II．Grammar and Vocabulary
Section A Directions: After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given
word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank. A Every summer, Penny travels to a family reunion barbeque. Penny is never excited, and this year is no different. She is afraid of the drive. She does not like talking to her relatives. And she does not like the smell of hamburgers. (Penny is a vegetarian.) (25) ______ Penny arrives, she sees lots of familiar faces. It is July and Uncle Vernon (26) ______ (wear) a sweater. Uncle Vernon is always cold. It’s very mysterious. She sees her cousin Polly. Polly has six children. The youngest one screams. Then the oldest one screams. Polly’s children are always screaming. She sees many of her other cousins in the field (27) ______ (play) softball. They play a softball game every year, (28) ______ always ends up in a big argument. Penny wonders, again, why they never solve it. Then Penny sees an incredibly handsome man. She stares at him. He catches her staring. He smiles and walks (29) ______ to her. Penny is very nervous. She is nervous because a handsome man is walking to her and she is nervous because this handsome man might be her cousin. The man sticks out his hand, (30)_____ (say), “Hi, I’m Paul.” “Hi, I’m Penny,” Penny says. “Are we related?” Paul laughs. “No, we are not related. I am Vernon’s nurse. He is sick and needs (31) _____ (keep) me close by. But he did not want to miss this barbeque!” “Oh, thank goodness,” Penny says and then blushes. Penny always blushes when she is nervous, embarrassed, or hot, and right now she is all three. Handsome Paul laughs and says, “Would you like to go get a hamburger with me? (32) ______ smell delicious.” Penny smiles, “Sure. I love hamburgers!” B Beware first-class travelers! Passengers sitting in the rear of a plane have the best chance of survival in an event of a crash, an extraordinary and costly aviation （航空， 飞行） experiment ever (33) ______ (conduct) has revealed. In a unique aviation experiment recently, the 170-seat-Boeing 727 was made（34）_____ _____ (crash) in a controlled manner in a remote part of Mexico’s Sonoran Desert. After pilot James Slocum jumped out of the plane at 2,500ft, the jet （35） ______ (guide) into the ground by a pilot in a following Cessna via a remote-control device, the reporters reported. On board of the jet were three advanced crash-test dummies（假人）designed to move (36)_____ humans. They were arranged in three positions: one in the classic brace and wearing a seat-belt; one belted but not in the brace position; and one（37）______ belted nor in the brace. After the jet hit the ground nose-first, experts found that the dummy in the brace position would have survived the impact, (38) ______ one not in the brace would have suffered serious head injuries, and the dummy not wearing a seat-belt would have “died”. Using this, experts predicted that 78 percent of passengers on board would have survived the
impact,（39）______ all the first-class travelers would have died because the front of the fuselage （机身）broke apart when the plane comes down nose first. Those sitting at the back would have had the（40）______ (good) chance of survival. 【keys】25. When 26. is wearing 27. playing 28. which 29. over/up 30. saying 31. to keep 32. They 33. conducted 34. to crash 35. was guided 36.like 37. neither 38. the 39. but 40. best 【答案解析】 25、连词。本题难度不大，无论是从语法还是语义理解方面，都能够想到是时间状语从句的 连词 when。 26、谓语动词。本题其实很简单，但是由于 July and Uncle Vernon 写在一起，且都是大写， 容易将 July 看做是一个人名， 而忽略了它是表示月份的词 “七月” ， 造成无法理解本句含义。 本题是由并列连词 and 连接了两句话， 后一句话缺少谓语动词， 由此判断， 是填写 is wearing。 27、非谓语之现在分词。See sb. doing，现在分词作宾补。 28、非限定性定语从句的关系代词。Which 指代前面的 a softball game。 29、副词。walk over to 或者 walk up to sb.“朝某人走过去” 30、非谓语之现在分词。现在分词作状语，say 与 the man 为主动关系，填 saying。 31、非谓语之不定式。Need to do， “需要做某事” 。 32、代词。They smell delicious。It smells delicious。 33、非谓语之过去分词。分词作定语，修饰 experiment，被动关系，用过去分词形式。 34、非谓语之不定式。make sb. do sth，如果换成被动，省略掉的 to 要还原，即：be made to do。 35、 动词之被动语态。 After 引导的时间状语从句， 从句缺少谓语单词， 且有提示词 by a pilot， 可知，考查一般过去时的被动语态。 36、介词。like humans“像人类一样” 。 37、并列连词。Neither…nor 结构。 38、定冠词。 “not in the brace”做后置定语，是特指，名词前面要用 the。 39、并列连词。But 连接两个并列句，转折关系。78%的乘客将会幸存，但是所有头等舱的 乘客却会丧生。 40、形容词最高级。The+最高级。 【教学提示】
1、 非谓语、从句、时态语态依然是考试的三大重点所在。嘉定区没有考到情态动词与动名 词的考点。且从句里面名词性从句的考点没有涉及到，但不代表这不是重点，尤其是名 词性从句。 2、 在有提示词的情况下，我们至少是有一定的思路的。但是在没有提示词的情况下，考生 就难以下手，以下我们梳理在无提示词的情况下，应该从哪几个词性考虑。
