(一) A (2015·山东潍坊市高三一模)Can you imagine a world without chocolate？It’s not something I’d like to do，so I was relieved to read that there’s a university with a programme to safe
guard the future of chocolate! The University of Reading，in England，has just opened a new clearing house for all the world’s new cocoa varieties.They must be quarantined (进行检疫) before they can be grown.Why？Cocoa production hit a record high of 4.4 million tons last year but about 30% of the precious crop is regularly lost to pests and diseases.Now we don’t want that，do we? Demand for chocolate has been increasing faster than the world supply of cocoa and researchers think that new varieties are key to solving this problem. The University of Reading has been protecting the quality of the new crop since 1985，after it took over the task from the Royal Botanical Gardens in Kew， London.And it has improved its facilities.The leader of the institution’s cocoa project ， Professor Paul Hadley， says ， “ One of the main issues concerning cocoa improvement is the supply of reliably clean，healthy，interesting cocoa material.” The cocoa centre has a collection of 400 plant varieties and their greenhouse uses a lot of energy to keep them in tropical conditions.After up to two years in quarantine，clean and safe seeds are sent to some 20 countries，including several in West Africa.That’s where 75% of the cocoa used for chocolate worldwide comes from.The crop is extremely important for the local economy：it employs about two million people. Professor Paul Hadley says he works with a small team of skilled technicians who look after the collection.And more of us seem to count on them now. The scientist says， “There is some concern within the industry that demand is increasing constantly，particularly in countries like China，where the standard of living is increasing and people are getting a taste for different chocolates.” 【解题导语】 本文主要介绍了英国一项保护可可种子的项目。 1．What is the text mainly about? A．Safeguarding cocoa seeds. B．Planting cocoa seeds worldwide. C．Keeping cocoa seeds in greenhouse. D．Finding the new market for cocoa. 解析：选 A。主旨大意题。 根据第一段的第二句“It’s not something I’d like to do，so I was relieved to read that there’s a university with a programme to safeguard the future of chocolate”及第五段中的“clean and safe seeds”可知，本文主要讲的 是英国保护可可种子的项目，即 A 项正确。 2．The institution’s cocoa project is to ________． A．have cocoa skin removed
B．offer more jobs to people C．ensure the quality of cocoa D．supply cocoa for two million people 解析：选 C。推理判断题。根据第四段的最后一句“The leader of the institution’s cocoa project，Professor Paul Hadley，says， ‘One of the main issues concerning cocoa improvement is the supply of reliably clean，healthy，interesting cocoa material.’ ” 可知，这个机构是要确保可可粉的质量，即 C 项正确。 3．What does the last paragraph tell us? A．The taste of chocolates is changing. B．Demand for cocoa is increasing continually. C．People are concerned about cocoa varieties. D．Chinese have a long history of eating chocolates. 解析： 选 B。 细节理解题。 根据最后一段的关键词“demand is increasing constantly” 可知，本段主要讲可可需求的不断增长，即 B 项正确。 4．What’s the purpose of the text? A．To educate. B．To advertise. C．To warn. D．To inform. 解析：选 D。写作意图题。文章第一段点题，结合全文的整体内容可知，本文主要介绍 了英国保护可可种子的项目，属于向读者传递信息的类型，即 D 项正确。 B (2015·江西南昌市一模)Even if trees cannot walk，they are still on the move. In parts of the Arctic，entire forests are moving northward.Across the Arctic ， temperatures are rising faster than anywhere else in the world.As that happens，the tree line that marks where forests stop and the treeless tundra (冻 原) starts has been shifting northward.Trees growing along the tree line must protect themselves from the cold wind.To do this， plants tend to grow horizontal ( 水平 的)branches low to the ground.The energy it takes for trees to grow this way means they don’t have enough energy to make seeds. But as Earth’s climate has been warming，trees no longer have to just grow horizontally.Many can instead grow up toward the sky.This takes less energy.And with all that leftover energy，these trees have started producing more seeds.This happens