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并列连词和状语从句


考点一:并列连词 一,句子的分类 句子分:简单句,并列句,复合句。 其中简单句的结构包括:主语+谓语;主语+谓语+宾语;主语+谓语+宾语+ 宾语补足语;主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语;主语+系动词+表语。 并列句分为:表递进,表选择,表转折,表因果,其他 复合句分为:定语从句,名词性从句(主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句,同 位语从句) ,状语从句。 二,并列句的基本概念: 并列句是

由两个或两个以上并列二有独立的简单句构成 的。在并列句中,这些简单句常有并列连词连在一起。并列连词所连接的简 单句称为分句。 三,常见的并列连词 1,表示递进或顺承关系:常用的并列连词有 and, not only...but(also)…如: Not only did he speak more correctly, but also he spoke more easily. 2,表示选择关系: 常用的并列连词有 or, either…or….等, 如: Either you are right, or I am. 3,表示转折关系: 常用的并列连词有 but ,yet , whereas 等。 如: Jane said she was ill, yet I saw her in the street just now. 4,表示因果关系: 常用的并列连词有 so , for 等。 The shops were closed ,so I didn’t get any milk. 5,When 还可用作并列连词,意为那时,这时。相当于 and at this/ that time。 常用于下列句式: sb was doing sth when…; sb was about to do /going to do/ on the point of doing sth when…; sb had just done sth when….如:We were having a meeting when someone broke in . we were about to set off when it suddenly began to rain. 6,While 作为并列连词,意为而, 却。表示对比。如: He likes pop music ,while I am fond of folk music. 考点二,状语从句 一,时间状语从句 (一)when,while,as 1, 从属连词 when 既可以引导一个持续性动作, 也可以引导一个短暂性动作; 可用于主句动作和从句动作同时发生, 也可用于从句动作先于主句动作发 生,如:When the film ended, the people went back. 当 when 引导的时间状语从句为系表结构,而且其主语和主句主语一致,其表语又 是一个名词时, 就可以用有 as 引导的省略句来代替 when 引导的从句。 如: As a young man (=When he was a young man) ,he was fond of hunting. 2,从属连词 while 引导的动作必须是持续性的,侧重主句动作和从句动作相 对比。如:Please don’t talk so loud while others are working. 3,从属连词 as 可表示从句和主句的两个动作交替进行或同时完成,可译为 一边…,一边….,或“随着…..” 如:As time goes on, it’s getting warmer and warmer. 4,如果主句表示的是短暂性动作,而从句用延续性动词的进行时态表示一 段时间内正在进行的动作,此时,when,while 与 as 可互换使用。如:

When/ While/ As I was walking down the street, I came across an old friend of mine. (二) ,as soon as ,immediately, directly ,instantly ,the moment, the minute, the instant 和 once(一…就…) 。这些从属连词引导的从句都表示从句的动作 一发生,主句的动作随即发生,常译为:一……就…..。 如:The boy burst into tears immediately he saw his mother. 注意:no sooner ….than…; hardly/ scarcely…when…也可以表示“一 …. 就…” ,这一结构的时态搭配为:no sooner 与 hardly/ scarcely 所在的主句 的谓语动词应用过去完成时, 而 than 或 when 引导的从句的谓语动词应用 一般过去时。此外,当把 no sooner 和 hardly/ scarcely 提到句首时,其所 在的主句应用倒装语序。如: I had hardly got home when it began to rain Hardly had I got home when it began to rain. We had no sooner arrived at the station than the train left. No sooner had we arrived at the station than the train left. (三)till, until 和 not…until 1,肯定句:主句的谓语动词必须时延续性动词,主句,从句都为肯定式, 意为:某动作一致持续到某时间点才停止。如:He remained there until/ till she arrived. You may stay here until/ till the rain stops. 2,否定句:主句的谓语动词必须是非延续性动词,从句为肯定式,意为: 某动作直到从句所述的时间点才开始,此前一直未开始。如:He won’t go to bed until/ till she returns. 3,till 不可以置于句首,而 until 可以。如:Until you told me I had no idea of it. 4,not until….句型的强调和倒装用法。 如:直到你告诉我,我才知道这件事。 It was not until you told me that I had any idea of it.强调句 Not until you told me did I have any idea of it.(not until 置于句首,主句部分 要倒装) (四) ,before 和 since 1,若表达“还未…就…;不到…就….; …..才…; 还没来得及….就…..”时, 需用连词 before。如:We had sailed four days and four nights before we saw land. 2, before 从句中谓语不用够定时。 如: Before they reached the station ,the had gone. 3,It will be /was +一段时间+before 常翻译为:……才, …..就。如: It was half a year before I came back .半年后我才能回来 It won’t be long before we meet again. 过不了多久我们就有能见面了。 4, since 从句的谓语动词一般是非延续性动词, 主句的谓语动词是延续性的 或者是反复发生过的动作。Since 从句的时态若是一般过去时,主句的时 态常是现在完成时或现在完成进行时。如:I have written home four times since I came here. She has been working in this factory since she left school.

