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2015届高考英语(湖北)二轮复习课件:专题8 情态动词和虚拟语气(含14年高考题)


【诊断平台】 1.(2014 全国大纲)Although you find bargains in

London, it’s not generally a cheap place to shop.

A.should

B.need

C.must D.can 2.(2014 安徽)People

are recycling many things which they away in the past. A.had thrown B.will be throwing D.would have thrown

C.were throwing

3.(2014 福建)

no modern telecommunications,

we would have to wait for weeks to get news from around the world. A.Were there C.If there are B.Had there been D.If there have been present, he would

4.(2014 湖南)If Mr Dewey

have offered any possible assistance to the people there.

A.were

B.had been

C.should be D.was 5.(2014 江西) Life is unpredictable; even the poorest become the richest. A.shall B.must C.need D.might

6.(2014 陕西)We would rather our daughter

at

home with us, but it is her choice, and she is not a child any longer. A.would stay C.stayed D.stay B.has stayed

7.(2014 陕西) My book,The House of Hades, is missing. Who have taken it?

A.need

B.must

C.should D.could 8.(2014 四川)I still remember my happy childhood when my mother A.might B.must C.would D.should take me to Disneyland at weekends.

9.(2014 重庆)It was John who broke the window. Why are you talking to me as if I it?

A.had done B.have done C.did D.am doing

10.(2014 湖南)— I’ve prepared all kinds of food for the picnic. —Do you mean we A.can’t B.mustn’t C.shan’t D.needn’t 【答案】1~5 DDABD 6~10 CDCAD bring anything with us?

【误区诊断】 题 易误 号 选项 1 3 6 8 C D A A 错误根源 不知道 can 有“可能”的意思。 不知道 if 引导虚拟语气, 条件句部分倒装。 不知道 would rather 要用虚拟语气。 不知道 would 有“过去常做某事”的含义。

【名师解析】 1.D 考查情态动词。根据句意可知 can 表示“有时可能”。 should“应该; 竟然”; need“需要”; must“必须; 一定; 非 得”; can“能够; 可能; 有时会”。句意: 尽管你有时可能会在伦敦 找到便宜货, 但总的说来那不是一个买便宜东西的地方。 2.D 考查情态动词用法。would have done“过去可能会做 某事”, 是对过去发生的事情的推测。 句意: 人们回收利用他们 过去常常会扔掉的东西。

3.A

考查虚拟语气的倒装。本题是一个 if 条件句的虚拟语

气, 表示与现在相反, if 从句中使用“过去时 / were”, 主句使用 “情态动词+动词原形”; 在 if 被省略的时候, 要使用部分倒装。 句意: 如果没有现代的电信业, 要想得到世界各地的消息, 我 们不得不等几个星期。

4.B 考查虚拟语气。根据本句后面主句中的“would have offered”可知此处表示与过去事实相反, 故从句中使用过去 完成时。句意: 如果 Mr Dewey 在场, 他就会向那里的人提供 一切可能的援助。 5.D 考查情态动词。Life is unpredictable 说明一切都有可 能, 所以使用 might 表示存在的可能性。句意: 生活是无法预 测的, 甚至最贫穷的人或许都会成为最富有的人。

6.C 考查虚拟语气。would rather 后面的从句要使用虚拟 语气, 根据句意可知是与现在事实相反, 所以使用一般过去 时。 句意: 我们宁愿我们的女儿待在家里, 但是这是她的选择, 她已经不再是孩子了。 7.D 考查情态动词。本题考查的是“情态动词+have done” 的用法。could have done“可能做了某事; 本可以做某事, 实 际上却未做”。句意: 我的书《哈迪斯的房子》不见了。可能 是谁拿走了它呢?

8.C 考查情态动词特殊用法。 本句中的 would 表过去的习 惯性动作, 可译为“过去常常”, 现在可能还会继续做下去。句 意: 我仍然记得我那幸福的童年, 在那时我的母亲常常在周 末带我去迪士尼乐园。 9.A 考查虚拟语气。 根据前一句中的 was 说明打破玻璃是

过去发生的事情, 所以是与过去事实相反的虚拟语气, 故使 用过去完成时。 句意: 打破玻璃的是 John, 为什么你和我说话 的语气, 好像是我打破了玻璃一样?