especially in places where white spruce (白云杉) grows. White spruce，which is a North American tree，is quite able to produce a lot of seeds，which can move long distances in the wind.When wind?blown seeds end up on the tundra beyond the tree line，they eventually can sprout (发芽) new trees.This explains how a forest can move.Of course，the process would work only if the tundra were warm enough.But in recent years，the whole planet has been warming. New trees will provide shelters for some snow.Keeping the sun’s rays from making the white surface disappear.Instead，the trees absorb the sun’s heat.This warms the surrounding air.The extra warmth encourages even more trees to produce seeds.That further boosts a forest’s ability to expand.In addition，more trees will trap more snow，preventing much of it from being blown away.Snow can trap heat in the soil below， which encourages trees to grow.The recent rise of temperatures has helped more trees grow past the tree line.People worry about impacts on the
animals that depend on frozen conditions for food and shelter. 【解题导语】 本文是一篇科研报告，主要研究了气温升高对北极圈植物的影响。 5．What is the main cause of the trees in the Arctic moving northward? A．The shrinking of northern tundra. B．The rising temperature. C．The fierce and cold wind. D．The abundant resources in the north. 解析：选 B。 细节理解题。根据第二段的第二句“Across the Arctic, temperatures are rising faster than anywhere else in the world”以及本段的整体内容可知，不断 上升的气温是北极圈树木北移的主要原因，即 B 项正确。 6．What does the underlined word “this” in Paragraph 2 mean? A．To produce more seeds. B．To move northward. C．To respond to the climate change. D．To protect themselves from the cold wind. 解析： 选 D。 代词指代题。 根据画线词前的“Trees growing along the tree line must protect themselves from the cold wind”可知，画线词 this 指代的是本句中的“protect themselves from the cold wind”，即 D 项正确。 7．What can be inferred from the last paragraph? A．New trees can trap the snow，which may make the soil colder. B．The trapped snow prevents new trees from producing more seeds. C．New trees can make the surrounding air warmer. D．New trees can bring more food and shelter for local animals. 解析：选 C。推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“New trees will provide shelters for some snow.Keeping the sun’s rays from making the white surface disappear.Instead， the trees absorb the sun’s heat.This warms the surrounding air”可推知，新树会 让周围的空气更加温暖，即 C 项正确。 8．The passage is most probably taken from ________． A．a science report B．a health report C．a fashion magazine D．a children’s magazine 解析：选 A。文章出处题。根据文章的整体内容可推知，本文主要研究的是气候变暖对 北极圈植物的影响，故该文应选自科研报告，即 A 项正确。 C (2016·河北七校高三联合考试)High heels， coffee cups and dogs have been regarded as three of the most dangerous things to have in a car. While men were responsible for the greater number of accidents reported，women played their part by driving in high heels.Putting fashion over function meant 44 percent of female motorists had been prevented from using the pedals correctly by their high heels. Being keen on a caffeine kick while driving can also create an accident if they leave empty coffee cups lying around their vehicles.Twenty percent of those surveyed admitted they had crashed their cars or had a near miss after a deserted coffee cup
or an empty drink bottle rolled under their brake pedals. However，it is not just wearing and eating that cause a threat from inside the car; man’s best friend could also cause a catastrophe if not safely secured.One in eight motorists claimed to have had a scrape(擦伤) or miss on the road due to their dogs’ wandering freely，climbing into the front seat or trying to escape through the windows. The accidents meant drivers took their eyes off the road for more than three seconds each time，according to the poll of 2，000 British motorists.The survey has found drivers will pick up an average bill of ￡ 261.47 for the damage caused by every crash.Londoners were the most at risk of an accident closely followed by motorists in the West Midlands and Wales. Janet Connor， a managing director， said many accidents could be avoided if people cleaned their cars regularly，as one in ten drivers involved in crashes admitted to driving inside a mountain of waste materials.She said， “The possible dangers and distractions outside the car are well?known but as the evidence suggests，those within the car are often forgotten.” 