无提示词 代词 冠词 连词 介词或副词 如 over，up 等词。 我们可以给学生一个这样的口诀：情态代管（冠）连介副。在遇到没有提示词的时候，从这 几个词性下手考虑。 情态动词
嘉定区 2013 学年度高三年级第一次质量调研 英语试卷
III. Reading Comprehension
Section A Directions: For each blank in the following passages there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. When we think of green buildings, we tend to think of new ones----the kind of modern, solar-paneled masterpieces that make the covers of architecture magazines．But the US has more than 100 million existing homes, and it would be incredibly 51 to tear them all down and 52 them with greener versions． An enormous amount of energy and resources went into the construction of those houses．And it would take an average of 65 years for the 53 carbon emissions (排放) from a(an) __54 _ energy-efficient (节能) home to make up for the 55 lost by destroying an old one． So in the broadest sense, the greenest home is the one that has already been built．But at the same time, 56 half of US carbon emissions come from heating, cooling and powering our 57 , offices and other buildings．"You can't deal with climate 58 without dealing with existing buildings," says Richard Moe, the president of the National Trust． With some exceptions, the oldest homes tend to be the 59 energy-efficient．Houses built before 1939 use about 50% more energy per square foot than those built after 2000, mainly due to the tiny cracks and gaps that 60 over time and let in more outside 61 . 62 , there are a vast number of relatively simple changes that can green older homes, from 63 ones like Lincoln's Cottage to your own postwar home．And efficiency upgrades (升级) can save more than just the earth; they can help 64 property owners from rising power 65 . 51. A. terrible B．wasteful C．wonderful D．useful 52. A．put B．build C．replace D．take 53. A．reduced B．increased C．used D．destroyed 54. A．old B．fashionable C．new D．beautiful 55. A．magazines B．trees C．materials D．resources 56. A．nearly B．hardly C．rarely D．mostly 57. A．libraries B．schools C．homes D．stores 58. A．improvement B．appearance C．stability D．change 59. A．most B．really C．very D．least 60. A．expand B．narrow C．strengthen D．weaken
61. A．dust B．air C．smoke D．water 62. A．Oppositely B．Unfortunately C．Fortunately D．Frankly 63. A．historic B．worthless C．ordinary D．meaningless 64. A．charge B．protect C．punish D．warn 65. A．prices B．costs C．businesses D．bargains 分析： 51. B。 由文章中 But 一词可知文章第一句的叙述是不对的， 故表示反义的单词应为 wasteful. 52. C。本题考查词组 replace…with…。 53. A。要做对这道题目必须要把本段的内容搞清楚，对于降低的二氧化碳排放量来说 要花费平均 65 年的时间去弥补由损坏旧房子所带来的能源损失， 本段意在说明摧毁旧房子 得不偿失，言下之意新房子是不能与旧房子相提并论的，倾向于旧房子的好处。 54. C。同上分析。 55. D。由本段第一句可以获得启示，其他选项牵强。 56. A。句子表达“几乎”的意思，很简单就能选出 A。 57. C。一连串的建筑物，ABD 是属于一类的，逆向选择即可获得答案。 58. D。这里表达“气候变化”之意，很容易选择 D。 59. D。前面文章一直表达的是旧房子的节能环保作用，由本段的“with some exceptions”可 知这里表达相反的意义，故 D 为答案。 60. A。由句意可得答案。 61. B。外面的空气，B 为答案。 62. C。上下文句意。 63. A。对比选项，逆向选择。 64. B。protect… from…，由搭配获得答案。 65. B。表达“代价”意，故 B 为答案。 Section B Directions: Read the following four passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read．
Among all the fast growing science and technology, the research of human genes, or biological engineering as people call it, is drawing more and more attention now. Sometimes it is a hot topic discussed by people. The greatest thing that gene technology can do is to cure serious diseases that doctors at present can almost do nothing with, such as cancer and heart disease. Every year, millions of people are murdered by these two killers. And to date, doctors have not found an effective way to cure them. But if the gene technology is applied, not only these two diseases can be cured completely, bringing happiness and more living days to the patients, but also the great amount of money people spend on curing their diseases can be saved, therefore it benefits the economy as well. In addition, human life span(寿命) can be prolonged. Gene technology can help people to give birth to healthy and clever children. Some families, with the English imperial family being a good example, have hereditary(遗传的) diseases. This means their children will for sure have the family disease, which is a great trouble for these families. In the past, doctors could do nothing about hereditary diseases. But gene technology can solve this problem perfectly. The scientist just need to find the wrong gene and correct it, and a healthy child will be born.
