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选修8 Unit 2 Cloning


选修 8 Unit 2 Cloning 要 点 梳 理 ●重点单词 1.differ vi.不同;相异→different adj.不同的→difference n.不同,差异 2.twin n.双胞胎之一;孪生儿之一 adj.成对的;成双的 3.straightforward adj.简单的;直接的;坦率的 4.undertake vt.着手;从事;承担→undertook(过

去式)→undertaken(过去分词) 5.breakthrough n.突破 6.cast vt.扔;投;掷→cast/cast(过去式/过去分词) 7.object vi.反对;不赞成→objection n.不赞成;反对;异议→objective adj.真实的;客观的;无偏见的 8.obtain vt.获得;赢得 9.attain vt.获得;达到(水平、年龄、状况等) 10.forbid vt.禁止;不准→forbade(过去式)→forbidden (过去分词) 11.accumulate vt.积累;聚积 12.owe vt.欠(账、钱、人情等);归功于?? 13.retire vi.退休;离开→retirement n.退休 14.bother vt.打扰 vi.操心 n.烦扰 15.strike vi. & vt.打;撞击;罢工→struck/struck (过去式/过去分词) 16.vain adj.虚荣的;自负的;徒劳的 17.resist vt.抵抗;对抗→resistance n.抵抗;对抗→resistant adj. 18.drawback n.缺点;不利条件 19.feather n. 羽毛 20.adore vt.崇拜;爱慕;喜爱 ●重点短语 1.pay off 3.object to 反对 4.in favour of 赞成;支持 5.owe...to... 把??归功于?? 6.(be)bound to(to)... 一定或注定(做)?? 7.strike...into one’s heart 使??刻骨铭心 8.from time to time 不时;偶尔 9.bring back to life 使复生;使复活 10.in vain 白费力气;枉费心机 11.in good/poor condition 12.have a great impact on 状况很好/坏;情况很好/坏 对??有很大影响 得到好结果;取得成功;偿清 2.cast down 沮丧;不愉快 高效梳理·知识备考

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●重点句型 1.Then came the disturbing news that Dolly had become seriously ill. 之后传来了多莉得了重病的令人烦恼的消息。 2.Altogether Dolly lived six and a half years, half the length of the life of the original sheep. 多莉总共存活了 6 年半,是被克隆羊的寿命长度的一半。 3.Did she die young because she was a clone? 因为她是克隆的,所以才早逝了吗? 4.Besides that, there is also a fierce dabate over the question whether human cloning experiments should be allowed. 除此之外,克隆人的实验是否被允许进行的问题引起了激烈的争论。

考 点 探 究 Ⅰ.词汇短语过关 1.differ vi. 不同;相异

互动探究·能力备考

different adj. 不同的;有区别的;相异的 difference n. 不同;不同之处 differ from... 不同于…… differ in... 在……方面不同 differ with/from sb. on/about sth. 与某人关于……意见不同 be different from 与……不同 make a/some/no difference to sb./sth. 对某人/某物有/有些/没有影响或作用 difference between A and B A 和 B 之间的差别 2.undertake vt. 着手,从事,承担;承诺,答应 undertaking n. 任务,事业;承诺,答应 undertake a task/project 承担一个任务/项目 undertake to do sth. 答应做某事 undertake for sth. 为??负责 3.cast vt.&vi. (cast, cast) 投掷;投射;抛 cast aside 抛弃,消除,废除 cast away 抛弃,丢掉,使(船)漂流,(船)失事 cast behind 疏远;把??抛在脑后 cast down 使沮丧/不愉快
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cast off 丢弃 cast one‘s eyes over 审视 cast one’s mind back to sth. 回顾,回想 cast light on/upon=throw light upon 弄清楚 4.object vi. 反对,不赞成 objection n. 反对;厌恶 object to sb./sth. 反对,不赞成某人/某事 object to doing sth. 反对做某事 object to sb. doing sth. 反对某人做某事 raise an objection to (doing) sth. 对??提出异议 have/make an objection to (doing) sth. 对??表示反对 5.obtain vt. 获得,取得;买到;借到 6.forbid vt. (forbade/forbad, forbidden) 禁止;反对 forbid sb. to do sth. 禁止某人做某事 forbid doing sth. 禁止做某事 forbid that... 禁止??(从句中常用“should+动词原形”) forbid sb. sth. 禁止某人某事 提示:forbid 后不能直接跟动词不定式做宾语,而是跟动名词做宾语,也可用 forbid sb. to do sth. 形式, 有类似用法的单词还有 allow, permit, advise 等。 n. 实物;目的;对象

