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高中英语必修三语法点


高中英语必修三 考点一 情态动词( unit 1 ,unit 2)
一、情态动词的特点: 1.没有人称和数的变化。 2. 有些情态动词有过去式的变化: e.g. will → would , can → could , may→ might , dare → dared 二、情态动词的否定式: 情态动词+ not +动词原形 can not: can't , m

ust not: mustn't , need not : needn't 三、情态动词的用法及相互区别, 是考试的内容之一 1. can , be able to be able to 表示经过努力后, 能够做到; be able to 有多种形式的变 化。 can 1). 表示体力或脑力方面的能力; 2). 表示允许、可能性。 could 是 can 的过去式, 表示过去有能力及过去存在的可能性 ; 用于疑问句表示委婉地 提出问题。 1) The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone ____ get out. (NMET 97 ) A. had to B. would C. could D. was able to 2) -Will you stay for lunch? -Sorry, __. My brother is coming to see me. (NMET99) A. I mustn't B. I can't C. I needn't D. I won't 2.may 表示询问或说明一件事可不可做; 表示某事有可能发生。might 是 may 的过去 式; 用在疑问中比 may 委婉、客气。 1) -May I take this book out of the reading-room? -No, you mustn't. ( Yes, you may.) 2) -Might I make a suggestion? -Yes, you may. 3. must 1). 表示必须要做的事: 必须 2) 表示很有把握的推断: 一定, 准是。have (has)to : have (has)got to 必须, 不得不。 过去式: had to 3) -Must I get to the station before three o'clock? -Yes, you must. ( No, you needn't. ) 4) I'm afraid you will have to wait a while. 5) She must be in the classroom now. 6) Mary ____ be in Paris, I saw her in town only a few minutes ago. (NMET 94) A. mustn't B. shouldn't C. can't D. may not 4. shall 1) 在疑问句中, 用于第一、三人称表示说话人征求对方的意见或向对方请求。 2) 用于二、三人称,表示说话人给对方的 命令、警告、允诺等概念。 1) - Shall I place an order with you now? -No, you needn’t. -Shall he turn down the radio a bit? Yes, please.(No, please don't.)

2) You shall have the English book as soon as I finish it. 3) Everything that he owns shall be taken away from him. 4) Your brother seldom comes to see you, ____? A. does he B. doesn't he C. will he D. isn't he 5) It's a fine day. Let's go fishing, ____? A. won't we B. will we C. don't we D. shall we 5. should 应该 ; 应当 1) You should listen to the doctor's advice. 2) You should study the article carefully. 6. will, would 1) 在疑问句中用于第二人称,表示说话人向对方提出请求或询问。用 would 语气更加婉 转。 2) will 表示现在的习惯性动作或状态; would 表示过去的习惯性动作或状态。 3) will 用于各种人称, 表示 意志、意愿、决心、允诺; would 表示过去时间的 意志、 意愿、......。 (1) Don't smoke in the meeting room, ___ you? A. do youB. will you C. can you D. could you -Will you come with me? -Yes, I will.(I am sorry , I can't.) (2) -Would you tell us something about yourself? -Yes, I will. (3) - It's my birthday tomorrow. Don't forget to come to my party. - _____ . A. I don't B. I won't C. I can't D. I haven' 7. ought to 应该; 应当 1) You oughtn't to smoke too much. 2) She ____ for what she has done. A. ought to praise B. ought be praised C. ought to have praised D. ought to be praise 8. dare 1. dare to come 2. dare come 1) He dare not tell the truth. 2) He doesn't dare to come out at night. 3) I don't know whether he ____ try. A. dare B. needs C. wants D. is allowed 9. need 1). 作为情态动词:必须 2). 作为实义动词: 需要 A.主语是人 need( to do something ; to be done by somebody) B. 主语是事物 need ( doing; to be done) 1) -Do they need to take any books with them? -No, they don't need to. 2) -Need we buy any new equipment? -No, we needn't. 3) This farm tool needs repairing. This farm tool needs to be repaired. 4) -Shall I tell John about it ?