【解题导语】 本文介绍了开车时最危险的三种东西：高跟鞋、咖啡杯以及狗，并告诉 我们在开车时应该多关注这些危险的东西。 9．What mistake do women drivers most probably make while driving? A．They wear expensive clothes. B．They wear shoes with high heels. C．They drink too much coffee in cars. D．They take their dogs without tying them. 解析：选 B。细节理解题。根据第二段中的“women played their part by driving in high heels”可知，女性驾车所犯的错误是穿高跟鞋，故选 B 项。 10．Those who like drinking coffee often have accidents because________． A．the coffee may make them feel faint B．the coffee may make the car smell terrible C．empty coffee cups may make the brake fail D．deserted bottles look the same as brake pedals 解析： 选 C。 推理判断题。 根据第三段中的“Twenty percent of those surveyed admitted they had crashed their cars or had a near miss after a deserted coffee cup or an empty bottle rolled under their brake pedals”可推知，空的咖啡杯可能造成刹车失灵， 故选 C 项。 11．Why shouldn’t drivers put their dogs in the car while driving? A．Dogs may bark loudly if seeing traffic lights. B．Dogs may walk around or even try to escape. C．Dogs may break the windows to get fresh air. D．Dogs may make the inside of the car dirty. 解析：选 B。细节理解题。根据第四段中的“One in eight motorists claimed to have had a scrape(擦伤) or miss on the road due to their dogs’wandering freely，climbing into the front seat or trying to escape through the windows”可知，狗可能到处走 动或从窗户逃跑，故选 B 项。 12．We can mainly learn from the passage that ________．
A．people often neglect the dangers outside the car B．accidents will be avoided if cars are cleaned regularly C．dangers within the car should be given more attention to D．only 10% of the drivers remember to keep their cars clean 解析： 选 C。 推理判断题。 根据最后一段中的“The possible dangers and distractions outside the car are well?known but as the evidence suggests，those within the car are often forgotten”可推知，车内的这些潜在的危险和使人分心的事情也是事故发生的 原因，但是经常被人们忘记，所以需要我们给予更多的关注，故选 C 项。 (二) A (2016·河北唐山市高三统一考试 )Hybrid cars(混合动力车) are cars that run on petrol and electricity.They have a small standard petrol engine and a battery(电 池) electric motor to provide electric power. There are some differences between different models of hybrid cars，but the general principle is that the car runs on petrol，and the electric motor kicks in when additional power is required，for example，when going uphill or accelerating.In some hybrid cars the petrol engine turns itself off when not needed，for example when the car has stopped at traffic lights，keeping only the electric engine running. Conventional cars have large engines to deal with driving uphill and accelerating.Hybrid cars have much smaller petrol engines，improved by electric motors when needed，so they use less petrol.Another way that fuel consumption is cut is by a system of “regenerative (再生的) braking”．The electric motor is used to slow down the car，rather than conventional brakes.The energy produced by slowing the car is changed into electrical power ， which is automatically stored in the battery.In effect，the battery recharges when you brake.In conventional cars the energy produced when braking is wasted. In 1928，Ferdinand Porsche built an experimental hybrid car.The first mass? produced hybrid car，the Toyota Prius，came out in Japan at the end of 1997.However， hybrid cars became available—in the USA only in 1999.As they use less fuel，hybrid cars are cheaper to run.There are also many voices in place to encourage people to buy them.In some countries，hybrid car owners pay a lower rate of tax，and don’ t have to pay on certain roads.In some cities，hybrid cars are allowed to park for free. 【解题导语】 文章介绍了以汽油和电为动力的混合动力车， 它是一种节约能源的汽车。 1．Hybrid cars consume less energy than conventional cars because hybrid cars ________． A．have large engines to deal with accelerating B．have conventional brakes to slow down the car C．have no energy consumption when stopping D．have electric power to assist when needed 解析：选 D。细节理解题。根据第三段中的第二句“Hybrid cars have much smaller petrol engines，improved by electric motors when needed，so they use less petrol” 可知，混合动力车必要时有电力支持，所以消耗较少的能源。 2．In regenerative braking，________．