7.owe vt.欠(钱、物、债等);应当给予 (1)owe sb. sth.或 owe sth. to sb.欠某人某物 owe...to... 把……归功于…… owe it to sb. that...多亏某人帮忙 (2)owing to=because of“ 因为,由于” ,后接名词、 代词、动名词做宾语,构成介词短语,表原因。 8.bother vt. 打扰 vi. 操心 n. 烦扰;令人烦恼的事或人 bother with/about sth. 花费时间或精力(做某事) bother sb. about/with sth. 使某人烦恼,不安 It bothers sb. that.../to do sth. 使某人苦恼的是?? bother to do/doing sth. 操心做某事 9.strike vt. & vi.打,撞击,冲击,罢工,打动,划燃,侵袭,突然想起 n.罢工,打击
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be struck with(by)为??所侵袭; 为??所触动(感动) It strikes me that...我觉得??;我的印象是?? strike a match 划火柴 strike on/upon 打在??上;撞到??上 be on strike 举行罢工 go on strike 实行罢工 10.resist v. 忍住;顶住;抵御;反抗 resistance n. 反抗 resistant adj. 抵抗的;耐??的 resist sth. 抵制、阻挡某事 resist doing sth. 反对做某事 can‘t resist doing sth. 忍不住做某事 be resistant to 对??有抵抗力 11.pay off 得到好结果;取得成功;还清 pay money for sth. 付钱买?? pay for sth. 买?? pay back 还钱,报复 pay out 付出大笔款项;放松 pay up 付清欠款 12.in favour of 赞成;支持 in favour 赞同;流行;得宠 in favour with sb. 受某人支持 in sb.‘s favour 对某人有利 out of favour 失宠;不流行 do sb. a favour=do a favour for sb. 帮某人忙 do sb. the favour to do sth. 帮某人做?? owe sb. a favour 欠某人情 13.be bound to 一定;注定 bound v. 跳跃;限制;形成??的界线 n. 跳跃;界线,范围 adj. 必然的,一定的;准备到??去的 be bound to sth. 被束缚于某物;被绑在某物上 be bound to do sth. 一定会、有义务去做某事 be bound (for...) 准备(去??)
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be bound up in 热心于,忙于 be bound up with 与??有密切关系 I'll be bound... 我确信?? 14.in good/bad condition 状况很好(坏);情况很好(坏) be in good condition(=be in a good state) (人)健康状况好;(东西)保存/保养得好 out of/in bad condition(人)身体不适;(物)保养得不好 working/living conditions 工作/生活条件 in difficult conditions 在困难的条件下 on condition that...(相当于 so long as 或 if)只要 on this/that condition 在这种/那种条件下 economic conditions 经济形势 in/under favourable conditions 在有利的形势下

易 错 点 拨

自我完善·误区备考

1.bother/disturb/trouble/annoy 这组词都表示“使人不得安宁”或“心烦意乱”。 (1)bother 指干扰别人的正常生活和工作而使之不太安宁,可能是故意的,含有使人讨厌的意味。 (2)disturb 指使人失去正常秩序而一时得不到安宁,精力不能集中,语气比 bother 弱。 (3)trouble 常指在心情上失去平静而感到忧虑、苦恼或行动上带来不便,也常用于礼貌的请求。 (4)annoy 通常指重复性的行为使(别人)生气。常用被动,表示为某事烦恼、生气。 2. obtain/earn/gain/get/win (1)obtain 应用范围较广,含有“如期地达到目的或得到所希望的东西”之意,多用于正式场合。 (2)earn 表示经过艰苦努力而得到报酬,或得到了理应享有的某种待遇,其宾语多为金钱、荣誉等。 (3)gain 指通过斗争、竞争或付出劳动而获得某种优势或达到某种目的。其宾语通常是经验、优势、利益、 好处等。 (4)get 最常用,可指主动去“获得,得到” ,也可能是被迫“接受” ,有时指不一定需要主动性或付出很大 努力就能得到。 (5)win 多指在竞赛中“获得,赢得” ,有时也用于指在战争中“获得”胜利,宾语通常是比赛、战斗、战 争等。 3. strike/hit/beat/knock 这四个词均有“打”的意思。 (1)strike 通常表示“ 打一下、打若干下” ,不一定都是有意的;还有“打动,使??着迷,某种想法突然闪 现在脑海里”的含义;也可指“打、擦出(火),(蛇、兽)抓、咬,(钟)敲响” 。
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(2)hit 指“打中” “对准??来打” “敲打或打击对方的某一点” ,还可用来表示传染病或自然灾害“袭击” 某一地区,而其他动词一般不这样用。作“被??想起”讲时,与 strike 同义。 (3)beat 侧重“连续地打击” ,如殴打或体罚;也指在游戏、竞赛或战争中击败对方;也指“心跳” 。 (4)knock 侧重于“敲打,叩击” ,常用做不及物动词,通常与 at 连用。 高 效 作 业 Ⅰ.单词拼写 1.The brothers d______ widely in their tastes. 2.This question is quite s____________________, while that one is much more complicated. 3.The problem has been b__________ me for weeks. 4.Smoking is f___________ in public places. 5.His suggestion sounds quite r___________ to most of us. differ straightforward bothering forbidden reasonable 6.The film was a _____________ (商业的) success. 7.I'd like to come, too, if you have no _________ (反对). 8.He ______ (仅仅) asked us our names. 9.We have made another __________________(突破) in space exploration. 10.He always managed to ______ (得到) what he wanted. commercial objection merely breakthrough obtain 自我测评·技能备考

