一： it 做代词
1. it 指天气，时间，地点，距离等.
It is cold today. Nanchong is a beautiful city, isn?t it? It is seven o?clock now.
It is a
cat outside the door.
3. it 指未知性别的某人.
Someone is knocking at the door. Who can it be?
4. 代词 it ,one 和 that.
It 代替的是前面提到的同一名称的同一事物，即同名同物。所代替的名词可以是可数名词也可以是不可数名词。 One 代替的是前面提到的同名异物中的任何一个，所代替的上午可数名词，其前可带冠词与修饰语，如代替复数名词， 则用 ones. That 代替前面提到的同名异物中特指的事物，所代替的名词可以是可数名词也可是不可数名词，但其前通常不能有修 饰语。 The population problem may be the greatest one in the world. The doctor in our school is younger than that in your school. I bought a dictionary three years ago and I am still using it now. I bought a dictionary three years ago but I am going to buy a new one soon.
1. It is clear ( obvious, true, possible, certain....)+ that 从句
该句型中 it 是形式主语，真正的主语是 that 引导的主语从句，常译为＂很清楚（显然，真的，肯定． ． ． ）＂ 是主语 从句最常见的一种结构。 It?s clear that smoking is bad for our health.
2. It is important ( necessary， strange， natural...) +that 从句
该句型和上一个同属一个句型； 由于主句中的形容词不同， that 后的从句中要用虚拟语气 （should + 动词原形） ， should 可以省去. It is important that we (should) learn English well. It is necessary that he (should) remember these words.
3. It is/ was +P.P.+ that 从句. 1) It is said (reported，learned/ believed/ thought / considered/well-known ....) that 从句
该结构常译为＂据说（据报道，据悉． ． ． ）＂。 It is said that he has come to Beijing. It is reported that another earth satellite has been put into orbit.
2) It is suggested (ordered /demanded/insisted/commanded...) +that 从句。
该句型和上一句属一个句型。主句中的过去分词是表示请求、建议、命令( 一坚持，二命令，三建议,四要求)等词时， that 后的从句要用虚拟语气（should+动词原形） 。should 可以省略，常译为“据建议；有命令……” It is suggested that the meeting (should) be put off. It was ordered that we (should) arrive there in two hours.
4. It is a pity ( a shame ... ) that 从句 ...
在该句型中，that 后的从句一般用虚拟语气（should+动词原形） ，should 可以省去，表示出乎意料，常译为“竟然”。没 有这种意义时，则不用虚拟语气。 It is a pity that such a thing (should) happen in your class. 这种事竟然发生在你们班上，真是遗憾。 It is a pity that he is ill. 他生病了，真遗憾！
5. It is time (about time /high time) that ...sb. did sth / sb. should do sth.
该句型中 that 后的从句应该用虚拟语气，值得注意的是：1 常用过去时态表示虚拟．2 有时也用 should + 动词原形， should 不能省，常译为＂是（正是） ． ． ．的时侯了． ． ．＂ It is time that children should go to bed.=It is time that children went to bed.
6. It is the first (second ...) time that sb. has done sth. It was the first (second ...) time that sb. had done sth
该句型应和上一个句型区别开来。该句型中不用虚拟语气，而用完成时态。如果主句是一般现在时，从句用现在完成 时态；如果主句是一般过去时，从句则用过去完成时态。该结构中 that 可以省去；it 有时也用 this 替换，常译为“是某 人第一（二,…）次做某事”。 It is the first time that I have enjoyed this kind of moon cake. This was the second time that I had been to Beijing.
7. It is +(一段时间) +since 从句
该句型主要用作处理瞬间动词的完成时，要和表示一段时间的时间状语连用。主句中是时间作表语，其时态是现在时 和完成时，引导的从句通常是一般过去时态，而且是瞬间动词。如果主句是一般过去时，从句则用过去完成时。 It is (has been) 5 years since his father died. It is almost five years ___we saw each other last time. A. before B. since C. after D. when (B)
8. It +be + not long/ long / 一段时间+ before 从句
该句型主句中的 it 指时间， 主句中的时态常是一般将来时或过去时两种时态， 主句中的表语多是 long ,not long ,3 days, 2 weeks 等表示时间段的词和短语。常译为“……之后才……”，“没过……就……” It was 3 days before he went to Beijing. It will not be long before he finishes his job.