- No, you ___ . I've told him already. A. needn't B. wouldn't C. mustn't D. shouldn't 5) It's a fine day. You ____ take a raincoat with you. A. can't B. mustn't C. needn't D. may not 情态动词 + 不定式的完成式是高考的考试要点 1、must have done,“一定做过/一定已经. . .”,表示对过去情况极大把握地推测,仅用于肯 定句 2、may/might have done 也许做过某事(推测) ;本来可以做某事却没做 3、can't have done 为否定句或疑问句,对过去的推测“不可能,一定没做过某事” could have done 本来可以做某事却没做 4. needn’t have done 表示”不必要做某事,但做了”,而 needn’t do 则表示”不必做(也没做)” 5.、ought to /should have done 表示”本来应当做的却没做” oughtn’t / shouldn’t have done 本来不应该做某事却做了 6、would/could/might/should + have done 用来表示与过去事实相反的虚拟语气 7、would rather have done 表示”当时宁愿做了某事”,否定形式:would rather not have done e.g. If I had been free that day, I would have gone with you. 8、would like/love to have done 表示” 本想做某事” 而实际上未做。

考点二 名词性从句( unit 3, unit 4 ) 高考高频考点 主语从句 宾语从句 表语从句 同位语从句 that, whether what, who, whom, whose, which, wh+ever

名词性从句

考点 1 主语从句 从属连词 (不作成分) 连接代词 (作成分)

连接副词 when, where, how, why (作状语) 1.连接词 that,whether 引导 ①That the college wiU take in more new students this year is true.今年这所大 学将招收更多新生是真的。 ②Whether he can finish his task on time is of great importance.他是否能按时 完成任务非常重要。 特别提示 (1)if 不能引导主语从句。 (2)形式主语 it 替代主语从句。常见的 it 替代主语从句的句式主要有以下几 种: A.It+系动词+形容词+that 从句。如:

It is quite clear that the whole project is doomed to failure. 注: 在句型 “It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... ” 中, that 后面的从 句中的谓语动词用: should + 动词原形 It’s necessary that we should have a walk now. B.It+系动词+名词+that 从句。如: It is our hope that the two sides will work towards peace.我们的希望是双方能 朝着和平的方向发展。 注: 在 It is demanded/suggested/ordered/required….that-clause 句型中从句用 (should )+动词原型 It is demanded that we should work out a plan. C.It+be+v.ed 形式+that 从句。如: It is announced that the plan has been successfully carried out.据宣布计划已经 顺利实施。 注: 在 It is a pity/a shame/ no wonder that…..句型中从句也常用(should )+动词原 型 It’s a pity that you (should) miss a good chance 2.连接代词引导 ①What we can’t get seems better than what we already have.我们得不到的东 西似乎比我们拥有的东西好。 ②who the letter was from is still unknown.这封信是谁寄出的还不清楚。 ③Whichever of you gets here first will get the prize. 你们当中第一个到达这里 的人将获得奖项。 3.连接副词引导 ①How acupuncture reduces and relieves pain is unclear.针灸是如何减轻和解 除疼痛的还不清楚。 ②why dinosaurs suddenly disappeared still remains a mystery. 恐龙为什么突然 消失了还是个谜。 考点 2 宾语从句 从属连词 that, whether, if (不作成分) 连接代词 what, who, whom, whose, which, (作成分) wh+ever 连接副词 when, where, how, why (作状语) 1.连接词 that,whether,if 引导 ①I think(that)you should turn to the teacher for help. 我认为你应该向老师寻求 帮助。 ②I don’t know if/whether he still lives here after so many years.我不知道这么 多年后他是否还住在这儿。 特别提示 whether/if 都意为“是否”。一般情况下,它们可以互换,口语中常用 if,但以 下情况中,只能用 whether。 (1)与 or not 紧接连用时。如:

Let me knoW whether or not you can come.请让我知道你是否能来。 (2)作介词的宾语从句时。如: We are interested in whether you will attend the meeting.我们对你是否参加会 议感兴趣。 2.连接代词和连接副词引导 连接代词有 what,who,whose,whatever,whichever,whoever 等,连接副 词有 when,where,why,how 等。如: ①She asked me whose handwriting was the best in the class.她问我班上谁的 书法最好。 ②I’11 just say whatever comes into my mind.我想到什么就说什么。 ③Do you know when the ancient Olympic Games began?你知道古代的奥运会 是什么时间开始的吗? ④I’ve been thinking about how we can make the newspaper more interesting. 我 一直在考虑如何使我们的报纸更用趣。 3.宾语从句的语序 在宾语从句中要用陈述句语序。如: ①He asked me when we could set out the next day.他问我第二天什么时候可 以出发。 ②Did you find out where she lost her car?你查出她在哪里丢的车了吗? 4.宾语从句的时态 (1)当主句的谓语动词是一般现在时时,其宾语从句的时态可以是任何适当 的时态。如: ①She says(that)she works from Monday to Friday.她说她周一至周五上班。 (从句是一般现在时) ②she says(that)she will leave a message on his desk. 她说她要在他桌子上留个 便条。(从句是一般将来时) ③She says(that)she has never been to Mount Emei.她说她从来没有去过峨眉 山。(从句是现在完成时) (2)当主句的谓语动词是一般过去式时,其宾语从句的时态一般要用适当的 过去时态。如: ①He said there were no classes yesterday afternoon. 他说昨天下午没有课。 (从 句是一般过去时) ②He said that he was going to take care of the baby.他说他会去照看这个婴 儿。(从句是过去将来时) ③He said that they were having a meeting at that time.他说他们那时正在开 会。(从句是过去进行时) (3)当宾语从句是表达客观真理和规律的句子时,其时态仍旧用一般现在时。 如: ①The teacher told us that nothing is difficult if we put our hearts into it.老师告 诉我们世上无难事,只怕有心人。 ②He said that light travels much faster than sound.他说光比声音传播得快。 特别提示 在使用宾语从句时需要注意下面几点: (1)动词 find,feel,think,consider,make,believe,guess,suppose,assume

等后有宾语补足语时,则需要用 it 作形式宾语,而将 that 宾语从句后置。如: ①I think it necessary that we take plenty of boiled water every day. 我认为每天 多喝开水是有必要的。 ②I have made it a rule that I keep diaries.我每天写日记成了惯例。 (2)hate,like,take,owe,have,take for granted 等表示“喜欢;痛恨;认为” 的动词或动词短语和 see to 表示“注意,留意”后有宾语补足语时,需要用 it 作形 式宾语而将宾语从句后置。如: ①I hate it when they talk with their mouth full of food. 我讨厌他们满嘴食物说 话。 ②When you start the engine,you must see to it that the car is in neutral.启动 发动机时,一定要使汽车的离合器处于空档位置。 (3)介词后的宾语从句。如: ①She is always thinking of how she can do more for others. 她总想着如何才能 为别人做得更多。 ②We are talking about whether we admit students into our club.我们正在讨论 是否让学生加入我们的俱乐部。 (4)宾语从句的否定转移。将 think,believe,suppose,expect,fancy,imagine 等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从 句的谓语动词用肯定式。如: ①I don’t think I know you.我想我并不认识你。 ②I don’t believe he will come.我相信他不回来。 (5) 在于表示命令、建议、要求等一类词后面的宾语从句谓语用 should +动 词原形(insist, order, command, suggest, advise, propose, require, request, demand, desire ) We suggested that the meeting (should) be put off. 考点 3、表语从句 从属连词 that, whether, as if, as thought (不作成分) 连接代词 what, who, whom, whose, which, wh+ever (作成分) 连接副词 when, where, how, why.because (作状语) 1.连接词引导 ①The reason for his absence is that he hasn’t been informed.他缺席的原因就 是他没接到通知。 ②The question remains whether they will be able to help us. 问题还是他们能否 帮我们。 2.连接代词和连接副词引导 ①The problem is who will take charge of this shop. 问题是谁将接管这家店铺。 ②That is when I realized the importance of journalism. 那时我才意识到新闻工 作的重要性。 特别提示 (1)as/as if/as though 引导的表语从句常跟在特定动词后面, 如 seem,appear,look,taste,sound,feel 等。常用虚拟形式,即表示与现

