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? 基本成分 ? 简单句 ? 并列句 ? 复合句

? 附属成分
? 独立成分 ? 省略成分 ? 连接成分

? 主语 + 不及物动词 ( S + Vi ) ? 主语 + 及物动词 +宾语 ( S + Vt + O) ? 主语 + 系动词 + 表 (S + LV + pre

dicative) ? 主语+双宾动词+间宾+直宾(S +Vt +O.indir+O. dir) ? 主语 + 宾补动词 +宾语 +宾语补语 ? (S + Vt. + O + O. compl) ?There + be / stand/ lie / live...

主语、动词(不及物动词、及物动词、双宾动词、系动词、 宾补动词)、宾语及补语可以称为基本句子成分。


noun 主 谓 宾语(直) 宾语(间) adj. / adv. infinitive 语 语 Vt 宾语 宾补 V-ing V-ed V-l 表语 etc. Noun / Pronoun noun The + adj pronoun adj. / adv. V-ing / Clause be / appear/ seem infinitive taste / smell / feel look Infinitive V-ing / V-ed become /get / grow / turn clause go / come / etc. remain/ keep /stand / lie


Noun / Pronoun / The + adj V-ing/ Infinitive / Clause 宾语

主语 + 不及物动词 She came./ My head aches. 主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语 She likes English. 主语 + 系动词 + 表语 She is happy. 主语 + 双宾动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语 She gave John a book. She bought a book for me. 主语 + 宾补动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补语 She makes her mother angry. The teacher asked me to read the passage. There +be There lies a book on the desk.



语(主要是介词短语、不定式短语和分词短语)。 我们称之为:定语、状语 The little boy needs a blue pen.

基本成分的修饰语。可以是: ? 定语:即用来修饰名词,如adj ? 状语:即用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或从句。

Poor John came to a hospital nearby. She likes oranges imported from the USA. John gave Mary many books,which are full of illustrations. Have you seen the book on the desk? The boy playing over there is my brother. People there like sports.

状 语
John often came to chat with me. John likes oranges very much.

Whenever he gets drunk,John makes Mary very angry.
Hearing the news, he jumped with joy.

As he was ill, he didn’t come to class yesterday.
She is sitting at the desk, doing her homework. My father worked in this school ten years ago. You’d better stay here.

句中可以去掉的成分,去掉后不影响句子的完整性。 独立成分 这种成分和句子的其他词没有语法的关系。

Oh!What is that!(惊叹词)
He has,alas,failed again. Come here,John.(呼语) Roll on,Ocean,roll on.

He , I think, is not a student.(插入语)

句中被省略的成分,虽然未说出来,却在句中表示 省略成分 一定的意思: ?

? ? Some gave him praises,but others(gave him) rotten eggs. ? He runs as fast as, if ( he does ) not ( run ) faster, than you. ? ( I ) Hope you like it. ? John should clean the room today and Peter ( should clean it ) tomorrow.

(You) Come here. (I wish you)Good luck!

连接成分 连 词
用来连接两个或几个平行的词、短语和分句。这 种连词叫做并列连词。 用来连接两个句子、且一个句子从属于另一个句 子(即从句)的连词。这类连词叫从属连词。从 属连词主要用于引导各种从句。 一个完整的句子(主句或从句)必须包含2个到4 个基本成分,此外,如果意思上有需要,还可包 含一个或更多其他的句子成分。

简单句只有一个限定动词(即只有一个主谓结 构),它是最小的句子单位。主要起下列四种 作用中的一种。 ? 作一种陈述 ? 提出一个问题 ? 发出一种命令或请求 ? 表示一种感叹 Examples: The boy hit the dog. / The dog bit the boy. The girl read the books. / The books pleased the girl. Stephen apologized at once. Does the shop close at 7 tonight? Shut the door. What a slow train this is!

主语 谓语 (动词) I bought a hat 宾语 状语 (方式 地点 时间) yesterday. home. angrily. in silence. suddenly. confidently in the room. in a police car.

The children ran The taxi driver shouted at me We The car ate stopped our meal

A young girl walked They drove him away


简单句的主语、宾语可以加上一个短语(如定语)来扩展, 及物动词或不及物动词也可以与其它短语(如状语)连用 进行扩展。

I bought a rain coat with a warm lining.
The dog jumped through the window.

He is saving up to buy a mobile phone.
A bright little boy with rosy cheeks put three bottles of milk quietly on my doorstep before seven o’clock. He worked like a madman in the garden on Saturday. The young girl with long black hair seems to be very happy.

主 语 、 谓 语 、 宾 语 的 合 并

两个简单句的主语可以连词and、but、both..and、 either…or、neither…nor、not only…but also等连词连接 组成一个简单句,但应注意主语和谓语动词的一致性。 The boss is flying to Paris. His secretary is flying to Paris. The boss and his secretary are flying to Paris. Both the boss and his secretary are flying to Paris. The boss is flying to Rome. His secretary is not flying to Rome. The boss but not his secretary is flying to Rome. The boss may be flying to Berlin. His secretary may be flying to Berlin. Either the boss or his secretary is flying to Berlin. The boss is not flying to York. His secretary isn’t flying to York. Neither the boss nor his secretary is flying to York.

