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定语从句详解和练习


定 语 从 句
一、由 who, whom, whose 引导的定语从句 在这类定语从句中who用作主语, whom用作宾语,whose 用作定语。 1. This is the doctor who saved the boy's life. 2. An old friend of mine who serves in the army came to see

me yesterday. 3. The comrade whom they wanted to visit is a scientist. 4. Who is the student whom Professor Wang praised at the meeting? 5. I know a lady whose husband is a Nobel Prize winner. 6. Dr. Bethune was a great internationalist fighter whose name is cherished by all Chinese. 二、由 which 引导的定语从句 ☆which在从句中作主语或谓语动词的宾语。 1. This a book which tells about space rocket technology. 2. A tractor is a machine which we use for pulling farm machinery. ☆ which(whom)在从句中作介词的宾语使,介词一般可放在which(whom)之前,也可放在从 句原来的位置上, 在含有介词的动词固定词组中介词只能放在原来的位置张,而不能放在 which(whom)之前。 1. The house in which Lu Xun once lived is now the Lu Xun Museum. The house which Lu Xun once lived in is now the Lu Xun Museum. 2. Please tell me from whom you borrowed the English novel. Please tell me whom you borrowed the English novel from. 3. This is the magazine which you are looking for. 4. The child whom Aunt Li takes care of is ill. 三、由that 引导的定语从句 在这种定语从句中that可以指人或物,代替who,whom, which, 在从句中作主语或谓语动词的 宾语(不能放在介词后面作介词宾语) 。 1. The comrade that(who) is speaking at the meeting is an advanced worker. 2. Is this the driver that(whom) you talked about yesterday? 3. The letter that(which) I received yesterday was from my brother. 但在下列情况下, 只能用that: ☆ 序数词或最高级形容词修饰先行词时,要用that. 1. The first English novel that I read was A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens. 2. Li Hua is the most diligent student that I have ever known. ☆ all, everything, nothing, something, anything 等不定代词作先行词时,要用that。 1. Everything that we saw at the Industrial Exhibition greatly interested us. 2. Professor Lin has told us something that we should do in the summer vacation. 3. Is there anything that you want to buy in town? 4. All that we have to do for our students is to suggest how they can learn English by the comparative method. 5. Nothing that the teacher does doesn't influence his students. ☆先行词有 little, no, very, only, just, some,例如: 1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

This is the very/just the book that I want to borrow. Is there any question that troubles you? There is little that remains to be said. I stepped into the bookstore in search of some books that I wanted. I could find no words that could express my feelings at that time.

☆先行词中有人也有物。 Notice: ☆关系代词who, which, that 在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数必须和先 行词一致。 ☆关系代词 whom, which, that 在从句中作动词宾语时,在口语中往往可以省略;在作 介词宾语时,关系代词不能省略,介词放在关系代词前。 四、由 when, where, why 引导的定语从句。 1. October 1st, 1949 was the day when the People's Republic of China was founded. 2. I will never forget the day when I joined the League. 3. Everyone wants to visit the place where Premier Zhou once worked. 4. We don't know the reason why they didn't complete their production plan according to schedule. 5. He came at a time when we needed help. 五、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 Last Sunday they reached Qingdao, where a conference was to be held. We sympathized with Li Ying, whose parents died in the earthquake. She has two brothers, who are both doctors. . He once bought a railway ticket for a woman, which was reported in the We went to see Comrade Wang, who gave us a hearty welcome. 1. 限定性定语从句如果省略了句子就不完整;而非限定性定语从句只是对先行 词的附加说明可以省略。例如: (1) Take the street that goes to the right. (2) The library, which is newly built, will be open to the public. 2. 限定性定语从句主句与从句之间没有逗号;非限定性定语从句必须用逗号隔 开从句和主句。 3. 限定性定语从句中作宾语的关系代词可以省略,在限定性定语从句中不能省 略。 4. 非限定性定语从句不能用关系代词 that。 5. 限定性定语从句的先行词只能是一个名词或代词,而非限定性定语从句的先行词可以是一 个词,也可以是一句话。例如: (1) The book which was written by him sells well.

newspapers.