5,在 It is +一段时间+since 从句,这个句型中,since 引导的从句的谓语动 词若是延续性动词,常理解为某一状态的终止,翻译时注意否定。若是终 止性动词,则理解为某一动作的开始,翻译时正常译即可。如:It is three years since the war broke out.(终止性动词)战争爆发已经三年了。 It is three years since I smoked a cigar(= since I stopped smoking a cigar)(延 续性动词) 我不吸烟已经三年了。 如果译成: 我吸烟已有三年了, 应为: It is three years since I began to smoke. (began 为终止性动词) (五)every time, each time ,next time, the last time, any time 等名词短语用来引 导时间状语从句, 表示 “每当….; 每次…..; 下次…..” 如: Every /Each time I was in trouble, he would come to help me out. 二,地点状语从句 1,引导地点状语从句的从属连词 where,wherever 指具体地点时,从句可用 于主句之前或之后,表示抽象条件的含义时,从句需放在主句之前。如: We should go where the Party needs us most. 抽象概念: Where there is a will, there is a way. 2,注意区分 where 引导的定语从句与状语从句,如:你最好在有问题的地 方做一下标记:You’d better make a mark where you have any questions.地 点状语从句。 You’d better make a mark at the place where you have any questions. 定语从句。

三,原因状语从句 1,引导原因状语从句的从属连词主要有:because, as ,since, now ,that 每个连词 的含义不尽相同。 连词/区别 位置 内涵 语气 能 否 回 答 能否被强调 why Because 因 主句前或后 直接因果关 强 能 能 为 系 As 由于 主句前或后 双方都知道 弱 不能 不能 的原因 Since/now 主句前 that 既然 如:Now that/ Since everybody is here, let’s begin our meeting. 2,此外,when,seeing that, considering that 也可以表示原因,意为:既然, 考虑到。如:It was foolish of you to take a taxi when you could walk there in five minutes. 四,目的状语从句 引导目的状语从句的从属连词有:so that, in order that ,for fear that, in case 等。 1,in order that, so that。 这两个连词都意为:以便,为了。它们引导的状语 从句中常用情态动词。In order that 比 so that 正式,引导的状语从句可置于 主句之前或之后,而 so that 引导的状语从句只能位于主句之后。I will speak slowly so that you can understand me 2,for fear that, in case 引导目的状语从句时,for fear that 表示:害怕,担心

某事会发生; in case 表示:以防出现某种情况。如:Mary didn’t want to get out of bed, for fear that she might wake he baby (up). Take your raincoat ,in case it rains. 五,结果状语从句 1,引导结果状语从句的从属连词有:so that , so…that….,such…that…..。在非 正式语体中,有 so…that …., such…that…引导的句子中的 that 可以省略,注 意其结构: so+形容词/副词+that 从句; so+形容词+a/an+可数名词单数形式+that 从句 so+many/much/few/little+名词+that 从句 such+a/an+形容词+可数名词单数形式+that 从句 such+形容词+可数名词复数形式/不可数名词+that 从句 such+a lot of / lots of +名词+that 从句. 如:Mike is such an honest worker that we all believe in him.= Mike is so honest a worker that we all believe in him. It is such fine weather that we all want to go to the park. He earned so little money that he couldn’t support his family. 注意:(1),为了强调形容词和副词,当 so 或 such 置于句首时,主句要用那个倒 装语序,如:So clever a student was he that he was able to work out all the difficult questions. (2) ,当 so 或 such 所在的主句主语与结果状语从句中的主语一致时,还可 简化为:so/ such …as to….如:He was so clever a boy that he was able to work out all the difficult questions.化简为:He was so clever a boy as to work out all the difficult questions. 2,除结果状语从句外,too…to….,enough to….等不定式结构同样可以表示结 果。 如: He didn’t get up early enough to catch the bus.= He got up too late to catch the bus. 六,条件状语从句 引导条件状语从句的从属连词有:if ,unless, so/as long as , in case(如果), on condition that(条件是), suppose/ supposing(that )(假设),providing/ provided that(如 果 ) 等 , 如 : As long as you don’t lose heart, you will succeed. Suppose/Supposing (that)they refuse us ,who else can we turn to for help? 七,方式状语从句 引导方式状语从句的从属连词有:as, as if , as though 等。方式状语从句应放在 主句之后。其中 as if 或 as though 引导的从句一般用虚拟语气,但如果从句中所 陈述的情况很可能实现, 也可用陈述语气。 如: Do as you are told to, or you will be fired. The old lady treats the boy as if he were her own son.(虚拟语 气) I feel as if I have a fever.(陈述语气) 八,让步状语从句 1,although/ though, even though/if, 引导的让步状语从句。Although 与 though 两者意思相同,一般可互换,都可以与 yet,still 或 nevertheless 连用,但不能和

but 连用。 如: Although/ Though it was raining hard, yet they went on playing football. Even though it is raining, we’ll go there. Even if I were busy, I would go. (虚拟) 注意: though 还可用作副词, 意为 “可是, 然而” , 置于句末, 如: He said he would come; he didn’t, though. 2,whether…or….; 疑问词+ever 与 no matter+疑问词。如:Whether you believe it or not ,it is true. Whatever (No matter what) you say ,he won’t believe you. 注意:whoever,whatever,whomever,whichever 还可以引导名词性从句。如: You can take whatever you like. 3,when,while 也可作从属连词表让步,while 常用在句首,when 常用在句中, 相当于 although。如:Suddenly ,she stopped when she ought to have continued. While I admit that there are mistakes, I don’t agree that they cannot be solved.


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