Some people are worrying that the gene research can be used to manufacture human beings in large quantities. In the past few years, scientists have succeeded in cloning a sheep, therefore these people predict that human babies would soon be cloned. But I believe cloned babies will not come out in large quantities, for most couples in the world can have babies in very normal way. Of course, the government must take care to control gene technology. 66. What does “these two killers” in the second paragraph refer to? A. Gene technology and another treatment of the two diseases. B. The two murderers who killed the cloned baby. C. The two diseases of cancer and heart disease. D. Hereditary diseases and cancer. 67. What’s the main idea of the third paragraph? A. How gene technology can be applied in the field of treating hereditary diseases. B. Gene technology can be used to clone human babies. C. Gene technology can help people to give birth to a baby. D. Gene technology can help the English imperial family out. 68. In what way gene technology can help to treat hereditary diseases? A. Using gene technology, people with hereditary diseases can have more living days. B. Using gene technology, the scientist finds the wrong gene and corrects it. C. Using gene technology, human babies can be cloned. D. Doctors can cure cancer and heart disease with the help of gene technology. 69. What is the main purpose of writing this passage? A. Expressing the writer’s idea that gene technology will benefit people. B. Telling people the disadvantages of gene technology. C. Telling the readers that gene technology will not benefit people. D. Explaining that gene technology will also do harm to the humanity. 分析： 答案：C A B A. 这篇文章比较容易读懂，涉及到的题目也能很明显地从原文中找到答案。 66. 文章第二段第二行即为答案出处。 67. 第三段可以从首句获得启示，其他选项不是主旨，而是一些细节的反映。 68. 从第三段最后一句可以获得线索。 69. 对比四个选项，显然BCD表达的都是相同的意思，只有A选项不同，逆向思维故为答案。 B Homestay provides English language students with the opportunity to speak English outside the classroom and the experience of being part of a British home. What to Expect The host will provide accommodation and meals. Rooms will be cleaned and bedcovers changed at least once a week. You will be given the house key and the host is there to offer help and advice as well as to take an interest in your physical and mental health. Accommodation Zones Homestays are located in London mainly in Zones 2, 3 and 4 of the transport system. Most hosts do not live in the town centre as much of central London is commercial and not residential. Zones 3 and 4 often offer larger accommodation in a less crowded area. It is very convenient to travel in London by underground. Meal Plans Available ? Continental Breakfast
? Breakfast and Dinner ? Breakfast, Packed Lunch and Dinner It’s important to note that few English families still provide a traditional cooked breakfast. Your accommodation includes Continental Breakfast which normally consists of fruit juice, cereal (谷物类食品), bread and tea or coffee. Cheese, fruit and cold meat are not normally part of a Continental Breakfast in England. Dinners usually consist of meat or fish with vegetables followed by desert, fruit and coffee. Friends If you wish to invite a friend over to visit, you must first ask your host’s permission. You have no right to entertain friends in a family home as some families feel it is an invasion of their privacy. Self-Catering Accommodation in Private Homes Accommodation on a room-only basis includes shared kitchen and bathroom facilities and often a main living room. This kind of accommodation offers an independent lifestyle and is more suitable for the long-stay student. However, it does not provide the same family atmosphere as an ordinary homestay and may not benefit those who need to practice English at home quite as much. 文章分析：本文是介绍英国 homestay 的说明文。Homestay 主要接待外国旅英英语学习者， 住在当地居民家里，体验文化交流，学习语言运用。 70. The passage is probably written for ______. A. hosts willing to receive foreign students B. foreigners hoping to know British culture C. travelers planning to visit families in London D. English learners applying to live in English homes 【参考答案】D 【思路解析】根据第一段 Homestay provides English language students with the opportunity to speak English outside the classroom and the experience of being part of a British home.寄宿家庭 能够让英语语言学生有机会在课外讲英语，体验英国家庭生活。 71. Which of the following will the host provide? A. Room cleaning. B. Medical care. C. Free transport. D. Physical training. 【参考答案】A 【思路解析】第二段第一句 The host will provide accommodation and meals. Rooms will be cleaned and bedcovers changed at least once a week. 主人将提供住宿和餐饮。每周至少一次进行房间 清洁和换洗被套。故 A 正确。You will be given the house key and the host is there to offer help and advice as well as to take an interest in your physical and mental health. 你会有房屋钥匙， 主人会 提供帮助和建议以及关注你的身心健康。故 B 错误。 72. According to the passage, what does Continental Breakfast include? A. Dessert and coffee. B. Fruit and vegetables. C. Bread and fruit juice. D. Cereal and cold meat. 【参考答案】C 【思路解析】第四段 Your accommodation includes Continental Breakfast which normally consists of fruit juice, cereal (谷物类食品), bread and tea or coffee. 73. Why do some people choose self-catering accommodation? A. To experience a warmer family atmosphere. B. To enrich their knowledge of English. C. To entertain friends as they like.
