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高考英语阅读理解事实细节题的解题技巧


第二篇
第一节

阅读

事实细节题的解题技巧

一、常见的设问形式
1.Which of the following is NOT included/mentioned
in the passage? 2.Which of the following (sentences/stateme

nts) is NOT true according to the passage? 3.According to the passage,all of the following are TRUE except/but________. 4 . The author mentions all of the following

EXCEPT________.

5 . In the passage , the author states that ________. 6.According to the passage,when (where,why, how,who,etc.)...

二、常见题型
1.描写类细节题。
2.数据计算题。 3.排序题。 4.信息寻找、广告阅读题。

5.图文转换题。
6.表格理解题。

三、设题方式
1 .语意转换。细节理解题设题时为了避免出现原
文中所用的词汇,常常使用一些同义词、近义词或反义 词(双重否定)。因而在解题时要注意语意转换。 2 .设题顺序。一般来说,题序与其相关信息在文 中的顺序一致,如某题的答案信息往往会在下一小题的 答案信息之前。

3.设题干扰项。 (1)正误并存:部分正确,部分错误。 (2)扩大或缩小范围:是原文信息,但不是题干要求。 (3)偷换概念:符合常识,但不是文章的内容。 (4)以偏概全:与原句的内容极其相似,但在程度、态 度、褒贬色彩上有变动。 (5)无中生有:明显不是文章的信息,与文章事实不符 或相反。

四、解题步骤
1 .迅速定位,缩小范围。通过寻读法 (scanning) ,用
题干中的关键词在文中搜索,迅速确定相关词句或信息点所 在的位置,缩小阅读范围。 2.理解其意,对照选项。在找到关键词句后,要仔细 阅读,准确理解,对照选项,看哪个选项的意思与之最接近。 3.排除干扰,选出答案。在作出选择的过程中,要善 于辨别真伪,排除干扰,不断缩小范围,选出正确答案。

注意:解题时要留意否定词,如果题干中含有

否定意义的词,如 NOT , EXCEPT 等,应特别留心。
在解答排序题时,可采用 “ 首尾定位法 ” ,即先找 到第一个动作和最后一个动作,缩小范围以便能迅 速选出正确答案。

五、典例精析
例1 Tuition Fees(学费) fees are different from department to

Tuition

department,generally from $5,000 to $6,000 a year.For further information:tui@waikato.ac.nz. Accommodation(住宿) You can have a room in a 4bedroom flat,which will cost about $100 a month with other regular living costs of about $150 a month for one person.For further information: acc@waikato.ac.nz.

You have to pay at least ________a year if you study at the University of Waikato. A.$5,250 B.$8,000 C.$9,000 D.$11,000

解析: 数据计算题。本篇是介绍 Waikato 大学的广告。 从“Tuition Fees(学费):Tuition fees are different from
department to department,generally from $5,000 to $6,000 a year.”和“Accommodation(住宿):You

can have a room in a 4bedroom flat, which will cost about $100 a month with other regular living costs of about$150 a month for one person.”可知,在那儿学习一 年的费用是:$5,000(学费)+$100(住宿费)×12(months)

+$150(生活费)×12(months)=$8,000。
答案: B

例2 People can use a home computer to make their shopping lists.Once at the store , a shopper can use a

preferred customer card to start a system(系统)that will
organize the trip around the store.If you're looking for toothpicks,you type in the word or pick it from a list,

and a map will appear on the screen showing where you
are and where you can find them. The devices also keeps a record of what you buy.When you've finished , the device figures out your bill.Then you go to the checker or place your card into a

selfcheckout stand and pay.

Which of the following is the correct order of

shopping with the computerized shopping card?
a.Start the system. b.Make a shopping list. c.Find the things you want. d.Go to a selfcheckout stand. A.abdc B.bacd C.acbd D.bcad

解析: 排序题。 由第一段第一句话可知第一件事是 make a shopping list。去到商店后“start the system”, 根据指引“you can find them”,最后去结账,故顺序 为bacd。本题也可采用排除法,c和 d是相邻且为先后 的顺序,故排除A、C、D。本题还可结合自己的购物

常识进行快速判断。
答案: B

例 3 In the animal kingdom, weakness can bring
about aggression in other animal. This sometimes happens with humans also. But I have found that my weakness brings out the kindness in people.I see it every day when people hold doors for me, pour cream into my coffee, or

help me to put on my coat. And I have discovered that it
makes them happy.

From my wheelchair experience, I see the best in people, but sometimes I feel sad because those who appear independent miss the kindness I see daily. They don't get

to see this soft side of others. Often,we try every possible
way to avoid showing our weakness, which includes a lot of pretending.But only when we stop pretending we're brave or strong do we allow people to show the kindness that's in them.