9. It + be + 时间点 + when 从句
这个句型中, it 指时间，而且表示时间的词语前没有介词(时间一般为具体时间)。主句中的谓语动词和从句中的谓语动 词在时态上一般是一致的，主句是 will be，when 从句用一般现在时代替将来时。常译为“当……的时候，是……” It was already 8 o?clock when we got home. It was the next morning when we finished our work. It will be midnight when they get there.
10. It seems（似乎） ， appears（似乎）, happens(碰巧) that 从句
该句型中的 it 是形式主语，that 引导的是主语从句，主句中的 happen, seem 等词是不及物动词。 It happened that he met his teacher in the street. (碰巧……) It seems that he will be back in a few days. (看来……) The Foreign Minister said, “___________our hope that the two sides will work towards peace.” A. This is B. There is C. That is D. It is (D)
11. It takes sb. some time to do sth.
该句型中的不定式是真正的主语，it 是形式主语，句型中的直接宾语是时间。常译为“做……事情要花费某人……时间” It took thousands of people many years to build the Great Wall.
12. It is no good (use ) doing sth
该句型中的真正主语是动名词短语，主句中的表语可以是 no good (not any good), no use (not any use ). It is no good learning English without speaking English.
13．It is/ was + adj. + for /of+ sb. to do sth.
该句型中的不定式短语是真正主语，如果主句中的形容词是能修饰逻辑主语的形容词。常见的有：bad, brave, careless, clever, cruel, foolish ,honest, kind, lazy, modest, naughty, polite, rude, silly, stupid ,wise ,wrong 等，不定式的逻辑主语由 of 短语引出。 It is kind of you to say so = You are kind to say so. 如 果 不 定 式 的 逻 辑 主 语 是 由 for 引 出 的 ， 主 句 的 形 容 词 通 常 是 表 示 重 要 性 ， 紧 迫 性 等 情 况 的 词 。 常 见 的 有 necessary,natural,easy,safe,common,,normal,hard,difficult,dangerous,unusual,grape, impossible 等。 It is important for her to come to the party. =It is important that she (should) come to the party.
14. It looks (seems) as if …
该句型中 it 无意义。As if 引导一个状语从句，常译为：“看起来好像……”如果与事实不相符合，则用虚拟语气。 It looks as if he is ill. （真的病了） It looks as if he was ill. （事实上没有生病） It seemed as if he was dying.
1. Sb. find/ feel / consider/ regard /think/ believe/make +it +adj. / n. to do sth /
I find it hard to give up smoking. We think it our duty to clean our classroom every day.
句型：It is/was +被强调部分 +that/ who +其他部分…… it 可以用来对句子的某一成分加以强调。 Nancy saw your sister in Tokyo last week. It was Nancy who saw your sister in Tokyo last week. It was your sister who Nancy saw in Tokyo last week. It was in Tokyo that Nancy saw your sister last week. It was last week that Nancy saw your sister in Tokyo. Not until 的强调句型： it is /was not until…… that….. 在强调 not … until 结构时必须把 not 与 until 一起放到被强调的位置上。 I didn?t recognize her until she took off her dark glasses.
1. make it 在口语当中相当于 succeed,表示：成功、做到、说定、赶上、及时到达 。
She feels she?s finally made it as a singer. —I?m afraid I can?t walk any further. —Come on! You can make it. If we set off now, we should make it to the station before the train goes.
2. make it+时间点 表示就定在什么时候了
—when shall we meet tomorrow morning.
—let?s make it 8:00 at the school gate.
3. It is a waste of time /money doing sth.
It?s a waste of time your talking to him. 你和他谈是浪费时间。
4. (It is) no wonder (that) … 难怪……
It?s no wonder he is not hungry; he has been eating sweets all day. 难怪他不饿，他整天在吃糖果。
5. It makes no/much difference…没有/有区别……
It?s doesn?t make much difference my being there. 我在不在那儿没有什么影响。
6. It is up to sb. to do sth. 该句型为“该由某人做……”，该句型中 up 后的 to 是介词。
It is up to him to clean our classroom today.今天应由他做教室清洁。
7. v. +it + prep. + that 从句
owe it to sb. that…把…归功于… leave it to sb. that…把…留给某人去做 take it for granted that …想当然 keep it in mind that…记住…… Don?t bother to arrange anything. Just to leave it to me to sort out. I take it for granted that you have read this book. see to it that … 负责…… make it clear that… 宣布……，表明……
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