D. To enjoy much more freedom. 【参考答案】D 【思路解析】最后一段 This kind of accommodation offers an independent lifestyle and is more suitable for the long-stay student. C Are you an optimist? Do you look at your glass and see it as half full? Do you believe that every cloud has a silver lining and that things generally turn out for the best? Do you believe that if something is meant to be, it will be? If you reply “yes” to all of these questions, then you are an optimist. You probably are enthusiastic, cheerful and outgoing. You may be successful at work and in love. But you may be misguided because things don’t turn out for the best. You may believe that when one door closes another one opens (for example, you may fail to obtain a new job; another chance will come around soon). Wrong. When one door closes, another door slams (砰然关上) in your face. That’s bitter reality. Now a book has been published which confirms what pessimists (悲观者) have suspected all along. It’s called The Positive Power of Defensive Pessimism. Its author argues that defensive pessimism can lead to positive results. Defensive pessimism is a strategy used to manage fear, anxiety and worry. Defensive pessimists prepare for the things by setting low outcomes for themselves. They carefully consider everything that may go wrong and plan for ways to handle these problems. And this gives them a sense of control. Lawrence Sanno, a psychology professor, says, “What’s interesting about defensive pessimists is that they tend to be very successful people, so their low opinion of the situation’s outcomes is not realistic. They use it to motivate themselves to perform better.” So far, so good. This is not rocket science. Defensive pessimists prepare carefully and consider what might go wrong, whether at work, on date or even in a sports game. It makes sense to have a back-up plan. There are many sayings in English urging caution. For example, “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket.” And “Don’t count your chickens until they hatch.” To have a confident and optimistic approach to life’s problems is good. But listen to what Woody Alien, the American comedian says, “Confidence is what you have before you understand the problem.” There are pros and cons（利与弊） to being an optimist and a pessimist. Don’t feel bad if you see the glass half empty. You are a realist. But lighten up and hook up with someone who sees the same glass half full. 74. What’s the passage mainly about? A. The benefits of defensive pessimism. B. A book that has recently been published. C. The dangers of being too optimistic. D. How to become successful in life. 【参考答案】A 【思路解析】 主旨题。 开头 2 段主要为引出话题， 地段起进入正题。 3、 4 段主要论述 defensive pessimism 的好处，根据选项，只有 A 正确。干扰项为 B,但只有第 3 段提到书，其余段落没 有涉及. 75. The underlined sentence “This is not rocket science” (Para. 4) means __________. A. there is no real proof B. it is quite simple to understand
C. the cost is not so high
D. it’s not a dangerous thing to do
【参考答案】B 【思路解析】第 4 段是对第 3 段的进一步补充说明，第三段主要为书本引言，第 4 段第 3 句话 Defensive pessimists prepare carefully and consider what might go wrong, whether at work, on date or even in a sports game. 故选 B. 76. Which of the following English expressions would a defensive pessimist believe? A. Whatever will be, will be. B. The glass is half full not half empty. C. Don’t put all your eggs in one basket. D. Every cloud has a silver lining. 【参考答案】C 【思路解析】 第 4 段 For example, “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket.” And “Don’t count your chickens until they hatch.” To have a confident and optimistic approach to life’s problems is good. But listen to what Woody Alien, the American comedian says, “Confidence is what you have before you understand the problem. 77. We can infer from the passage that the writer is probably __________. A. a realist B. an optimist C. a defeatist D. a scientist 【参考答案】A 【思路解析】最后一段 There are pros and cons（利与弊） to being an optimist and a pessimist. Don’t feel bad if you see the glass half empty. You are a realist. But lighten up and hook up with someone who sees the same glass half full.作者持有辩证的态度看到任何一种情况，故为 A. Section C Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Stress for a teenager is as real a problem as stress for an adult. Therefore, it’s important to understand the causes of stress in teenagers. When parents change their jobs or if the family decides to move to a different place, the child has to change schools, find new friends, adapt to the new social circle and fit into new groups. It is always difficult for children to adapt to such changes, which can be a serious cause of stress in their life. Academic difficulties, such as inability to understand a certain subject can cause stress. Not every child has the ability to understand every subject. Some kids need extra help besides school work to grasp a few concepts. Poor academic performance is often laughed at and is looked down upon by both teachers and peers. In such cases, it can make the child feel isolated, neglected and hurt. All of this, put together, can add to stress, which many times worsens grades. Extra curricular activities (课外活动) such as playing a sport, or attending art classes can weigh heavily on your child’s mind. Balancing school and extra curricular activities does seem like a burden when you have to be outstanding at both. When the pressures from both the ends get unmanageable, teenagers tend to get tired and annoyed. Tiredness sets in, leading to stress related issues such as lack of concentration in school. These are the common causes of stress in teenagers, which can be noticed through signs such as poor memory, anxiety, negative and pessimistic attitude. If the signs of teenage stress go unrecognized for a long time, it can make the child emotionally out of balance. And next step, if this happens, it is necessary for parents to know how to deal with stress. 78. What does the passage mainly talk about?