1.The author has discovered that people will feel

happy when ________.
A.they offer their help

B.they receive others' help
C.they feel others' kindness D.they show their weakness

解析: 事实细节题。由第一段最后一句可知,关键是 理清该句中的 it ,它指的是前文中的 “ the kindness in people” ,其具体行为是 “ people hold doors for me , pour cream into my coffee,or help me to put on my

coat”,人们的这些行为概括起来,就是they offer their
help ,故选 A 。文中信息与选项表述的关系是具体与概 括的关系。

答案:

A

2 . The author feels sad sometimes because ________. A.he has a soft heart B.he relies much on others C.some people pretend to be kind D.some people fail to see the kindness in others

解析: 事实细节题。由第二段第一句but后的内容可知,

D选项中用some people代替了文中“those who appear
independent”,用fail to see代替了文中的miss。

答案:

D

3.What does the underlined word “it” refer to?

A.Animal kingdom. B.Weakness.
C.Aggressive behavior. D.Kindness.

解析: 意 义 猜 测 。 it 指 代 前 面 的 the kindness in
people。

答案:

D

例 4 In a world with limited land , water and other

natural resources

( 资源 ), the harm from the traditional

business model is on the rise.Actually,the past decade has seen more and more forests disappearing and the globe becoming increasingly warm. People now realize that this unhealthy situation must be changed, and that we must be

able to develop in sustainable (可持续的) ways.That means
growth with low carbon or development of sustainable products.In other words,we should keep the earth healthy while using its supply of natural resources.

The traditional business model is harmful because of all
the following EXCEPT that ________. A.it makes the world warmer B.it consumes natural resources

C.it brings severe damage to forests
D.it makes growth hard to continue

解析: 事实细节解。根据 “ the past decades has seen more and more forests disappearing and the
globe becoming increasingly warm.”可知:传统经 济发展模式的危害是使全球气候变暖、不能持续发 展、给未来发展造成损失。 B不选,过度使用自然 资源才是有害的。

答案:

B

? 即学即练 阅读下列文段,从题后所给的 A 、 B 、 C 、和 D 项中 选出最佳选项。

(一 )
Mothers,doctors and nurses alike have no idea of

where a baby's blood sugar level lies. All we know is that a
low level is harmful to brain development and makes a baby easily annoyed. In this state, the baby is difficult to

calm down and sleep is impossible. The baby asks for
attention by crying and searching for food with its mouth.

According to the Paragraph,one reason why a baby cries is that it feels ________. A.sick B.upset C.sleepy D.hungry 事实细节题。由该段最后一句 “ The baby 解析:

asks for attention by crying and searching for food
with its mouth.”可知。hungry是searching for food

的近义替换。
答案:

D

(二 )

When Frida Kahlo's paintings were on show in
London, a poet described her paintings as “a ribbon(丝带) around a bomb”. Such comments seem to suggest Kahlo had a big influence on the art world of her time. Sadly, she is actually a much bigger name today than she was during her time.

Born in 1907 in a village near Mexico City, Kahlo

suffered from polio ( 小 儿 麻 痹 症 ) at the age of
seven.Her spine(脊柱) became bent as she grew older. Then, in 1925, her back was broken in several places in a schoolbus accident.Throughout the rest of her life, the artist had many operations, but nothing was able to cure the terrible pain in her back. However, the accident had an unexpected side effect. While lying in

her bed recovering, Kahlo taught herself to paint.

In 1929, she got married to Diego Rivera, another famous Mexican artist. Rivera's strong influence on Kahlo's style can be seen in her early works,but her later works from the 1940s,known today as her best works, show less influence from her husband.
Unfortunately, her works did not attract much attention in the 1930s and 1940s, even in her home country. Her first onewoman show in Mexico was not held until 1953. For more than a decade after her death in 1954, Kahlo's works remained largely unnoticed by the world,but in the 1970s her works began to gain international fame at last.

1.The terrible pain Kahlo suffered was caused by ________.
A.polio B.her bent spine C.back injuries D.the operation she had 解析: 事实细节题。根据第二段“her back was broken in several places in a shoolbus accident...but nothing was able to cure the terrible pain in her back”可知选C。 答案:

C

2.Kahlo's style had become increasingly

independent since the ________.
A.1930s B.1940s

C.1950s D.1970s
解析: 事实细节题。根据第三段“but her later works from the 1940s,known today as her best works,show less influence from her husband”可知选B。 答案:

B

(三 ) The valuepacked, allinclusive sightseeing package that combines the best of Sydney's harbour, city, bay and beach highlights.

A Sydney Pass gives you unlimited and flexible travel

on the Explorer Buses. The “red”Sydney Explorer shows
you around our exciting city sights while the “blue”Bondi Explorer visits Sydney Harbour bays and famous beaches.

Take to the water on one of three magnificent daily

harbour cruises (游船). You can also travel free on regular

Sydney Buses, Sydney Ferries or City Rail services (limited
area), so you can go to every corner of this beautiful city. Imagine browsing at Darling Harbour, sampling the famous seafood at Watsons Bay or enjoying the city lights on an evening ferry cruise.The possibilities and plans are endless with a Sydney Pass. Wherever you decide to go, remember that bookings are not required on any of our

services so tickets are treated on a first in, first seated basis.