10.D 考查情态动词。can’t“不可能; 不能”; mustn’t“禁止; 千万不能”; shan’t “不该”; needn’t“不必; 不需要”。句意: “我 已经为野餐准备了各种食物。”“你是指我们不必带任何东西 了?”

【考纲解读】 1.掌握情态动词的基本用法。 2.掌握部分情态动词的特殊用法, 如 must,should 等。 3.掌握条件句中虚拟语气及其倒装的用法。 4.掌握虚拟语气的部分特殊情况。

【考情分析】 情态动词的用法复杂多变, 在高考试题中占的比重一直 比较稳定, 每年总有一至两个题, 可以单独考查, 也可以结合 虚拟语气考查。命题者常常利用语境和句子之间意义上的 细微差别来考查考生对情态动词的理解和掌握, 难度也保持 较为稳定的趋势。情态动词和虚拟语气考点双向细目表如 下:

考查 考点分布 项目 情态动词 基本含义 情态 情态动词 动词 特殊意义 情态动词 +have done

湖北卷

2014 年其他卷 [ 2014 北京] ;[ 2014 全国大

[ 2012 湖北] 纲] ;[ 2014 湖南] ;[ 2014 重 庆] [ 2014 江苏] [ 2014 安徽] ;[ 2014 陕西] ; [ 2014 浙江]

If 条件句 中的虚拟 语气

[ 2014 湖 2014 北京] ;[ 2014 湖南] 北] ; [ 2013 湖 [ 北] [ 2012 湖北] [ 2014 福建] ;[ 2014 天津] [ 2014 陕西] ;[ 2014 重庆]

虚拟 语气 虚拟语气 倒装 虚拟语气 特殊情况

【考点精要】 一、情态动词 1.考查情态动词的基本用法。具体考点: ( 1) 考查表示能 力的情态动词 can, could 和 be able to; ( 2) 考查表示请求或允 诺的情态动词 shall, may, might, can,could, would, should 等; ( 3) 考查表“推测”的情态动词 can, could, may, might, must 等。

(2014 重庆) I’ve ordered some pizza, so we worry about cooking when we get home tired. A.can’t B.dare not C.needn’t D.may mot

【答案与解析】C 考查情态动词。need 既可以作为 情态动词, 也可以作为行为动词。当它作为情态动词时常常 用于疑问句和否定句中, 表示“不必”。句意: 我已经点了一些 比萨饼, 所以当我们很累地赶到家时 , 不必担心做饭的问题。

(2014 北京) take long. A.Can C.Shall

I have a word with you? It won’t

B.Must D.Should

【答案与解析】A 考查情态动词。can“能够; 可 能”; must“必须; 一定; 非得”; shall“将要”; should“应该”。句意: 我可以和你谈谈吗?不会花很多时间的。

2.考查情态动词的特殊用法。( 1) cannot / can’t 与 too / over / enough / perfectly / sufficiently 等词连用, 意为“无 论怎样……也不为过”; ( 2) cannot wait to do sth 意为“急于做 某事”; ( 3) would 和 used to 的区别; ( 4) “may / might as well + 动词原形”意为“还不如; 不妨; 还是……的好”; ( 5) should 表示 “竟然”。 (2014 江苏) It was sad to me that they,so poor themselves, bring me food.

A.might C.should

B.would D.could

【答案与解析】C 考查情态动词的特殊意义。根据句 意可知本句中的 should 表示“竟然”。句意: 让我难过的是, 如此贫穷的他们竟然给我带来了食物。

3.考查“情态动词+ have done”结构的用法。“情态动词 +have done”结构表示责备、批评、抱怨、猜测等。主要有 may / might / can / could have done “过去本来可以……, 而实际上没有……”; should / ought to have done“过去本来 应该……, 而实际上没有……”; needn’t have done “本不 必……, 却……”; must have done“肯定做了……”。

(2014 湖北)You

the meeting to tell me that;you

could have come to tell me afterwards. ( interrupt) 你不该打 断会议来告诉我那件事, 你本可以会后告诉我。 【答案与解析】shouldn’t have interrupted / oughtn’ t to have interrupted 考查的是对过去情况的虚拟, 使用“情 态动词+have done”的形式。本句 shouldn’t have done 表 示“本不应该做某事, 实际上却做了”。