______________________________________________________. 【分析】本题属于主旨题，这类题型主要可以从文章的首尾段中去找答案，本篇文章的第一 段即是中心句，答案也很好找出。为 the cause of stress in teenagers. 79. Poor academic performance causes stress for children because it tends _____________________________. 【分析】本题属于细节题，解题的关键在于准确定位到关键句。从第三段的第三行可以找到 答案， 这里需要变化一下答题的形式， tend to do/be 的用法不能忽视。 所以答案为 to be laughed at and looked down upon by both teachers and peers. 80. How can parents know that their teenagers are under stress? They can know that if their children __________________________________________ 【分析】本题也属于细节题，答案从最后一段第一句话中可以找到， which can be noticed through signs such as poor memory, anxiety, negative and pessimistic attitude. 所以答案为 show signs such as poor memory, anxiety, negative and pessimistic attitude. 81. The common causes of stress in teenagers introduced by the author are: _________________________________________ and extra curricular activities. 【分析】本题属于归纳大意题，全文为总分总的结构，中间三段讲了三个不同的原因，所以 只要把每一段的中心归纳出来就可以了。 答案为 changing school places， academic difficulties. (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN THIRTEEN WORDS)
第 II 卷 (共 47 分)
Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the word or phrase given in the brackets. 1、 是采取严厉措施治理环境污染的时候了。 （measures） 【分析】 1. “是…的时候了” 一般翻译为 it is time to do sth, 或者翻译为 it is high time to do sth. 2.“采取措施 ”一般翻译为 take measures 3. “治理环境污染”这个就比较简单了，翻译为 deal with 即可。 1. It is (high) time to take strict measures to deal with the environment pollution. 2、 他姐姐与一位非常富有才气的青年订婚了。 （engage） 【分析】1. “与某人订婚”翻译为“be engaged to sb” 2. “非常富有才气”在英语里面也不用翻译的这么生动，只要意思表达一致就行， 这里可以翻译为 talented/gifted 即可。 2. His sister is/has been engaged to a talented/gifted young man.
3、 根据已公布的数据，城市的房价不跌反涨。 （release） 【分析】1.“已公布的数据”大部分学生容易受中式思维的影响，觉得形容词就一定要放在 名词前面，而在英语里可以借助后置定语或者定语从句来表达，这里可以翻译为 the data (figures) released 2.“不跌反涨”我们可以借助介词短语 instead of 来表达。 3. According to the data (figures) released, the housing prices in cities keep rising/have been going up/ rising instead of falling/going down.
4、 只要你尽力了，就没道理为成功或失败而苦恼。 （no sense） 【分析】1.“没道理。 。 。 ”我们一般可以翻译为 it makes no sense 或者 there is no sense doing sth… 2.“只要”翻译为 as long as 或者 if. 4. As long as/ if you have done/tried your best, there is no sense being/ getting upset/worried/bothered about failure or success.
5、是观众支撑着那些明星，但有些明星认为其成功完全来自自己的努力。 （It） 【分析】1. 根据关键词和句意，我们知道这里应该用强调句“it is …that…..” 2.支撑着 我们可以翻译为support 支持。 5. It is the audience that/who provide for/support the stars, but some of them (would rather) think/insist that their achievements result from nothing but their own efforts. (Although…)
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