Sydney Passes are available for 3.5 or 7 days for use over a 7 calendar day period. With a 3 or 5 day pass you choose on which days out of the 7 you want to use it.

All Sydney Passes include a free Airport Express inward
trip before starting your 3.5 or 7 days, and the return trip is valid(有效的)for 2 months from the first day your ticket was used.

Sydney Pass Fares Adult 3 day ticket 5 day ticket 7 day ticket $90 $120 $140 Child* $45 $60 $70 Family * * $225 $300 $350

* A child is defined as anyone from the ages of 4 years to under 16 years.Children under 4 years travel free. * * A family is defined as 2 adults and any number of children from 4 to under 16 years of age from the same family.

1.A Sydney Pass doesn't offer unlimited rides on ________.
A.the Explorer Buses B.the harbour cruises C.regular Sydney Buses D.City Rail services 解析: 事实细节题 。根据第二段最后一句话 “ ...City

Rail services(limited area)”可知,这个旅行游览项目是
不提供无限制乘坐的。 答案: D

2.With a Sydney Pass,a traveller can ________. A.save fares from and to the airport B.take the Sydney Explorer to beaches C.enjoy the famous seafood for free D.reserve seats easily in a restaurant 解析: 事 实 细 节 题 。 根 据 第 四 段 “ ...a free Airport Express inward trip before starting your 3.5 or 7 days, and the return trip is valid for two months from the first

day your ticket is used.”可知答案为A。
答案:

A

3.If 5day tickets were to be recommended to a mother
who travelled with her colleague and her children,aged 3,6 and 10,what would the lowest cost be?

A.$225. B.$330.
C.$360. D.$420. 数据计算题。计算票价花费,成年人每人 $120 , 解析:

两个成年人为$240,3岁的孩子免费,所以两个孩子费用
是$120,总共花费是$360。 答案: C

(四 ) It's everywhere.Indoors,advertising is in magazines and newspapers,on television,and even popping up on computer screens outdoors , advertising means

billboards.They are in train stations and on the sides of
buildings.They are along highways in the countryside. Billboards were once large painted signs that urged customers to buy anything from fried chicken to dish soap.Nowadays billboards are hightech devices that advertise the products of the modern world,from cellular phone service to perfume.

Billboards have changed along with technology.Originally painted directly onto wooden boards or

the sides of buildings,billboards were first improved by
attaching large printed vinyl strips to a structure to form an advertiser's message.Later,mechanical billboards were developed which could display three different images.As one image changed to the next,the movement caught the eye of

anyone passing by.More recently,electronic technology has
produced backlit billboards which shine a light through an image printed on a sheet of plastic,and digital billboards that

can display huge images similar to those on a television screen.

The latest trend in billboards is interactivity.In Belgium, a billboard that looked like a pinball machine had people on

the street using text messaging to answer a question the
billboard sent to their cell phones. If they answered correctly, they had a chance to win a new car.In Japan,some billboards feature QR (Quick Response ) codes,a newer version of bar codes,which can be read by specially programmed camera cell phones.When a person takes a picture of a billboard with a QR code,the advertiser's

website appears on their phone.A billboard in New York's Times Square lets people on the street play a video game using their cell phones,and a huge digital sign in London's

Piccadilly Circus responds when someone waves at it and
displays different images depending on the weather. Billboards do not always get a positive reaction, however.The large number of billboards along American highways led to the Highway Beautification Act of 1965.This

group of laws aimed to

preserve the scenic beauty of the countryside as well as

the safety of people driving in cars by limiting the
number and location of billboards.In Athens,Greece, city officials ordered the removal of hundreds of downtown billboards before the 2004 Olympic Games in an effort to restore the city's historical

beauty.Billboards may be a favourite of advertisers, but not everyone wants to look at them.

1.Where will you probably not see a billboard ? A.On a building. B.In the countryside. C.In a magazine. D.In a train station.

解析: 事 实 细 节 题 。 第 一 段 “ They are in train
stations and on the sides of buildings.They are along highways in the countryside.”可知选C。 答案:

C

2.Which type of billboard is the oldest ? A.A digital billboard.

B.A painted billboard.
C.A mechanical billboard.

D.A printed billboard.
解析: 事实细节题。根据第二段 “ Originally painted directly on to wooden boards...”可知选B。 答案: B

3 . Which billboard could people without a cell phone interact with ?

A.The one in Belgium.
B.The one in Japan.

C.The one in New York.
D.The one in London. 解析: 事实细节题。第三段倒数第一句讲到在伦敦的 Piccadilly Circus 的一个巨大的数字符号依靠天气产生相 互作用。 答案:

D

4.Why were billboards in Athens removed before the 2004 Olympic Games ?

A.The billboards were too old.
B.The billboards could not be removed during the games. C . The advertisers did not want to support the games.

D . The government wanted downtown Athens to look better.

解析: 事实细节题。最后一段倒数第二句 “ restore the
city's historical beauty” 说明是政府希望雅典市中心看起 来更好。 答案: D


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