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人教版必修四 unit2 单词句型详解复习版

Unit 2 working the land 修改
1._________ 摆脱;除去 2.__________幸亏;由于;因为 3.____________怀着……的希望 4.____________ 生于贫穷的农民家庭

5._____________ 为……而奋斗 6.______________ 寻找方法 7._

_____________ 与……作比较 8.______________ 对……感到满意 9.____________ 富含 10._________ 集中(注意力、精力等)于 rid...of thanks to with the hope of born into a poor farmer’s family struggle for search for a way compare...with be satisfied with be rich in focus on

II.重点单词 1.struggle
1). He has been struggling for success in business. =He has been struggling to succeed in his business. 为了事业的成功,他一直努力奋斗着。 2).A strong man will struggle with the storm of fate. 强者乐于搏击命运的暴风雨。 3).She is struggling to bring up a family on a very low income. 她靠着非常微薄的收入艰难地供养一家人。

struggle for 为……而奋斗 struggle on/along 拼命活下去,竭力支撑下去 struggle to one’s feet 挣扎着站起来 struggle against/with 向…作斗争;同…搏斗 the struggle for existence 生存竞争 without a struggle 未经努力

fight against 为反对……而斗争 fight with 与……作战;与……并肩战斗

fight for 为争取……而斗争 compete against/with 与……竞争,决斗 compete for 为争取……而竞争 即学即用 The children talked so loudly at dinner table that I had to struggle ____. A.to be heard C.hearing B.to have heard D.being heard

解析 本题考查非谓语动词。 struggle to do sth. 努力做某事。 又因 I 与 hear 之间存在被动关系, 故应用不定式的被动语态。

观察思考 A child’s vocabulary expands through reading. 孩子的词汇量通过阅读得到扩大。 Why not try to expand your story into a novel? 为什么不把你的故事扩展成小说呢?

expand on/upon sth.详细阐明;充分叙述 expand in...在……方面膨胀 expand into...扩展成为……,膨胀成…… expansion n.扩展;扩大;膨胀

expansive adj.广阔的;广泛的;开朗的 易混辨异 expand,extend,spread,stretch (1)expand 展开,扩大,不仅指尺寸的增加,还可指范围和体 积的扩大。 (2)extend 伸出,延伸,指空间范围的扩大,以及长度、宽度 的向外延伸,也可指时间的延长。 (3)spread 伸开;传播,一般指向四面八方扩大传播 的范围, 如传播(疾病)、散布(信息)等。 (4)stretch 伸展,拉长,一般指由曲变直、由短变长的伸展,不 是加长。 即学即用 (1)随着儿童的成长, 他们的兴趣会变广, 人也会变得更自信。 As children grow older they expend their interests and become more confident. (2)他详细地说明了自己的新理论。 He expended on his new theory.

3.thanks to 观察思考
Everyone knows about it now,thanks to you! 多亏了你,现在大家都知道了。

Thanks to your advice,much trouble was saved. 由于您的建议省了许多麻烦。 易混辨异 thanks to,due to,owing to,because of (1)thanks to 介词短语,只能作状语,多用于褒义。 (2)due to 意为“因为,由于”,可以作表语或状语,不可位于首。 be due to do sth.表示“被安排去做某事”。 The accident was due to careless driving. 交通事故是由粗心大意的驾驶造成的。 Mr.Hill will be due to lecture twice tomorrow. 希尔先生明天被安排演讲两次。 (3)owing to 意为“由于”多用作状语, 作状语时常用逗号隔开。 Owing to his carelessness,Tom failed in the exam. 汤姆考试不及格是由他的粗心大意引起的。 (4)because of 语气最强,多用于表示直接原因。一般放在主 句之后,有时也可放在主句之前。 Because of his tiredness,he does not want to go with us.

(1)____ his help,we solved the problem. A.For B.Because C.Thanks to D.Due to

(2)It’s acknowledged that the traffic accident was largely ____ the driver’s carelessness.

A.because of C.thanks to 答案 :(1).C (2).B

B.due to D.with a result of

4.rid...of 摆脱;除去
rid oneself of debt 还清债务 be rid of 摆脱 get rid of 摆脱;除掉;去掉 1).Could you rid yourself of the bad habit of smoking? 2).Will science- finally rid us of this disease? 3).By working hard day and night, she is trying to rid herself of loneliness and sadness.