(2) She no longer talked and laughed as usual, which worried us. 6. 非限定性定语从句所修饰的某人的亲属或某个东西、 某个地方表示 “唯一的、 独一无二的” , 限定性定语从句表示这个亲属和地方不止一个。例如 (1) I have a brother who is a doctor. (2) I have a brother , who is doctor. (3) Shanghai, which lies in the east of China, is a highly industrialized city. 练习: 错句分析 1. Tom, you saw yesterday, fell ill. 2. My father who is a scientist is very strict in his work. 3. She is no longer the girl whom she used to be. 4. The place which I spent my holidays is very beautiful. 5. He made such rapid progress as we all praised him 改错。 1. The reason why he was absent is because he fell ill. 2. This is the reason why he gave us. 3. Is this factory which you want to visit? 4. He said he had been invited, but which was a lie. 5. Which was expected, he performed the task very well. 6. Who who has seen it does not admire it? 7. This is the way by which he worked out the problem. 8. These are the same cousins as are living in London now. 9. Is there anyone whom you can think of might be interested in it? 10. Mark in which you have a question. 选择填空。 1. How little Franz regretted the hours _____ he had wasted in the woods and fields _____ he should have studied. A. when, when A. which B. that, that B. that C. that, when C. for which D. when, that D. in which 2. A dictionary is a book _____ we can find out the meanings of words. 3. He will never forget the people and places _____ he visited in Beijing. 2

A. that A. which A. either of which A. which A. who talked A. where

B. which B. whose B. both of which B. that B. you talked to B. which

C. that C. that

D. as D. as

4. They were not such questions _____ could easily be solved. 5. They have two spare rooms upstairs, _____ has been much used since 1990. C. and either of them D. neither of which C. whom D. of whom 6. He is the most diligent boy _____ I have ever seen. 7. Jane was the first girl ______ when you got there. C. whom you talked D. you talked to whom C. in which D. at which 8. We visited a factory _____ makes toys for children.

定语从句练习一 一、用适当的关系代词( who, whom, which, whose, that) 或关系副词( when, where, why) 填空。 1. This was the best model of a radio set ________ the factory produced in 1979. 2. Do you know anyone ________ knows about the history of the Ming Tombs? 3. We have visited the Museum of Chinese History, ________ Premier Zhou's life and deeds are being shown. 4. We'll never forget the day ________ Chairman Mao came to see us in hospital. 5. This is the cadre ________ son died in the War of Resistance Against Japan. 6. He told me everything ________ he had seen in the traffic accident. 7. Liu showed me an ingenious way by ________ the difficulty could be overcome. 8. I don't know the reason ________ she didn't agree to our study plan. 9. I began to work in Beijing in the year ________ New China was founded. 10. Yesterday I met Dr. Li ________ told me the good news of Wang's recovery. 11. The two pupils ________ you taught three years ago have become tractor drivers. 12. The first thing ________ my sister is going to do this evening is to write a report about scientific experiment. 13. The child ________ parents died in the air crash is now living with his aunt. 14. This place ________ you are standing was the site of an old church. 15. You can telephone the people ________ you want to invite to dinner. 16. Did you know that the actor ________ you saw playing Hamlet is now doing King Lear? 17. This is the man ________ photo I took yesterday. 18. The river ________ they crossed is two miles wide. 19. The doctor ________ is treating for your heart trouble is a relative of mine. 20. Mary, ________ dress is all green, looks very pretty. 21. The PLA man will visit the village ________ his comrade-arms lives, when he gets back home. 二、将下列两个简单句合并成带定语从句的主从复合句。 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Xiao Wang found me the key. I lost the key yesterday. Where is the beautiful picture? You bought it last Sunday. The nurse is very kind. She looks after my little sister. We watched the play Teahouse. The play Teahouse was written by Lao She. The building is at the other end of the street. She is looking for the building.
3

6. 7. 8. 9.

The bridge has been rebuilt now. It was built in 1956. The girl is now living with her grandmother. Her parents died in the earthquake. She is going to the town. I do not know the town. She joined the Communist Youth League on Oct. 4, 1977. She will never forget that day.

10. He did not attend the meeting. He told me the reason. 11. The student studies very hard. Her father is a model worker. 12. The train started at 4:50 p.m. Li Ming missed it. 13. The hotel used to be a palace. The cadre is staying at it. 14. The medicine was quite helpful. Dr. Chen gave him it. 15. This television set is still going strong. They have used it for three years. 16. Those new records are micro grooves(密纹唱片). You have just heard them. 17. She is the finest singer. We have never known a finer singer. 18. The coat would keep me warm even in Siberia. My mother bought me the coat. 19. The purse has been found. I lost it. 20. I am going to visit the old man. I once learned Chinese from him. 三、标出下列句中的定语从句,并将句子译成汉语。 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Bring me the magazine which lies on the shelf in the drawing room. I met my old schoolmate, who was very pleased to see me. I met the clever girl whom you have often praised. There are some desks and chairs in the meeting room which need repairing. It is the largest power station that has ever been built in this province. The town towards which we are moving is the one I used to live in. Yesterday I saw your brother, who told me the good news of your mother's recovery from her illness.