A．the conventional brakes are used to slow down the car B．energy wasted in conventional cars is stored in the battery C．the battery charges itself when the car is accelerating D．the petrol engine is usually turned off automatically 解析：选 B。细节理解题。根据第三段可知，混合动力车用电动马达减速而不是用传统 的刹车， 电动马达降低车速时产生的电能会被自动储存在电池里， 而传统汽车浪费了刹车时 产生的能量，由此可知 B 项表述正确。 3．From the last paragraph we can learn that hybrid cars ________． A．will gain more popularity B．were first available in the USA C．free their owners from tax D．are free to park anywhere in the city 解析： 选 A。 推理判断题。 根据最后一段中的“As they use less fuel， hybrid cars...for free”可推知，使用混合动力车有很多好处，所以混合动力车会很受欢迎。 4．The main purpose of this text is to ________． A．show how hybrid cars slow down B．encourage people to buy hybrid cars C．inform people of a kind of energy?saving car D．explain why hybrid cars use less energy 解析：选 C。写作意图题。该文主要介绍了一种节约能源的车——混合动力车，应选择 C。 B (2015·河南郑州市第二次质检 )Beauty is only skin deep.This expression means that beauty is only a temporary surface quality.Some beauty products can cause lasting damage that goes far below the surface of the skin. In America ， many people use sunlight and non ?natural light to darken their skin.Health experts advise people against what is called “tanning” because of its links to skin cancer.In the African country of Senegal (塞内加尔)，some women take health risks trying to do just the_opposite． An average beauty supply shop in Dakar has many kinds of skin?lightening creams and soaps.The World Health Organization says that 25% of Senegalese women use skin?lightening products on a usual basis.These products can contain chemicals， like mercury (汞)， hydroquinone (对苯二酚)， etc.These are dangerous ingredients that can cause cancer and possibly other physical damage to the skin.They can actually burn the eyes and skin. Shop worker Adama Diagne advises her visitors to avoid the stronger products that promise fast results.She uses a cream that is made from carrots，not the strong chemical， hydroquinone.She says that it is a personal choice and that no one pressures her.Some women want to be black every day，but for her，she likes to be a shade of brown. Women in Senegal say they lighten their skin for the same reason that women all over the world make changes to their appearance.They say they want to look beautiful， to find a husband，to stand out in a crowd or simply to look great for a special event.
This thinking troubles Senegalese film?maker Khardiata Pouye Sall.So，she made “This Color That Bothers Me”，a film about the subject of skin lightening.She said， “I used the most shocking images so that women would see the dangers.It is hard to understand why a woman says that dark skin is not beautiful.It is in their heads.They want to please a man，to be loved or they want to please society，to succeed.” Ms.Sall says that the government needs to better control the marketing and the sale of skin?lightening products.But she adds that education is the best way to persuade people against using them. 【解题导语】 塞内加尔的女性为了美使用一些化学产品带来了极大的危害。 5．The underlined part “the opposite” in Paragraph 2 means some Senegalese women ________． A．use sunlight to darken skin B．try creams to prevent skin cancer C．use products to lighten their skin D．take health risks to become beautiful 解析： 选 C。 词义猜测题。 根据第二段的第一句“In America， many people use sunlight and non?natural light to darken their skin”可推知，塞内加尔的一些女性正好和美国 人相反，与“darken their skin”相反，故 C 项正确。 6．According to Adama Diagne，women shouldn’t believe ________． A．beauty is just a personal choice B．a cream from carrots is healthier C．it is beautiful to be black every day D．a product can make you beautiful quickly 解析：选 D。细节理解题。根据第四段的第一句“Shop worker Adama Diagne advises her visitors to avoid the stronger products that promise fast results”可知，Adama Diagne 不赞同人们用快速见效的美容产品，即 D 项正确。 7．