类似用法动词: Remind/inform/ warn/ cure/accuse/rub sb of sth 5.be satisfied with 对……满意
satisfy one’s needs 满足某人的需要 with satisfaction 满意地 to one’s satisfaction 使某人满意的是…… be far from satisfactory 远远不能让人满意

6.would rather 宁愿,宁可

would rather...than...是常用句式,意为“宁可(愿)…(而) 不要(愿)…” =would … rather than… would rather+从句时,从句要用虚拟语气 would rather have done 本想做…(而实际上未做)

单项填空 ① —Shall we go skating or stay at home? —Which ___ do yourself?(2010· 01· 江西南昌检测) A.do you rather D.should you rather ② I’d rather ___ the basketball match last night.Otherwise,I would have finished my paper work by now. (2010· 01· 江苏徐州检测) A.not have watched D.haven’t watch 答案:(1).B (2).A B.not watch C.hadn’t watch B.would you rather C.will you rather

7.equip 观察思考
It’s time to equip yourself for the journey abroad.

你该准备出国旅行的行装了。 She equipped her son with a good education. 她使儿子受到了良好的教育。 You’d better equip your bicycle with a headlight. 你最好在自行车上装个前灯。

equip...with...用……装备…… equip...for sth./to do sth.为了……而装备…… equipment n.装备;设备(不可数名词) office equipment 办公设备 a piece of equipment 一件设备(√) an equipment(× )

(1)equipment 还有“知识;技艺;才能;素养; 特征;资质”之意。 (2)equipments(偶尔用复数形式)表达“不同种类的设备”,但不 可在其前加 two,some,several 等 即学即用 (1)有良好的教育能受用终生。 A good education should______________. equip you for life (2)我们学校有了一些赠送的新设备。 Our school has been given _______________.

some new equipment

8.regret 观察思考
She deeply regretted what she said and what she did. 她非常后悔说了那些话和做了那些事。 We have always regretted selling the farm. 我们一直后悔卖了那个农场。 He expressed regret for what he had done. 他对自己的所作所为感到后悔

regret sth.对某事感到遗憾 regret to do sth.遗憾/抱歉要去做……(do 一般是 say,tell,inform,announce 等这样的词) regret doing sth.后悔曾经做过某事 regret not to have done sth.后悔没做过某事 regret that...遗憾/后悔…… have no regrets about doing sth.没有遗憾做过某事 It is a matter for/of regret that... 令人遗憾的是…… It is to be regretted that 使人遗憾的是…… to one’s regret(对某人而言)可惜的是

(1)我遗憾地告诉他他被解雇了。但使我惊奇的是, 他对我 说:“我没有任何遗憾。我惟一后悔的是选错了工作。” I ______________him that he had been dismissed.But to my surprise,he said to me, “I have no regrets.I only _____the wrong job.” (2)—Robert is indeed a wise man. —Oh,yes.How often I have regretted ____ his advice! A.to take C.not to take 解析 B.taking D.not taking

regret doing sth.表示“为做了某事后

悔”,本题同时又表示否定,故选 D。

9.lead to 通向;导致;造成(后果) 观察思考
The discussion led to a big fight. 那场讨论结果引起一阵大吵。 Eating too much sugar leads to rotten teeth. 吃太多的糖会导致蛀牙。 What led you to believe I was ill? 什么使你相信我病了?

Which door leads to the yard? 哪扇门通向庭院? 归纳总结 lead to 意为:__________。

take the lead 带头;居首位 have a lead over 领先于 in the lead 领先 lead a...life 过着……样的生活 as heavy as lead 铅一般地沉重,非常重 lead sb.into...领着某人进入…… lead sb.to do sth.使某人做某事 lead off 开始

(1).We firmly believe that war never settles anything.It only _____ violence. A.runs into C.leads to B.comes from D.begins with

解析 本题考查动词短语的意思。句意为:我们坚决认为战 争不会解决任何事情,只会导致暴力。 run into 撞上;come from 来自;lead to 导致;begin with 以……开始,因此选 C。

(2).The students in the university are all taking courses __ a degree.(2010· 01· 山东烟台检测) A.sticking to C.turning to B.leading to D.referring to