Ⅱ .单项选择 1. (2010·山东潍坊质量监测)______,I thought I would only stay there for a week, but later I changed my mind. A.Generally C.Extremely 答案:B 解析:考查副词辨析。语意为:最初,我想我只在那里待一周,但后来我改变了主意。generally 一般地; initially 最初;extremely 极其;eventually 最后,终于。根据语意可知 B 项正确。 2.Hearing the news that he didn't pass the final exam, he became ______ at once. A.casted down
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B.Initially D.Eventually

B.cast down

C.cast off 答案:B

D.casted off

解析:cast 的过去式、过去分词都是 cast,故排除 A、D 项。cast down 使沮丧;cast off 解缆放船;抛开。 3.Money spent on the brain is never spent ______. A.in ease C.in vain 答案:C 解析:句意:智力上的投资决非浪费。in vain 意为“徒劳,无效,无益” ,合语境。 4.I need to take more exercise regularly, because I’m really ______ these days. A.in bad conditions C.on no condition 答案:B 解析:考查固定短语的辨析。in bad condition“情况不好” ,此时常用 condition 的单数;out of condition 健 康状况不好;on no condition 决不。 5.To our joy, there are so many ______ in science and technology all over the world in recent years. A.discovery C.findings 答案:B 解析:discovery “发现” ,invention “发明” ,都符合句意,但须用复数形式。finding 有两种含义,一是 指别人丢掉后的 “发现物, 拾得物” ; 二是其复数形式还有一特别含义, 指 “(委员会等的)调查结果, 报告” , 不合句意。 6.Everybody present smiled. Sally spoke English ______. A.aloud and clear C.loudly and clear 答案:B 解析:speak loud and clear 说话声音响亮而清楚。aloud adv. 大声地,出声地,如 read aloud 朗读;loudly adv. 高声地;喧噪地;clearly 清楚地,明白地,如 speak clearly 说话清楚。 7.We are bound ______ with difficulties in carrying out this research. A.to meet C.meeting 答案:A 解析:考查 be bound to do sth. “一定会??;注定(做)??” 。 8.The child is much too young; I object ______ him alone at home.
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B.in anger D.in comfort

B.out of condition D.in bad state

B.breakthroughs D.invention

B.loud and clear D.loud and clearly

B.to have met D.having met

A.to leave C.leaving 答案:D 解析:object to “反对” ,其中 to 是介词,后接名词、代词、动名词。

B.leave D.to leaving

9.The forty-storey building is one of the most challenging engineering projects they have ______. A.undergone C.understood 答案:D 解析: 考查动词辨析。 undergo 经历, 遭受; overtake 赶上, 追上, 超过; understand 理解, 明白; undertake 从事,进行。由题意知,选 D。 10.The result of the football match, ______ the surprise of us all, was 2 to 1 ______ our favour. A.in; to C.in; in 答案:D 解析:考查介词搭配。to the surprise of sb. 使某人吃惊的是??;in our favour 对我们有利。 11.I ______ suggested you should do it again; there is no need to get annoyed. A.merely C.still 答案:A 解析:句意为:我只是建议你应该再做一次;你没有必要烦恼。merely 只是,仅仅;even 甚至;still 仍 然;yet 然而。 12.Although a teenager, Fred could not resist ______ what to do and what not to do. A.telling C.being told 答案:C 解析:考查 can‘t resist doing sth. “不能忍受??” ,且句中表被动意义,用 being told “被告知” 。 13.Though we take a great risk of investing in the project, yet it will ______ in the long run. A.go off C.pay off 答案:C 解析:pay off 得到好的结果,取得成功;go off 离开;turn up 出现;come up 过来。 14. (2010·福建六校三联)Just as Alan M. Eddison ______ it, “Modern technology ______ ecology an apology.” A.says; owes
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B.overtaken D.undertaken

B.to; to D.to; in

B.even D.yet

B.to tell D.to be told

B.turn up D.come up

B.puts; makes

C.put; owes 答案:C

D.said; owed

解析:put it 为固定短语,意思是“说,表达” ;owe...an apology 的意思是“应向??道歉” 。say 为不及物 动词,后面不可跟宾语,由此可排除 A、D 两项;这是过去所说的话,因此选 C。 15.______a terrible storm would take place in Hainan. A.Word came which C.Word that came 答案:B 解析:word 在此句中是“消息”的意思,不可数名词,that 引导的是同位语从句 a terrible storm would take place in Hainan。 B.Word came that D.Words came that

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