二、虚拟语气 1.考查虚拟语气在非真实条件句中的基本用法。 主要考 点: ( 1) 与现在事实相反的假设, 用“If+主语+动词的过去式( be 用 were) , 主语+would / should / could / might / ought to+动 词原形”结构; ( 2) 与过去事实相反的假设, 用“If+主语+had+动 词的过去分词, 主语+should / would / could / might+have+ 过去分词”结构; ( 3) 与将来事实相反的假设用

“were+不定式( “should+动词原形”或一般过去时) , 主 语+ should / would / could / might / ought to+动词原形”结 构。 (2014 北京)We didn’t lose the map. A.are C.will be B.were D.would be back in the hotel now if you

【答案与解析】D 考查虚拟语气。本题考查的是 if 条 件状语从句的虚拟语气。表示与现在事实相反时, 条件句中 使用“一般过去时 / were”, 主句使用“情态动词+动词原形”。 句意: 如果你没有把地图丢了, 我们现在就在宾馆里了。 2.考查省略非真实条件句中的 if。当虚拟条件句的谓语 动词含有 were, should, had 时, if 可以省略, 这时条件状语 从句要用倒装语序, 即将 were, should, had 等词置于句首。

(2014 天津)

the morning train, he would not

have been late for the meeting. A.Did he catch B.Should be catch C.Has he caught D.Had he caught

【答案与解析】D 考查虚拟语气的倒装用法。本句表 示与过去事实相反, 条件句中使用“过去完成时”, 主句使用 “情态动词+have done”; 当条件句中的 if 省略的时候, 要把

had 提前形成部分倒装。句意: 如果他赶上了早班火车 就不会开会迟到了。 3.虚拟语气的特殊情况。主要考点: ( 1) 考查主从句时间 不一致的虚拟条件句, 虚拟条件句中, 主句和条件从句的谓 语动作若不是同时发生时, 虚拟语气的形式应做相应的调 整; ( 2) 考查名词性从句中的虚拟语气, 在含有表示坚持、建议、 命令、要求等动词或名词( suggest,demand,order,require, insist, propose, advise, suggestion, advice,

proposal 等) 的名词性从句和在 it 作形式宾语或形式主 语的复合句中, 宾语补足语是 necessary / strange / essential / natural / a pity / a shame 等表示“惊奇、惋惜或 理应如此”等含义时, 从句中的谓语动词需用“should+动词原 形”, 其中 should 可以省略; ( 3) 其他词 wish, as if / though, if only, would rather, otherwise, without 等引导的虚拟语气。

(2014 浙江)They were abroad during the months when we were carrying out the investigation,or they our help. A.would have come C.have come D.had come B.could come to

【答案与解析】A 考查虚拟语气。本句考查的是一个 含蓄的虚拟条件句, 句中的 or 相当于 if they had not gone abroad。 因为前句中使用的是 were, 说明这个虚拟语气是与 过去事实相反, 所以主句中使用的是“情态动词+have done” 的形式。 句意: 我们进行这项调查的这几个月里, 他们在国外, 要不然, 他们就会来帮助我们。

【阅卷心语】 1.情态动词不能表示正在发生或已经发生的事情, 只表 示期待或估计某事的发生。 2.情态动词除 ought 和 have 外, 后面只能接不带 to 的 不定式。 3.情态动词没有人称和数的变化, 即其第三人称单数不 加-s。

4.情态动词没有非限定形式, 即没有不定式、分词形式, 也没有相应的动名词形式。 5.掌握虚拟语气在各种从句以及混合句中的运用。 如: wish, as if / though, if only, would rather, otherwise, without 等。 6.掌握虚拟语气在条件状语从句中的倒装现象。

多项选择 1.He was such a clever student that he all the difficult problems. work out

A.had to B.would C.was able to D.should

【答案与解析】C 考查情态动词。be able to 表示经 过努力而能够做到的事或成功地做了某事。句意: 他是如此 聪明的学生以至于能解答出所有的难题。 2.—Why are you late,Tom? —Sorry. I A.might C.can have turned off the alarm. B.should D.will

【答案与解析】 A 考查 might have done 的用法。 might have done“(过去)可能做过某事”。 根据句中提供的情境可推 知, 说话人可能把闹钟关上了。 3.—Did you see the concert performed by G.E.M.? —No, I it. But I was ill.