联想拓展 result in 导致 result from 由……导致 10.focus V (使)集中 聚焦 N 中心 焦点
Be in focus 焦距对准 清晰 Be out of focus 焦距对准 模糊 Focus (sth) on sth 集中(注意力、精力等)于……;对(某 事或做某事)予以注意;使聚焦于; focus one’s attention on sth. =center/concentrate/fix one’s attention on sth.集中注意力 于…… Pay attention to

① 在我看来,学校应该把精力集中在教学上。 In my opinion,schools should_____________. ② 他把相机对准了远处的高楼。 He ______ his camera the huge building in the distance.

vt.减少;缩小;降低;使……陷 入某种更糟的状态 常用结构:
11.Reduce reduce sth.to...减少到…… .Reduce sth.by...减少了…… Be reduced to 沦落为…… 即学即练 (1)He persuaded them to______the price______$1000. 他设法使他们的价格降到 1000 美元。 (2)Production costs have______________one third. 生产成本下降了 1/3。 (3)The fire________the forest______a few trees. 大火把森林烧得仅剩下几棵树了。

12.Comment vi.&vt.表达意见;作出评论 n. [C&U]评论;议论

ask for comment 征求意见 make comments on sth.评论某事 Make no comment on sth./sb.对某事/某人进行评论/不进行评 论 No comment.无可奉告。 Without comment.不必多说。 comment on/upon sth.评论,对…发表意见 comment that cl-评 论……

(1)Have you any___________the proposals? 你对这些建议有什么意见吗? (2)It created_________________in the press. 这引起报界广泛的评论。 (3)He made some useful_________________my work.他对我 的作品作了一些实用的评论。(4)He____________that it was an excellent film. 他评论这部电影很精彩。

II.重点句型 句 1:Have you ever grown any plants? If so,what did you do
to grow them? If not,what kind of plant would you like to try

growing? How would you grow it?

1. if any 即使有(任何)……,即使有…… Correct errors, if any (=if there are any errors). 如有错误就请订正。 There are few people nowadays, if any, who remember him. 当今记得他的人,如有的话, 也不多了。 2. if anything 如果有什么……的话 If anything, she works too hard. 要说的话 呢,就是她工作太辛苦了。 I’m not angry. If anything, I feel a little surprised. 我没有生气。 如果说我有什么反应 的话,那就是我感到有些惊讶。 3. if anybody (anyone) 若有(任何)人的 话 If anyone, he knows. 如果有人知道,那就 是他了。 4. if ever (即使有……也)极少,难得 He seldom if ever travels abroad. 他到国外 旅行,即使有过,也是极少的。

He seldom, if ever, goes to the movies by himself. 他不会,即使有也很少,单独去看 电影的。 5. if necessary 如果有必要的话 I could come earlier, if necessary. 如果有必 要我可以早点来。 If necessary, Jim might shorten it. 如果有必 要,吉姆可以把它缩短。 6. if not 假如不是这样的话;不然的话; 否则 I might see you tomorrow. If not, then it’ll be Saturday. 我可能明天去看你。 如果不是明 天,那就在周六。 Ask her if it is a convenient time. If not, can she suggest another possible time? 问问她那 个时间方便不方便。要是不方便的话,那她 可不可以提出一个可行的时间? 有时 not 还可修饰另一个词语。如: This is one of the oldest buildings in town, if not the oldest. 这是城里最古老的建 筑之一,如果不是最古老的话。

His pronunciation, if not good, is at least tolerable. 他的发音如果说不算好,至少也还 过得去。 7. if possible 如果可能的话 If possible, let me know beforehand. 如果可 能,可在事前通知我。 If possible, I wish to go there next summer. 如果可能,我希望明年夏天去。 8. if so 假如这样的话 They think she may try to phone. If so, someone must stay here. 他们认为她可能来 电话。要是这样的话,就得有人守在这儿。 句 2:In 1973,he became the first agricultural pioneer in the world to grow rice that has a high output. 1974 年, 他成为世界上第一位种植高产水稻 的农业先锋。 不定式放在表示次序的词 the first,the last,the best 以及 the only,the very,the right 等词后面, 且这些词与动词不定式有逻辑上的主谓关 系,结构为: the first/last.../best../only/very/right...+n.+to do

sth. 表示“第一个/最后一个/最好的一个/唯一的/ 恰好的/合适的……做某事的人/物”。 He is always the first to come and the last to leave. 他总是第一个来并且最后一个离开。 The last man to leave the sinking ship was the captain. 最后一个离开正在下沉的船的那个人是船 长。 He is the last person ____ to Mary’s birthday party. A.to invite B.to be invited C.invited D.being invited 句 3.Using his hybrid rice,farmers are prod ucing harvests twice as large as before. 用他的杂交水稻种子,农民们种出的粮食比 以前多了一倍。 倍数表达法: 1. 用形容词表示甲是乙的几倍时, 用下面三 个句型,用副词表示则一般只用前两个句 型。