8. 9.

Everything that we saw at the West Lake was charming and beautiful. We reached a little hut, where we took shelter from the rain.

9.

In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person _____ she could turn for help.

10. Many accidents which occur in the streets could be prevented if pedestrians were more careful. 11. Next term I intend to take English poetry, which is a subject I have long wanted to study. 12. I went to see their new house, which I liked very much. 13. The Thames, which flows through London, is a beautiful river. 14. The rubbish which Wang Dong has collected must be cleared away or burnt. 15. Dumas was a famous French novelist, whose works are widely read in China. 16. The dinner party was held in a large hall on the third floor, which was already crowded with people when we entered.

A. that B. who C. from whom D. to whom 10. After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child. A. which B. where C. that D. when 11. Carol said the work would be done by October, _____personally I doubt very much. A. it B. that C. when D. which 12. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase , _____ was very reasonable. A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose 13. _____ has already been pointed out, grammar is not a set of dead rules. 14. 15. 16. 17. A. As B. It C. That D. Which I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella. _______ I got wet through . A. It’s the reason B. That’s why C. There’s why D. It’s how He made another wonderful discovery, ____ of great importance to science. A. which I think is B. which I think it is C. which I think it D.I think which is You can buy as many copies of this book ________ you want. A. that B. which C. as D. for which The journey around the world took the old sailor nine months, _____ the sailing time was 226 days. A. of which B. during which C. from which D. for which I work in a business _________ almost everyone is waiting for a great chance. A. how B. which C. where D. that There were dirty marks on her trousers ______ she had wiped her hands. A. where B. which C. when D. that The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% _______ are sold abroad . A. of which B. which of C. of them D. of that There was ______ time ________ I hated to go to school . A. a; that B. a; when C. the; that D. the ; when August 6, 2006 is a day ________ he will never forget. He was admitted into a university ____ he had long wished to enter. A. when; which B. that; / C. on which; which D. for which; that What surprised me was not what he said but _______ he said it . A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which American women usually identify their best friend as someone _____ they can talk frequently. A. who B. as C. about which D. with whom The film brought the hours back to me ______ I was taken good care of in that far-away village. A. until B. that C. when D. where --- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. --- Is that the reason_______ you had a few days off? A. why B. when C. what 4 D. where

18.

定语从句测试练习二
I. Choice 1. 2. 70% D. which containing 19. 20. 21. 22. Food _______ a lot of milk goes bad easily. A. contains B. that to contain C. that contains Is this book ________?

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

A. that you bought yesterday B. which you bought yesterday C. the one you bought yesterday D. you bought yesterday The boy ________ the teacher is talking did something wrong. A. who B. in whom C. to whom D. whom Those _______ to go there, please follow me. A. that want B. that wants C. who want D. who wants The pen that I am writing now is the present ________ was given to me by Father. A. what B. it C. that D. / The time ______ they suggested for the meeting was accepted. A. when B. which C. it D. at which His parents wouldn’t let him marry anyone ______ family was poor. A. of whom B. whom C. of whose D. whose She heard a terrible noise, _______ brought her heart into her mouth. A. and it B. in which C. this D. that

23. 24. 25. 26.

27. All of the flowers now raised here have developed from those ________ in the forest . A. once they grew B. they grew once C. that once grew D. once grew 28. This is the scientist _______ the young man thought was the greatest one in the world. A. who B. whom C. whose D. which 29. It is known to us all that language is a tool __________ people communicate ideas with each other. A. in which B. by means of which C. which D. / 30. He got himself into a dangerous situation ________ he is likely to lose control over the plane. A. where B. which C. while D. why 31. Sunqiao Modern Agricultural Development Zone is a place ________ white agriculture is practiced. A. that B. which C. where D. when 32. The teacher pointed out the mistakes _______ he thought ______ had been made in Jane’s test. A. which; that B. that; which C. which; / D. /; / 33. Have you ever asked him the reason _______ may explain his absence from school for a week? A. why B. / C. that D. as 34. The reason _______ he failed in the contest is _______ he didn’t get well prepared for it. A. why; because B. why; that C. that; because D. that; why 35. George Orwell, _______ was Eric Arthur, wrote many political novels and essays. A. the real name B. what his real name C. his real name D. whose real name

8.