A.would have attended B.could have attended C.might have attended

D.must have attended 【答案与解析】 B 考查“情态动词+have done”的区别。 could have done 表示对过去的假设, 意为“本来能够做某事 而没有做”。句意: “你去看了邓紫棋的演唱会吗?”“没有, 我本 来可以去的, 但是我病了。” 4.—Where are you going this weekend? —I’m not sure, but I countryside. see my grandma in the

A.must

B.would

C.should D.might 【答案与解析】D 考查情态动词。由前面的“I’m not sure...”可知是不太确定, 因此用 might 表示“有可能”。 5.Scientists began to consider what use made of such a carbon nanometre material. A.would C.need B.should D.must be

【答案与解析】 A 考查情态动词。 此处 would 意为“将 要”, 符合题意。 句意: 科学家们开始考虑如何利用这种碳纳米 材料。 6.— you play the piano so late at night?

—Sorry. I won’t do that. A.Should B.Could C.Must D.Need

【答案与解析】C 考查情态动词。should“应该; 将会; 竟然”; could“可以; 能够”; must“必须; 一定; 非得”, 此处是“非得” 的意思; need“需要”。 句意: “你非得这么晚弹钢琴吗?”“对不起。 我不会了。” 7.It is funny that a beautiful girl like her love with such an ugly man. A.canB.must C.would D.should fall in

【答案与解析】D 考查情态动词。can“可以; 能够”; must“必须; 一定; 非得”; would“将要”; should“应该; 将会; 竟然”, 此处是“竟然”之意。 句意: 像她那么漂亮的女孩子竟会爱上这 么丑的一个男人, 真有趣。 8.I to the meeting on time — unless I had

caught an earlier train. A.shouldn’t have got B.needn’t have got C.wouldn’t have got D.couldn’t have got

【答案与解析】 D 考查情态动词。 couldn’ t have done 表示“过去本不可能做过某事, 但实际上却做了”, 是对过去情 况的一种推测。句意: 我本不可能及时赶到会场, 除非我赶上 了较早的一趟火车。 9.—Someone is here to see you. to your office? —Sure. I send him up

A.Shall B.Must C.Should D.Need 【答案与解析】A 考查情态动词。shall 用于第一、 三人称疑问句中, 表示说话人征求对方意见或向对方请示。 句意: “有人来找你, 我让他去你办公室, 好吗?”“可以。”

10.

the heavy rain, there would have been a

more serious drought. A.If it wasn’t for B.Were it not for C.Had it not been for D.If it hasn’t been for

【答案与解析】C 考查条件句中的虚拟语气。根据主 句“would have been”可看出这是对过去情况的虚拟, 所以条 件句用过去完成时。又因为虚拟条件句中有 had, should, were 时, 可以将 if 去掉, 然后把 had, should, were 提到主语前面。句意: 若非那场大雨, 旱情原本会更严重。 11.Without the help of the citizens in Urumqi, the police in solving the mystery in such a short time.

A.shouldn’t succeed B.shouldn’t have succeeded C.couldn’t succeed D.couldn’t have succeeded 【答案与解析】D 考查虚拟语气。本句是由 without 引导的暗含虚拟语气的条件句, couldn’t have done sth 表 示“本不能做成但实际上做成了某事”。句意: 如果没有乌鲁

木齐市民的帮助, 警察不可能在这么短的时间内破了这 个疑案。 12.If some adult have been drowned. A.stayed B.had stayed C.would have stayed D.should stayed with him,the little boy might not

【答案与解析】B 考查虚拟语气。此处为 if 引导的虚 拟条件句, 因从句表示与过去的事实相反, 所以从句谓语动 词应使用过去完成时。句意: 如果有成年人在他旁边, 或许那 个小男孩就不会溺死。 13.We could have had an outing in Jiuzhaigou, but it all day. A.rained B.rains C.had rained D.is raining

【答案与解析】A 考查时态。句子前半部分陈述的是 与过去事实相反的事情, 所以用了虚拟语气; “下了一天的雨” 是过去的事实, 所以用一般过去时。句意: 我们本能够去九寨 沟郊游, 但是下了一天的雨。 14.It is suggested that the family gathering off

until next week because father has an urgent job to deal with.

