T 3) As he was an orphan, the nurse treated him kindly. T 关于分词作状语时的逻辑主语问题，在试题中 可以看到各种不同的命题技巧。
The key______，she went through her handbag carefully. A. hadn’t been found B. having not been found C. not having been found D. wasn’t found 试题分析： 选项A、D均为谓语形式，选择其中的任何一项 前半部分便成为一个分句，与后面的分句必须使用 连词。以表示前后分句的逻辑关系，因此全部排除。 选项B是现在分词的完成被动式，凡非谓语动词的否 定形式，not必须加在最前面，因此也应排除。not having been found同其逻辑主语the key构成独立主 格结构，作原因状语。本试题中句子的主语 she不能 充当分词的逻辑主语。
A ______, you should have no trouble with the difficult work. A. Knowing this B. If you are knowing this C. From knowing this D. If you have knowing this 试题分析：分词作状语时一般都可以转换为状 语从句。本试题的选项B、D作为条件状语从 句，时态不正确，应该排除。选项 A 的 knowing this 的逻辑主语同句子的主语一致， 符合要求，为正确答案。
Written in a hurry, ______________ . How can it be satisfactory? (2001年广州市综合测试一) A. they found many mistakes in the report B. Sam made lots of mistakes in the report C. there are plenty of mistakes in the report D. the report is full of mistakes 试题分析：这时一道非常典型的试题。四个选项均为 完整的句子，初看起来似乎不容易领悟试题的意图。 其实，本题的意图仍然是考察分词作状语的知识。抓 住试题意图就容易产生正确的思路——哪个句子的主 语能够同过去分词written的逻辑主语一致。沿着这个 思路向前走，不难想到the report was written in a hurry, 试题的答案不言自明。
1). --- Mum, why do you always make me eat an egg every day? --- _______ enough protein and nutrition as you are growing up. (99 上海) A. Get B. Getting C. To get D. To be getting 2). In order to make our city green, ________. (02 上海春季) A. it is necessary to have planted more trees B. many more trees need to plant C. our city needs more trees D. we must plant more trees
3). _____ the general state of his health, it may A take him a while to recover from the operation. (00 北京春季) A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given
given 作状语意为“考虑到”，意思相当于 considering。
4). He sent me an E-mail, _____ to get further information. (00 上海) A. hoped B. hoping C. to hope D. hope
注意 hoping 为伴随状语而非目的状语，真正的目 的是后面的 to get …。
4. 现在分词与不定式作结果状语时的区别 1). European football is played in 80 countries , _________ it the most popular sport in the world . A. making B. makes C. make D. to make 2). He hurried to the station only ________ that the train had left . (2005广东) A. to find B. finding C. found D. to have found 现在分词作结果状语往往表示“正常出现的、 自然而然的或意料之中”的结果。不定式作结 果状语时通常表示“偶然的、出乎意料的”一 种结果
5. 过去分词做状语 Permitted, he would have succeeded in doing that.
讨论：此句为什么不用having been permitted?
本句的句意是“如果当时他被允许（做这件事）的话，他本会 成功的” 过去分词做状语可以表示条件，与if + done可以互换。 而现在分词中的完成被动式不可以，它只可以表示完成被动， 而且只有非谓语与谓语是很鲜明的先后关系时才可以用, 如：
Having been finished, his homework was sent to his teacher to be corrected.
Guided by the guide, he found the place easily. Scolded by the teacher, he felt very depressed.