他们喜欢去他们第一次碰面的公园。

9.

小孩子并不真正知道圣诞老人会在他们睡着时到来并带给他们礼物的原因。

10. 收音机广播的那个流行歌星的歌曲很受年轻人喜欢。(whose, popular)

11. 那些不懂装懂的人终究要受到惩罚。 (pretend)

12. 那个在车祸中受伤的孩子已经康复了。 (recover)

13. 那个正在和护士说话的医生过几天将去美国。 (whom)

14. 这就是我爸爸十年前工作过的公司。(where)

15. 笑到最后的人笑得最好。 (who)

16. 音乐会很成功,这一点早有人预计到。(which) II. Translation 30% (用含有定语从句的复合句翻译下列句子,每句 3 分) 1. 这次艺术节开幕式将在刚落成的体育场举行。

17. 孙桥是中国最著名的吸引成千上万游客的农业开发区之一。(zone)

2.

我们班有没有擅长电脑编程的人? 18. 在那时,这个司机找不到一个可以求助的人。(turn to … for help) 有很多与圣诞节相关的传统。 19. 我有很多朋友,其中大多数是大学生。(most of whom) 昨晚我们观看的电影很精彩。 20. 他们在谈论一个我从未听说过的电视节目主持人。 (hear) 那个提包被偷的妇女极其愤怒。 21. 复旦大学是我梦寐以求的学校。 我帮助过的那位女士给我寄来了一封感谢信。 22. 他数学考试没有及格,这使他的父亲很生气。 (非限制性) 这篇文章写作的确切日期不为人所知。 5

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

23. 1949年10月1日是中华人民共和国成立的日子。

38. 他缺课的理由听上去很不合理的。(reasonable)

24. 正如我所预料的那样,他在这次期中考试中又获得了第一名。

39. 雇主相信了那位高级雇员解释的上班迟到的理由。 (explain)

25. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。

40. 她唯一感到骄傲的是她生了一个英俊的儿子。 (give birth to)

26. 这幢房子很漂亮, 是我们上个月买的。 (非限制性)

41. 他们正在谈论他们在伦敦耳闻目睹的人和事。(talk about)

27. 那贼最终把偷来的全部东西交给了警察。

42. 喜欢盯着女同学看的那个学生被老师批评了。(blame)

28. 正在那儿扫地板的女人是谁?

43. 为了提高学术水平,你需要做的一切就是上课专心听讲。(academic level)

29. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

44. 那位发型师错过了这个演讲的原因是他没有赶上早班汽车。 (catch)

30. 这就是他拒绝我们帮助的理由吗?

45. 雇主不相信那位高级雇员给出的理由。(believe)

31. 我们上个月参观的那个工厂是生产个人电脑的。(pay a visit)

46. 我依然清晰地记得我和我老公相遇的那个日子。(meet with)

32. 在如此棘手的形势下,你要做的一切就是保持冷静。(maintain)

47. 妈妈是健康专家的那位女孩喜欢去那家新开的美发厅。(expert)

33. 那位政府官员给年幼的儿子买好了一套房子,其房间都布置了上好的家具。(furnish)

48. 1988年,这位诺贝尔奖得主回到了他出生的那个小镇。(winner)

34. 在绍兴,我们看到了鲁迅先生读书写作的房间。

49. 我很怀念在澳大利亚留学的那些岁月。(miss)

35. 有些学生上课不专心听讲,这让老师很担忧。(attentively)

50. 我为那些被浪费在打电脑游戏上的时间感到后悔。(feel sorry for)

36. 我想订一个能够看得见黄浦江风景的桌子。 (scenery)

37. 我将永远记住我们一起渡过的那些美好岁月。(years and months)

6

7

定语从句测试练习二参考答案

I. Choice 1-5 11-15 21-25 31-35

CCCCC DBABA BBADC CCCBD

6-10 16-20 26-30

BDADB CACAA ACABA

II. Translation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The opening ceremony of this art festival will be held in the stadium which has just been completed. Are there anyone who are good at computer programming in our class? There are many traditions that are related to Christmas. The movie which we saw last night is terrific. The woman whose handbag had been stolen was extremely angry. The lady whom I helped once posted me a letter for thanks. The exact date when this article was written is unknown to us.

They like going to the place where they first met. Kids don’t really know the reason why Father Christmas will come and bring them presents when they are asleep. 10. The pop star whose songs are being broadcast is popular with young people.

7


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