A.be put B.should put C.would be put D.put 【答案与解析】A 考查 suggest 的用法。suggest 表 示“建议”时, 宾语从句中的谓语动词需用“should+动词原形”, 其中 should 可以省略。从句主语和谓语在逻辑上是动宾关 系, 用被动语态。

15.It’s been of a great pleasure all this autumn on my trip to work, if only it A.had stretched C.were to stretch to no end. B.stretches D.stretched

【答案与解析】D 考查 if only 的用法。if only 引导的 条件句中, 用虚拟语气表示愿望。 用过去时或“would / could+ 动词原形”表示与现在或未来事实相反的愿望。句意:

这个秋天走在上班路上都是极大的享受, 要是路没尽头 该有多好。

(限时 35 分钟) Ⅰ.阅读理解 ★★★

The Li ethnic minority ( 少数民族) lives mainly in south China’s Hainan Province. According to historical

records, they have been living on Hainan Island for over three thousand years. The Li people, like many other ethnic minorities, are good at singing and dancing. Their dances originated ( 起 源) mainly from their work in the field and worshiping ( 崇拜) ancestors. Among these, the bamboo dance is probably the most attractive.

The bamboo dance is a team activity that can be regarded both as a sport and as a dance. People of the Li ethnic group get together dressed in folk costumes to dance on festive occasions, such as “Sanyuesan ( on March 3rd) ”. This is also a wonderful time to express love between the young men and young women.

Dancers include bamboo pole holders and jumpers. With music, bamboo pole holders move these poles rhythmically ( 有节奏地) in different directions to test the flexibility and nimbleness of the jumpers. Jumpers hop between the poles to avoid being touched by the poles while singing and imitating the actions of sieving grain, sharpening knives, leaping and worshiping. Those who fail to keep up with the rhythm are snapped between the

poles and would be politely kicked out of the dance. The dancer who can avoid being touched by the poles until the very last round will be seated on the bamboo poles and lifted up by the bamboo pole holders to show to the onlookers. This dance is fairly interesting and quite popular with both the Li and other local people.

【语篇解读】 竹子舞, 又称“竹竿舞”, 最初被称为“打柴舞”, 起源于黎族地区, 是一种比较欢快、休闲的舞蹈。 1.How long have the Li people lived on Hainan Island? A.More than 1, 000 years. B.More than 2, 000 years. C.More than 3, 000 years. D.More than 4, 000 years.

【答案与解析】C 细节题。分析第 1 段最后一句 “According to historical records, they have been living on Hainan Island for over three thousand years”可知, 黎族在 海南岛已经居住了 3000 多年。 2.What can we learn from the first sentence in Paragraph 2? A.The Li people like to live with the other ethnic minorities.

B.All the other ethnic minorities like to dance and sing. C.Not all ethnic minorities like to dance and sing. D.The Li people can dance better than the other ethnic minorities. 【答案与解析】C 推断题。分析该句可知, 并不是所 有的少数民族都会唱歌跳舞。 3.What does the underlined word mean in Paragraph 4?

A.Run. B.Jump. C.Hear. D.Laugh.

【答案与解析】B 词义推断题。分析该句和上下文, 可知该词词义是“跳”。 4.What can we learn from the last paragraph? A.The Li people and other people nearby all like the bamboo dance.

B.The bamboo dance is popular with only the Li people. C.The bamboo dance can only be danced by the Li people. D.The bamboo dance is quite boring and only children like it. 【答案与解析】A 推断题。分析最后一段可知, 黎族和 附近居民都很喜欢竹子舞。

Ⅱ.短文写作 请结合材料, 按要求用英语写作。 Regardless of your intelligence level, it takes time to develop and sharpen the skills and qualities needed to be a good student if you find yourself struggling academically. 注意: ①无须写标题, 不得照抄英语提示语; ②除诗歌外, 文体不限;

③词数不少于 120。

One possible vision: A good student may have some good qualities, such as passion, honesty and so on. Personally speaking, I strongly believe that honesty is the most important among dozens of good qualities.

Here is what I want to say. I once told a lie to my parents because of my poor scores. Having known the real fact from teachers,they praised and encouraged me not to give up, showing their deep love. Later days, my conscience swallowed me, growing as I told a lie after lie in an effort to conceal my original cheat. I gave it up, and chose to be frank. It is better to stick to the truth!

Honesty is not only the best policy, but also a principle, which is absolutely essential for the good and happy life.

1.(2014 全国大纲)—Who’s that at the door? — is the milkman.


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