在事实相反,用过去式;与过去事实相反用过去完成式 (had done).如: ①It sounds as if someone was knocking at the door.听上去好像有人在敲门。 ②He speaks/ spoke as if he had known about it (2)当主句的主语是 reason 时,表语从句一般由 that 引导,这种用法常见于 句型 The reason why…is that…。 如: The reason why he came late was that he got up late.他来得晚是因为起床晚了。 考点 4 同位语从句 同位语从句在句子中作某一名词的同位语,一般位于该名词之后,说明该名 词的具体内容。 这些名词常见的有 idea, fact, news, hope, belief, thought, doubt, promise,suggestion,order 等。 1.通常用连词 that 引导同位语从句,that 无词义,也不作句子成分,但不 能省略。注意从句用陈述句语序。如: ①They expressed the hope that we would go and visit Shanghai again.他们表 示希望我们再去访问上海。 ②I have no idea that she quit her present job.我不知道她辞掉了现在的工作。 ③Give me your promise that you will come to our party this evening.答应我, 你今天晚上会来参加我们的聚会。 2.同位语从句还可以用 whether,when,where,why,how 等引导。如: ①The student asked me the question whether the book Was worth reading.学生 问了我这个问题:这本书是否值得一读。 ②I have no idea why he was excited at that time. 我不知道当时他激动的原因。 1. 在 suggestion / proposal / order / plan / advice / idea / request 等名词后的表语 和同位语从句中要用“should+动词原形”should 可以省略. My idea is that we (should ) think it over before accepting it. 考点 5 名词性从句需要注意的事项 1.that 的用法。在主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中 that 一般不能够省 略;在宾语从句中有时可以省略,一般需要注意下面两点: (1)当 that 从句作介词宾语时,that 不能省略。如:They share little in common except that they are from the same country. 除了来自同一个国家之外, 他们几乎没 有共同点。 (2)当主句谓语动词后接两个或两个以上的宾语从句时,可以省略第一个 that,其他的不省略。如: I believe(that)you’ve done your best and that things will improve. 我相信你已经 尽力了,而且情况也会得到改善。 2.that 与 what 的区别。that 在从句中不能够充当句子成分,也没有含义; what 可以在从句中作主语、表语、宾语或定语,意思是”什么,……的事情”。如: ①The hope that he may recover is not gone yet.他会康复的希望没有消失。 (that 不充当成分,也无含义) ②What he said proved to be true.他所说的话证明是正确的。(what 作 said 的 宾语,可以翻译为“……的话”) 3.定语从句与同位语从句的区别。定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限 制;而同位语从句是对从句前面的抽象名词作进一步的说明和解释。如: ①The news that our team has won the game was true.我们队赢了那场比赛的 消息是真的。(同位语从句,补充说明 news 到底是一个什么消息)

②The news that he told me yesterday was true.昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真 的。(定语从句,news 在从句中作 told 的宾语) ③I made a promise that if anyone set me free 1 would make him very rich. 我许 诺如果谁让我自由,我就让他非常富有。 (同位语从句,补充说明 promise 的内容) ④The mother made a promise that pleased all her children.妈妈许下了一个令 她的孩子们高兴的诺言。(定语从句,promise 在从句中作 pleased 的主语)


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