1). _____ this cake, you’ll need 2 eggs, 175g C sugar and 175g flour. A. Having made B. Make C. To make D. Making A 2). He hurried to the booking office only _____ that all the tickets had been sold out. A. to be told B. to told C. told D. telling D 3). The storm left, ______ a lot of damage to this area. A. caused B. to have caused C. to cause D. having caused
4). ______ into use in April 2002, the hotline was A meant for residents reporting water and heating supply breakdowns. A. Put B. Putting C. Having put D. Being put 5). _______ from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants and animals not found in any country in the world. A. Being separated B. Having separated C. Having been separated D. to be separated
考点归纳七：非谓语动词作表语 能作表语的有不定式、动名词和分词。 1). It remains ______ whether Jim’ll be fit B enough to play in the finals. (2006浙江） A. seen B. to be seen C. seeing D. to see A 2) Tom sounds very much ____ in the job, but I’m not sure whether he can manage it. A. interested B. interesting C. interestingly D. interestedly
3). The purpose of new technologies is to make
life easier, _____ it more difficult. (99 N)
A. not make B. not to make
C. not making
D. do not make
动词不定式短语 to make life easier 及 not to
make it more difficult 都作 purpose 的表语。非谓 语动词作表语时要特别注意两个问题，一是并行结 构问题，二是时间问题。一般来说，不定式作表语 都表示该动作发生在将来，故在表示“目的、愿望、 梦想、需求”等名词作主语时其表语应该用不定式。
delighting 令人高兴的——delighted 感到高兴的 disappointing 令人失望的——disappointed 感到 失望的 encouraging 令人鼓舞的——encouraged 感到鼓 舞的 pleasing 令人愉快的——pleased 感到愉快的 puzzling 令人费解的——puzzled 感到费解的 satisfying 令人满意的——satisfied 感到满意的 surprising 令人惊异的——surprised 感到惊异的 worrying 令人担心的——worried 感到担心的
分词短语常常可以用在某些连词如since, when, while, if, unless, though, although, even if, even though, whenever, no matter how, once, until 等之后，可以看作是状语从句中的省略现 象。 1). No matter how frequently _____, the works of Beethoven will still attract people all over the world. A. performed B. performing C. to be performed D. being performing
2). When _____ different cultures, we often pay C attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities. A. compared B. being compared C. comparing D. having compared 3). The research is so designed that once ______ D nothing can be done to change it. A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun 4) When ______, the museum will be open to the A public next year. A. completed C. completing C. being completed D. to be completed
格、名词所有格或普通格加动名词构成。 1) LiPing’s/ My helping her moved her deeply. (动名词结构作主语, 其逻辑主语用所有格) 2) I appreciate your/you/LiPing’s/ LiPing coming to see me. (动名词结构作宾语, 其逻辑主语用宾格或所有格均 可) 3) Is there any hope of our team winning the match? (逻辑主语是无生命名词时, 只用普通格) 4) What made me angry was many students failing in the exam. (以-s 结尾的名词, 只用普通格)
1) I would appreciate _____ back this afternoon .
A. you to call
C. your calling
B. you call
D. you’re calling
2) ________ made her mother very angry. A. Mary marrying Jim B. Mary’s married Jim C. Mary’s marrying Jim D. Mary’s being married Jim
3). The discovery of new evidence led to ______. A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught 4).The noise of ____ could be heard out in the street. A. desks opening and closing B. desks opened and closed C. desks being opened and closed D. desks’ being opened and closed
1.Mother being ill, I have to stay home to look after her. 2.He sat silently, eyes closed. 说明：独立主格结构在形式上由两部分组成： 第一部分由名词或代词担任，第二部分由分词、 动词不定式、形容词、副词或介词短语担任。
3. Miss Wang came into the classroom, books in hand. 4. The boy rushed into the classroom, (with) his face covered with sweat. 5. With winter coming on, it’s time to buy warm clothes. 6. I can’t go out, with a lot of homework to do.
独立主格结构与分词短语作状语的区别: 独立主格结构与分词短语都可以转化成状语从 句。但是，独立主格结构转换成状语从句后， 有自己的逻辑主语，与主句的主语不一致；而 分词短语转化为状语从句后，从句的主语与主 句的主语相同。
If time permits, we’d better have a rest at this weekend. Time permitting, … When we see from the top floor, we can find the garden more beautiful. Seeing from the top floor, …
generally speaking, frankly speaking, honestly speaking, judging from, supposing, to be honest, to be sure, to tell you the truth, to cut a long story short, to be frank, to make the matter worse, … Judging from what he said, she must be an honest girl. To make the matter worse, he locked his keys in the car.
1. All flights_____ because of the snowstorm, we D decided to take the train. A. were canceled B. had been canceled C. having canceled D. having been canceled
2. _____ for a long time, most of the crops in this D area died from lacking water. A. Being no rain B. There was no rain C. To be no rain D. There being no rain
B 3. Everything _______ into consideration, they believed themselves more and returned to their positions.
A. to take B. taken C. to be taken
B 4. The boy lay on his back, his teeth _____ and his glaring eyes ___ straight upward. A. set; looked B. Set; looking
C. setting; looked D. setting; looking
A 5. _________, they stopped for a rest. A. The work finished B. The work was finished C. They had finished the work D. As the work being finished
6. All the things _____，his proposal is of greater A value than yours. A. considered B. considering C. to consider D. consider
C 7. All the tickets _______ out, they went away disappointedly. A. being sold B. to have been sold C. having been sold D. having sold
8. The murderer was brought in, with his hands ______ behind his back. D A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied
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