主 语 、 谓 语 、 宾 语 的 合 并

两个简单句的宾语可由and、both…and等连词连接组成 一个简单句。 I met Jane. I met her husband. I met Jane and her husband. I met both Jane and her husband. It was cold. It was wet. It was cold and wet. I didn’t meet Jane. I didn’t meet her husband. I didn’t meet either Jane or her husband. I met neither Jane nor her husband.
两个或两个以上限定动词也可合并为一个简单句。 We sang all night. We danced all night. We sang and danced all night.

并 列 句

需把几个意思连接在一起时,可用分号 或把两个或几个简单句用并列连词连接 起来,这种结构即构成一个并列句。
用分号: We fished all day; we didn’t catch a thing. 用分号,后跟一个连接副词: We fished all day; however, we didn’t catch a thing. 用并列连词(如and、but、so、yet等) We fished all day, but (we) didn’t catch a thing.

并 列 句

常用并列连词 coordinating conjunctions
and, both…and, not only…but also, neither…nor, and then but, however, while, yet for, so

? 平行并列连词: ? 转折并列连词: ? 因果并列连词:

? 选择并列连词:

or, either…or, neither… nor

并 列 句

并列句的词序:并列句基本上保留了简单句 的词序。
主语 谓语 宾语 连词 主语 动词 表语

Jimmy fell off his bike but (he) wasn’t hurt.

主 主 谓 谓 谓 状(方式) 连 宾 宾 连 宾补 主 连 主 谓 主 谓 地点 谓 宾 表

Frank worked hard I

and (he ) became an architect. ’m going to bed.

’ve got a cold, so I

They made him chairman, but (they) didn’t increase his salary.

Exercise: 请用合适的并列连词把每组句子合并为一个并列句。 1. He was tired. He went to bed.

He was tired, so he went to bed.
2. The child hid behind his mother's skirt. He was afraid of the dog. The child hid behind his mother's skirt, for he was afraid of the dog. 3. He made a promise. He didn’t keep it.

He made a promise, but He didn’t keep it.

复 合 句

由一个主句和一个或者一个以上从句所 构成的句子。在英语书面语中应用广泛。 主句是一个完整的句子,它可以独立存在。 从句是一个不完整的句子,它必须和一个 主句连用,不能独立存在。 复合句可以通过把两个以上简单句连接 在一起构成,但复合句的各组成部份并非 同等重要,其中一个句子由从属连词引 导(从句),用以修饰另一句子(主句)。

复合句 = 主句 + 从句

复合句是在简单句的基础上,通过从属连词将两个或两个 以上简单句连接在一起而构成。从属连词所引导的从句起 形容词、名词、副词的作用。复合句主要包含以下类型从 句: 1. 主语从句 2. 宾语从句 3. 表语从句 4. 定语从句 5. 状语从句 6. 同位语从句

英文写作中最常使用的从句 1. 宾语从句 2. 状语从句 3. 定语从句

复合句与简单句:复合句 = 简单句 + 从属连词 +简单句 that the match had been cancelled.

when he was leaving for Paris.

He told me the news. 宾语从句 宾语
that I could have the money without delay. that his fathered was working in how how much he was prepared tomuch he was prepared that school. to pay for my car. pay for my car and that I could have the money without delay.

复合句与简单句:复合句 = 简单句 + 从属连词 +简单句 that he has finished his work. whether he has finished his work.

I don’t know 宾语从句 him.
He has finished his work that he is leaving for Washington. He is leaving for when he is leaving for Washington. Washington. why he is leaving for Washington. how he is leaving for Washington. whether he is leaving for Washington.

复合句与简单句:复合句 = 简单句 + 从属连词 +简单句 What he said what he did

the room. That surprised the people in 定语 主语
who were sitting in the room. who were present. whose sons were at war. who had signed the contract.

That he didn’t know the answer

复合句与简单句:复合句 = 简单句 + 从属连词 +简单句



the fact. 表 语

what he needs. what he gave me. why he was late. because he was ill. what has happened.

复合句与简单句:复合句 = 简单句 + 从属连词 +简单句

I lived there. where I lived

He lived there three years ago.

He worked in that years ago. 地点状语 时间状语 factory three
where his His father worked there. father worked when he lived there

复合句与简单句:复合句 = 简单句 + 从属连词 +简单句

where it was.

Put the book on the desk. 地点状语 you found it. where where you took it. You can’t camp here.

wherever you like.

where there are a lot of trees.