We can infer that women in Senegal ________． A．attract attention with shocking images B．don’t consider dark skin to be beautiful C．find it hard to understand the true beauty D．put beauty in the first place in their heads 解析：选 B。推理判断题。根据第六段的“It is hard to understand why a woman says that dark skin is not beautiful”可推知，塞内加尔的女性并不认为黑皮肤是漂亮的， 即 B 项正确。 8．What is Ms.Sall’s attitude towards skin?lightening products? A．Unsupportive. B．Casual. C．Responsible. D．Positive. 解析：选 A。推理判断题。根据第六段的“I used the most shocking images so that women would see the dangers” 以及最后一段的内容可推知，Ms.Sall 对亮肤的产品持不 赞成的态度，即 A 项正确。 C (2016·辽宁沈阳市第一次教学质量检测)Being physically active three times a week reduces the odds of being depressed by about 16%，according to new UCL research
carried out as part of the Public Health Research Centre. The study，published in JAMA Psychiatry，found a two?way relationship between depression and physical activity.People who increased their weekly activity were reported to have fewer depressive symptoms but those with more depressive symptoms were less active，particularly at younger ages. Researchers followed 11， 135 people born in 1958 up until the age of 50， recording depressive symptoms and levels of physical activity at regular intervals in adulthood.They found that each additional activity period per week reduced odds of depression by 6%.In England 19% of men and 26% of women are currently classed as “inactive” ， and this study suggests that activity could significantly improve their mental as well as physical health. “Assuming the association is causal，physical activity has a protective effect against depression.If an adult between his twenties and forties who isn’t physically active became active 3 times per week，he would reduce his risks of depression by about 16%， ” said Dr Snehal of the UCL Institute of Child Health，lead author of the study. Professor Mark， Director of the Public Health Research Centre， said： “Many people are already aware of the benefits of physical activity on their general health， but now we are seeing more evidence that suggests it also has a positive effect on a person’s mental well?being.The latest research highlights just how important it is to ensure that people are working and living in environments that allow them to be both physically active and mentally healthy.” 【解题导语】 最新研究表明， 增加每周锻炼身体的次数， 能降低人们患抑郁症的风险。 9．The underlined word “odds” in Paragraph 1 probably means “________”． A．benefits B．intervals C．risks D．ages 解析：选 C。词义猜测题。根据第四段中的“If an adult between his twenties and forties who isn’t physically active became active 3 times per week，he would reduce his risks of depression by about 16%”可知，人们每周锻炼三次，能让患抑郁症的可能 性降低大约 16%。由此可推断出，odds 和 risks 的意思一样，故 C 项正确。 10．According to the second paragraph，if people increase their weekly activity， ________． A．their depressive symptoms will be fewer B．their depressive symptoms will be more C．they will become much younger D．they will become more depressive 解析：选 A 。细节理解题。根据第二段中的“People who increased their weekly activity were reported to have fewer depressive symptoms”可知，如果人们增加他们 每周锻炼的次数，就会有较少的抑郁症状，故 A 项正确。 11．Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage? A．Dr Snehal thinks it is important to be both physically and mentally healthy. B．The research shows men are more active in physical activity than women. C．Adults who insist on physical activity will avoid depression completely. D．Increasing physical activity can free people from depression in a way.
解析：选 D。推理判断题。根据第一段中的“Being physically active three times a week reduces the odds of being depressed by about 16%”可推知，增加锻炼身体的次 数在某种程度上能降低患抑郁症的可能性，故 D 项正确。 12．What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage? A．To tell us a fun story about how to protect us against depression. B．To introduce a research on the link between physical activity and depression. C．To persuade readers to increase their weekly activity. D．To describe the disadvantages of physical activity. 解析：选 B。写作意图题。本文主要向读者介绍了一项科学研究成果，这份研究讲述的 是身体锻炼和抑郁症之间的联系，故 B 项正确。
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