一、句子成分 定义：构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。句子成分有主要成分和次要成分;主要成分有主语和谓语;次要 成分有表语、宾语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 (一) 主语：主语是一个句子所叙述的主体，一般位于句首。但在 there be 结构、疑问句(当主语不疑问词时)和倒 装句中，主语位于谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名
词、代词、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化 的形容词和主语从句等表示。例如： 1) During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular. 2) We often speak English in class. 3) One-third of the students in this class are girls. 4) To swim in the river is a great pleasure. 5) Smoking does harm to the health. 6) The rich should help the poor. 7) When we are going to have an English test has not been decided. 8) It is necessary to master a foreign language. (二) 谓语：谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语，一般放在主语之后。谓语的构 成如下： 1、简单谓语：由一个动词或动词短语构成。如：1) He practices running every morning. 2、复合谓语：(1)由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。如：1)You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. (2)由系动词加表语构成。如：1) We are students. (三) 表语：表语用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态，它一般位于系动词(如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等)之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数词、不定式、动名词、介词短语、副词及表语从句表 示。例如： 1) Our teacher of English is an American. 2) Is it yours? 3) The weather has turned cold. 4) The speech is exciting. 5) Three times seven is twenty one? 6) His job is to teach English. 7) His hobby is playing football. 8) The machine must be out of order. 9) Time is up. The class is over. 10) The truth is that he has never been abroad. (四) 宾语：宾语表示动作的对象或承爱者，一般位于及物动词和介词后面。例如： 1) They went to see an exhibition yesterday. 2) The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time. 3) How many dictionaries do you have? I have five. 4) They helped the old with their housework yesterday. 5) He pretended not to see me. 6) I enjoy listening to popular music. 7) I think (that)he is fit for his office. 宾语种类：(1)双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语)，例如：Lend me your dictionary, please. (2)复合宾语(宾语+宾补)，例如：They elected him their monitor. (五) 宾语补足语：英语中有些及物动词，除有一个直接宾语以外，还要有一个宾语补语，才能使句子的意义完 整。带有宾语补足语的一般句型为：某些及物动词(如 make 等+宾语+宾补)。宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、 不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。例如： 1) His father named him Dongming. 2) They painted their boat white. 3) Let the fresh air in. 4) You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you. 5) We saw her entering the room. 6) We found everything in the lab in good order. 7) We will soon make our city what your city is now. (六) 定语：修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。定语可由以下等成分表示：
1) America is a developed country. 2) There are thirty women teachers in our school. 3) His rapid progress in English made us surprised. 4) Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom. 5) He is reading an article about how to learn English. (七) 状语：修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子，说明动作或状态特征的句子成分，叫做状语。可由以下形式 表示： 1) Light travels most quickly. 2) He has lived in the city for ten years. 3) He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination. 4) He is in the room making a model plane. 状语种类如下： 1) How about meeting again at six? 2) Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain. 3) I shall go there if it doesn’t rain. 4) Mr Smith lives on the third floor. 5) She put the eggs into the basket with great care. 6) She came in with a dictionary in her hand. 7) In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder. 8) He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately. 9) She works very hard though she is old. 10) I am taller than he is. Exercise I 一、指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分： 1. The students got on the school bus. 3. I shall answer your question after class. 5. His job is to train swimmers. 7. There is going to be an American film tonight. 9. He found it important to master English. 11. He sat there, reading a newspaper. 13. He noticed a man enter the room. 2. He handed me the newspaper. 4. They went hunting together early in the morning. 6. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing. 8. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow. 10. Do you have anything else to say? 12. It is our duty to keep our classroom tidy. 14. The apples tasted sweet.
二、简单句、并列句和复合句 (一) 句子种类两种分类法 1、按句子的用途可分四种： 1) 陈述句 (肯定、否定)：He is six years old. She didn’t hear of you before. 2) 疑问句 (一般、特殊、选择、反意)： (1) Do they like skating? (2) How old is he? (3) Is he six or seven years old? (4) Mary can swim, can’t she? 3) 祈使句： 1) Be careful, boys; 2) Don’t talk in class 4) 感叹句： 1) How clever the boy is! 2) What a clever boy he is! 2、按句子的结构可分三种： 1) 简单句：只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)。 1) He often reads English in the morning. 2) Tom and Mike are American boys. 3) She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers. 2) 并列句：由并列连词 (and, but, or 等)或分号(;)把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起构成。 1) You help him and he helps you. 2) The future is bright; the road is tortuous. 3) 复合句：含有一个或一个以上从句的句子。 复合句包含：名词性从句 (主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)、定语从句和状语从句等。 ) The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall.
(二) 简单句的五种基本句型 1、主语+系动词+表语： He is a student. 2、主语+不及物动词： We work. 3、主语+及物动词+宾语： Henry bought a dictionary. 4、主语+及物动词+双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语)： My father bought me a car. 5、主语+及物动词+复合宾语(宾语+宾补)： Tom made the baby laugh. 注：其他各种句子都可由这一种基本句型扩展、变化或省略而构成。 (三) 并列句的分类 1、表示连接两个同等概念，常用 and, not only...but also..., neither...nor..., then 等连接。The teacher’s name is Smith, and the student’s name is John. 2、表示选择，常用的连词有 or, either...or..., otherwise 等。Hurry up, or you’ll miss the train. 3、表示转折，常用的连词有 but, still, however, yet, while, when 等。He was a little man with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his classes lively and interesting. 4、 表示因果关系，常用的连词有 so, for, therefore 等。 August is the time of the year for rive harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark.
Exercise II (一). 指出下列句中主语的中心词（4 分， 4 分钟） ① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult. (二) 选出句中谓语的中心词（10 分， 10 分钟） ① I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall ② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. A. get B. longer C. days D. summer ③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C.go D. bus ④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon ⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? A.Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast ⑥ Tom didn't do his homework yesterday. A. Tom B. didn't C. do D. his homework ⑦ What I want to tell you is this. A. want B. to tell C. you D. is ⑧ We had better send for a doctor. A. We B. had C. send D. doctor ⑨ He is interested in music. A. is B. interested C. in D. music ⑩ Whom did you give my book to? A. give B.did C. whom D. book (三) 挑出下列句中的宾语（10 分，10 分钟） ① My brother hasn't done his homework. ② People all over the world speak English.
③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. ④ How many new words did you learn last class? ⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? ⑥ The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. ⑦ They made him monitor of the class. ⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left. ⑨ You will find it useful after you leave school. ⑩ They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really is. (四) 挑出下列句中的表语（5 分， 5 分钟） ① The old man was feeling very tired. ② Why is he worried about Jim? ③ The leaves have turned yellow. ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject. ⑤ She was the first to learn about it. (五) 挑出下列句中的定语（6 分，6 分钟） ① They use Mr, Mrs with the family name. ② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep. ⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe! (六) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语（6 分， 6 分钟） ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ③ She found it difficult to do the work. ④ They call me Lily sometimes. ⑤ I saw Mr Wang get on the bus. ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now? (七) 挑出下列句中的状语（8 分， 8 分钟） ① There was a big smile on her face. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books. ⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it. ⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine. (八) 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语（5 分， 5 分钟） ① Please tell us a story. ② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③ Mr Li is going to teach us history next term. ④ Here is a pen.Give it to Tom. ⑤ Did he leave any message for me?
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