?I believe that everything is going on well. ?She was reading a novel when I came in. ?She is the girl who sings best in my class. 宾语从句 状语从句

定语从 句

Practice 用所给连词连接句子。 He has found out. She was late. (why) He has found out why she was late. I still remember the day. I first went to York on that day. (when) I still remember the day when I first went to York.

He didn’t come yesterday. He was ill. (原因)

He didn’t come yesterday because he was ill.

I’ll give the letter to him. I see him. (时间)

I’ll give the letter to him when I see him. I’ll give the letter to him as soon as I see him. I’ll give the letter to him the moment I see him.
It is such a big box. Nobody can move it. (结果)

It is such a big box that nobody can move it.
We’ll go to the great wall. It’s fine tomorrow. (条件)

We’ll go to the great wall if it’s fine tomorrow.
We should not go there all the time. The place is quite pleasant.(让步)

Although the place is quite pleasant, we should not go there all the time.

Language study

Explaining the Predicate
In grammar, a predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence (the other being the subject, which the predicate modifies). The predicate must contain a verb and can contain objects or phrases governed by the verb. The predicate provides information about the subject, such as what the subject is doing or what the subject is like.

Explaining the Predicate
1. A team of scientists discovers an important ancient grave near the village of native people. 2. I was reading a book abut Marco Polo when you called. 3. We can send robots equipped with cameras and other tools to do observations for us. 4. After two years of hard work, the couple paid off their debt.

Explaining the Predicate
Exercises: 1. The world map was a great puzzle to people of early civilizations. 2. In the year 751, the Chinese traveler, Du Huan, was taken prisoner by the Arabic army. 3. Noting similar has ever been found in East Africa. 4. He hopes to become an archaeologist. 5. You had better go now, or you will be late for the interview. 6. He is expected to be back from Urumqi next Monday.

Underlining the Predicate

To better understand the predicate, go over the text and underline all the predicates in the sentences.

Doing grammar exercises

To end the period, turn to page 15 and do the grammar exercises 1 and 2.





That must be a record!

1. What is Subject?

The subject of a sentence is
the person, place, thing, or idea that is doing or being


2. What can be used as Subject?

a noun,

an adjective, it, a

nonfinite verb,

nominative personal
pronoun and the subject

clause and so on.

Decide whether the

following sentences are
correct. If not, point out the mistakes and

try to correct them.

1. Three people were invited

to the party --- John, Li
Ming and me.
John, Li Ming and I 在句中作 were invited 的主语.

2. If the situation continues like this, poor will get

poorer, while rich will get
the + adj. 表示一类人。单独的 adj. 不能用作主语。

3. Being late for school made his teacher angry.
是谁 being lste for school?指代


4. Beaten by Class 2 made every student of our class

very sad.
分词不能作主语,所以要将 beaten 改为动名词的被动形式 being beaten 才能作主语。

5. He won the first prize in the singing competition

made his parents wild
with joy.

6. It is no use to argue with

such a fellow, for he never
changes his mind.
在 It is no + n. 的结构中,主语必 须使用 doing。

1. _______ to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one’s skin.

A. Exposed
B. Having exposed

C. Being exposed
D. After being exposed

2. ______ the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. A. The president will attend B. The president to attend C. The president attended D. The president’s attending

3. ___ made the school proud was ___ more than 90% of the students had been admitted to key universities. A. What … because B. What … that C. That … what D. That … because

5. ______ fashion differs from

country to country may
reflect the cultural differences. A. What B. This

C. That

D. It

6. _______ was quite helpful.
A. What they advised me to do B. That they advised me to do C. What did they advise me to do

D. All what they advised me to do

7. ________ certain that his

invention will lead to the
development of production. A. It’s B. This is

C. That’s

D. What’s

8. ___ still ____ to be discussed. A. How is the plan to be carried out … needs B. How is the plan to be carried out … need C. How the plan is to be carried out … need D. How the plan is to be carried out … needs

9. --- What made her so sad? --- _________ her son is always making trouble at school.

A. ThatB. Because
C. As D. Since

10. --- Why is Kate selling all her belongings? --- ________ is impossible to explain anything she does. A. Nobody B. What

C. It

D. That

11. With more forests being destroyed, huge quantities of good earth ____ each year. (05山东) A. is washing away

B. is being washed away
C. are washing away

D. are being washed away

12. Nowadays, a large number of women, especially those from the countryside, ______ in the clothing industry. (05辽宁) A. is working B. works

C. work

D. worked

13. Professor Smith, along with his assistants, _____ on the project day and night to meet the deadline. (05上海) A. work B. working

C. is working

D. are working

14. A poet and artist _____ coming to speak to us about Chinese literature and painting tomorrow afternoon.(06江苏) A. is B. are

C. was

D. were

15. Most of what has been said about the Smiths ____ also true of the Johnsons.(06安徽)


D.to be

16. The company had about 20 notebook computers but only one-third ____ used regularly. Now we have 60 working all day long.(06浙江) A. is B. are C. was D. were



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