(1)……倍数+形容词(或副词)的比较级 +than This rope is twice longer than that on e.这根绳的长度是那根绳的三倍。(比那 根绳长二倍) This hall is five times bigger than our c lassroom.这个大厅比我们的教室大五倍。 (是我们教室的六倍) The car runs twice faster than that truc k. 这辆小车的速度比那辆卡车快两倍。 (是 那辆卡车的三倍) (2)……倍数+as+形容词(或 much)或 副词+as Asia is four times as large as Europ e.亚洲的面积是欧洲的四倍。 This big stone is three times as heavy as that one.这块大石头的重量是那一块 的三倍。(这块石头比那块重二倍) The plane flew ten times as high as th e kite.那架飞机飞行高度是那个风筝的十 倍。(高出九倍)

(3) ……倍数+the size (length, height…) of This street is four times the length of t hat street.这条街是那条街的四倍长。 This hill is four times the height of that small one.这座山的高度是那座小山的四 倍。(比那座小山高三倍) 也可用:The height of this hill is four ti mes that of that small one. 2. 要用名词表示“量”的倍数时,则用以下两 个句型: (1) ……倍数+more+名词 (可数, 不可数) +than There are four times more books in our library than in yours.我们图书馆藏书 (数量)是你们图书馆藏书的四倍。(我们 图书馆藏书 比你们的多三倍。) We have produced twice more grain thi s year than we did last year.我们今年 生产的粮食比去年增长一倍。(是去年的两 倍)

(2)……倍数+as many(或 much)+名 词+其他+as… After the technique was introduced, the factory produced twice as many tractors in 1988 as the year before. 采用新的技 术以后 ,那个工厂 1988 年生产的拖拉机是前一年 (1987 年)的两倍。(比前一年增长一倍) There is three times as much water in this pot as in that one.这个壶里的水 (量)是那个壶里的三倍。 What a table! I’ve never seen such a thing before.It is ___it is long. A.half not as wide as B.wide not as half as C.not half as wide as D.as wide as not half 句 4.Crops such as peas or soybeans put important minerals back into the soil, making it ready for crops such as wheat or corn that need rich and fertile soil. 归纳总结

making it...是现在分词作结果状语时,其逻 辑主语可以是句子的主语,也可以是整个句 子。 (1)现在分词作结果状语时一般只能单独使 用,也就是说,没有固定的句型结构,它通常 位于句末,其前有逗号隔开。有时为了突出 结果之意可在现在分词前加副词 thus,常译 为“因而,因此”。 现在分词作结果状语往往表 示正常出现的、自然而然的或意料之中的结 果。 (2)动词不定式单独作结果状语, 通常表示偶 然的、出乎意料的结果,有时为了强调这种 意外的结果, 可在不定式前加 only, 译为“(结 果)却……,只(只是……)”,在这种情况下, 不定式的逻辑主语也可能是全句的主语。 即学即用 (1)He hurried to the booking office only ____ that all the tickets had been sold out. A.to tell B.to be told C.telling D.told 解析 only to 表示意想不到的结果。 (2).Over the past decades, sea ice ____ in the

Arctic as a result of global warming.(浙江高 考) A.had decreased B.decreased C.has been decreasing D.is decreasing 解析 由句中的时间状语 over the past decades“在过去的几十年里”可知句子的谓 语动词应用现在完成时或现在完成进行时 态。 句 5.This also keeps the air,soil,water and crops free from chemicals. 这还可以让空气、土壤、水以及农作物不受 化学物质的污染。 Keep...free from 无……的;免于……;摆 脱……(常用作表语、后置定语或补语) 联想拓展 be free to do sth.自由地做,随意地做 Be free as air 自由自在 set sb.free 释放某人 get/give sth.for free 免费得到/赠送 free of charge 免费 a smoke-free room/area 无烟室/区

Free sb/sth from 使。。。自由 释放


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