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高中英语 Unit1 Nothing ventured,nothing gained定语课件 新人教版选修10


III. 定语从句:
(一)关系词的确定与选择

一看先行词(人/物)
二看关系词在从句中的作用(主/谓/宾/ 表/定/状/补) 三看特殊用法

1. 在下列情况下只用that,不用which
① 先 行 词 是 all, everything, nothing, anything, little, muc

h, the one等不定代词时 There is nothing ( that ) I can do. I mean the one that was brought yesterday. ② 先行词被all, any, every, no, some, little, much等词修饰时 I have read all the books (that) you gave me. You may take home any of these books that you like.

③.先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时
This is the first composition (that)he has written in English. This is the best novel (that) I have ever read. ④先行词被the only, the very(正是,恰是), the same, the last修饰时 The white flower is the only one ( that) I really like. This is the very book (that) I want to find. The last place( that) we visited was the hospital.

⑤ 当先行词有两个或两个以上时, 既有人又有物,定语从句用that 引导 (that既可指人也可指物) He talked about the teachers and schools that he had visited.

2. 下列情况不能使用that,而用which
① that 不能引导非限制性定语从句

Football, which is a very interesting game, is played all over the world.
② that不能置于介词之后(介词后指物 用which,指人用whom) to whom The person ________I am speaking just now is our English teacher. The prize for which ________he worked so hard was a new bicycle.

3. as 做关系代词的用法
1. 关系代词常出现在the same…as, such…as, so…as, as…as 等结构中 This is not such a book as I expected.

I live in the same building as he (lives in).
As many children as came here were my father’s pupils.

★ the same…that…和the same…as… 的区别
I have bought the same watch as you have. 我买了一块和你一样的手表。 (我的手表和你的手表很像,但不是同一 块。) This is the same watch that I lost. 这就是我丢的那块手表。 (这手表和我丢的手表是同一块)

★ such..., so nice a day…短语后缺少一个 成分时,一般用as引导定语从句; so / such …that不缺少成分时,用that 引 导状语从句。 that It’s so nice a day _________ we all want to have a walk along the river. It’s so special a day _________ I’ll never as forget all my life. as Here is so big a stone ________ no man can lift. that This is so big a stone _______ no man can lift it.

4. as引导非限制性定语从句,指代逗 号前的整个句子(即先行词),可置于 句首或句末。 This elephant is like a snake, as anybody can see. Mary was late for school, as often happened. As is known to all, the earth is round.

★ 当as作主语时,后面常接下列句型: 1.as has been said before 如上所述 2.as may be imagined 正如可以想象出来的那样 3.as is well known 4.as was expected 众所周知 正如预料的那样

5.as has been already pointed out 正如已经指出的那样 6.as we all can see 正如我们都能看到的

★ as 指代一句话和which 指代一句话的用法区 别
当主句和从句语义一致时,用as;当两句语义 不一致或从句为否定时,用which。

as He made a long speech, ________ was expected.
He made a unexpected. long speech,

which _________was

which Tom drinks a lot every day, _________ his wife doesn’t like at all.

5. whose + n 表示所属关系,可变为n + of which/ whom, ★ 表示部分关系时,也可用部分关系词 + of which/ whom. The buses, most of which were already full, were surrounded by the angry crowd.

6. 关系副词when, where, why也相当于介词 (on, in, at, for) + which in which /when I’ll never forget the years ____________ we
worked together. I’ll never forget the day _______________ I on which/ when joined the Party.

(二)定语从句中的主谓一致
引导词在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词 人称和数要根据引导词所指内容而定。例如:

1. Here are such sentences as _______often used by the students. are am 2. I, who ______a Party member, should work hard for our country.
3. He was one of the students who ________praised for it. were 4. He was the only one of the students who ________praised for it. was

(三)易与定语从句混淆的其他复合句 1. 定语从句与同位语从句

定语从句与前面的名词是修饰与被修饰的关 系“……的(名词)”。而同位语从句是用来 说明前面名词的内容。与that从句同位的名词 必须是一些表事实或概念的抽象名词,如fact, news, belief, truth, reply等。that在定语从句中 作成分,可用which 或who/whom代替;而that 在同位语从句中不充当任何句子成分,只起连 接作用。试比较:

① We all have heard the news that _________ our team won. (同位语从句,that从句表示news的内容, that 在从句中不作任何成分)
② We don’t believe the news ___________ he told us yesterday. that/which

(定语从句,that 作told 的宾语)

2. 定语从句与状语从句。试比较: ① He left the key___________ he had been where an hour before. (where引导地点状语从句,相当于in the place where) ② He left the place ___________he lived for where many years. (where 引导定语从句,修饰the place) ③ He is such a good teacher ____________all as of us love and respect. (as 引导定语从句)

that ① He is such a good teacher _________we all like him. (that引导结果状语从句,such…that… “如此… 以致…” 3. 定语从句与主语从句。试比较:
As ① ___________is known to us all, paper was first made in China.
(as 引导定语从句,指代整个主句内容,可置 于句首) It ② ___________is known to us all that paper was first made in China. (it 做形式主语,代替that 引导的主语从句)

4.定语从句与强调结构。试比较:
where ① It is the house __________I met the young man.
(where 引导定语从句,修饰house,where在定语
从句中作地点状语)

that ② It was in the house ___________I met the young man.
(本句为强调结构,可还原为I met the young man in the house.)

1. It is the young man _______ looked for _______ caught the murderer.
A.that …who B. that …they

C . they …that

D they…which

2. Is this factory _______ we visited last year?

A. where
C. the one

B in which
D at which

3. The book, the cover _______ is broken, is not mine.
A. of it B for C whose D of which

4. This is Mr Smith, _____ I think has something interesting to tell you. A . who B whom C. that D. x 5. Who _______ has seen the TV film doesn’t admire it? A . that B who C which D as
6. You can never imagine what great trouble I have had ________ the patient who received a serious wound. A. treat B. to treat C treating D treated

7. This is the last time _________ I shall give you a lesson. A. when B that C which D in which

8. I don’t like the way ________ you laugh at her. A . that B on which C which D as

9.____ we all know, swimming is a very good sport. A. Which B.That C.As D.Who

10.I shall never forget those years _____ I lived in the farm ____ you visited last week.
A.when,where C.when , which B.which,which D.which , where

11.He paid the boy $10 for washing ten windows, most of ____ hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year.
A.these B.the C.that D.which

12.My glasses, ____ I was like a blind man, fell to the ground and broke.
A.which B.with which C.without which D.that 13.A harvester is a machine ____ we harvest crops or a person ____ is harvesting. A.which , who C.with which , who B.that , that D./, that

14.I have bought the same dress ____ she is wearing. A.as B.that C.which D.what

15.Chapin, _____ money was now no problem , start a new film company with his friends.
A.whose B.which C.for whom D.who

16.Please put the letter _____ he can easily find it.
A.in which C.the place where B.where D.in the place

17.The reason ____ I was away from school is ____ I was ill yesterday. A.that , that B.why , why

C.why, that

D.that , why

18.Antarctic ,____ we know very little is covered with thick ice all the year round. A.which B.where C.that D.about which

19.She was __ I met at the party , ___ you knew. A.who , whom C.the one , as B.whom , who D.the one , whose

20.---How do you like the book? ---It’s quite different from _ I read last month. A.that B.which C.the one what D.the one 21. I’ll tell you ___ he told me last week. A.all which B.all what C.that all D.all


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