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宾语从句,表语从句解析


Noun / Pronoun / The + adj V-ing / Clause / Infinitive Vi
noun 谓 宾语(直) 宾语(间) adj. / adv. Vt 语 宾语 宾补 infinitive V-ing 表语 V-l V-ed noun etc. Noun / Pronoun pronoun The + adj adj. / adv. b

e / feel / seem / look V-ing / Clause infinitive appear / Infinitive V-ing / V-ed become /get / grow / turn clause go / come / remain/ keep etc. taste / smell etc.

宾语

主 语

简单句的基本词序
主语 动词部分 (谓语) 宾语 状语 方式 地点 时间

I

bought

a hat
home.

yesterday.

The children ran

We
The car

ate
stopped

our meal

in silence.
suddenly.

简单句基本句型实例
主语 + 不及物动词 She came./ My head aches. 主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语 She likes English. 主语 + 系动词 + 主语补语(表语) She is happy. 主语 + 双宾动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语 She gave John a book. She bought a book for me. 主语 + 宾补动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补语 She makes her mother angry. The teacher asked me to read the passage. There +be There is a book on the desk.

Point out the function of each noun in the following sentences: subject subject subject

1.The world loves nature.

object

2.Knowledge is power .
predicative

predicative

3.We Chinese are peaceloving.

名词性从句
? 名词性从句在功能上相当于名词 主语

{What he does is important {
This is his job.

His job is important.

.

表语

This is what he does every day.

I don’t like his job. 宾语 I don’t like what he does every day.

{

同位语

{ She give me a suggestion that I should
get up early his job.

She give me a suggestion.

什么叫名词性从句?
? 在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从句 (Noun Clauses) ? 名词从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在 复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同 位语等

? 因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名 词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从 句、表语从句和同位语从句

主语从句
subject clause

宾语从句

名词性从句 noun clause

object clause

表语从句
predicative clause

同位语从句
appositive clause

Object Clauses
宾语从句

M3U3 Grammar

(简单句)

1. I
主语

know him .
谓语 宾语

(复合句)

2. I
主语 主

know who
谓语 句

he

is .

连词 从句主语 从句谓语 宾语从句

什么是宾语?
? ? ? ? ? I know him. Do you have the time? I think (that) she is beautiful. Why don’t you pay attention to me? We are excited that we win the tug of war.

宾语
位于谓语动词或者介词后,也可位 于表示情感的形容词之后

一、宾语从句的概念

从句在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句, 通常放在主句谓语动词(及物动词)或介词之后。

E.g. We know Mr Green teaches English. She asked if these answers were right.

二、宾语从句三要素
引导词(连接词) 语 序 时 态

如何区分宾语从句?
? They 主语 ? They 主语 know the teacher. 谓语 宾语 know the teacher is very kind . 谓语 宾语从句

▲句子做宾语就是宾语从句。

宾语从句变否定句。 如果主句的主语是第一人称I或we 时,并且 谓语动词多为think、guess、believe、consider、 imagine、expect等表示心理活动的词时,变否 定句要否定转移,即否定主句。否则,变否定 句看从句。 I think chicken can swim (变否定句) I don’t think chicken can swim He said that he would go shopping(变否 定句) He said that he would not go shopping

找出下列句中的宾语从句 1. We wonder how we shall do . 2. Could you tell me where they are? 3. We believe that they have finished their task, haven’t we ? 4. I am sorry that I didn’t know you want to join the Party.

引导词

句子类型

that
If/weather
特殊疑问词

陈述句 一般疑问句
特殊疑问句

(一)引导词
1 2

由从属连词 that 引导的宾语从句 由从属连词 whether, if 引导的宾语从句 由连接代词 Who, whom, whose, which, what 和连接副词 where,how,why,when 引导的宾语从句

3

由从属连词 that 引导的宾语从句
注:that 在句中无词汇意义,在从句中 不能充当成分,在口语当中往往省略 e.g. 1.He doesn’t doubt (that) he will be back in an hour _______________________. he missed us very much 2.He said (that) ______________________.

the earth moves 3.The teacher told us (that) _______________ around the sun ________________.

that——不能省略的2种情况
(1)当that作介词except, in 宾语时
?They believe in that she must still be single. ?I know nothing about him except that he is living in Beijing.

(2)用it做形式宾语的宾语从句时
( it常可以放在动词think, find, consider, believe, feel, make等
后作为形式宾语,而真正的宾语——that从句则放在句尾) ? I think it necessary that you should read English aloud. ? We heard it that she would get married next month.

由从属连词 whether, if 引导的宾语从句

if/ whether “是否”,说明对陈述的事物不明确或不清 楚。常用在ask, wonder, can (could) you tell me 等后。

if (whether) he will go to I want to know _______________________ the park with us _______________. whether (if) he can come . 2. Ask him _________________________

whether it is going to rain or not 3. I wonder ____________________________.
4. Could you tell me________________________? whether(if) Mr Li lives here

只能用 whether不能用 if 的情况
1. 在介词后面: ? I’m thinking of whether we should go fishing. ? We are worried about whether it will rain tomorrow. 2. 在动词不定式前(whether to do sth.) : ? They asked me whether to go skating.

3.当与or not连用,或提出两种选择时: ? I don’t know whether he’s free or not. ? Mary asked whether I was doing my homework or not. ? Tell me whether you’d like to go shopping or tidy the room. 4. 宾语从句提前时: ? Whether this is true or not, I can’t say.

Practice time
if / whether if / whether 1. I asked her __________ she had a bike. whether 2. We’re worried about ________ he is safe. whether /if he is well. 3. I wonder ___________
4. I don’t know whether ________ or not he is well.

5. I don’t knowwhether _______ to go.

由连接代词 Who, whom, whose, which, what 和连接副词 where, how, why, when引导的宾从 代词或副词连接主句和从句,并在从句中担任 句子成分,具有一定的意义,不可省略。 who could answer the question 1. He asked _____________________________. whom they are waiting for 2. Do you know_________________________? 3. He asked_______________________________. whose bike was the best in the class 4. Do you know _________________________? when we’ll have a meeting 5. Please tell me _____________. where he is how I can get to the station 6. Can you tell me ________________________? why the train is late 7. Could you tell me ______________________?

二、语序 宾语从句的语序用陈述语序:

连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分

1. When will he go to the library? library .

主句+连接词+从句(主+谓+其他成分)

His brother asks when he will go to the His brother asks when will he go to the

library .
2. What did he want to buy ? I don’t know what did he want to buy . I don’t know what he wanted to buy .

注:当从句的原句为以下句子 以及what, who作主语时,语序不变: What’s wrong? What’s the matter? What’s happening? What happened?
e.g. I don’t know what’s the matter.
做主语

Can you tell me who is over there? Can you tell me who he is ?
做宾语

否定的转移
若主句谓语动词为think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, guess, imagine等, 其后的宾语从句若含有否定意义,一般要把否定词转 移到主句谓语上,从句谓语用肯定式。 I don’t think this dress fits you well.
我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。

I don’t think you are right.
我认为你是错的。 我认为你今天无法完成工作。 I don’t believe you will finish the work today.

注意: ① 这种否定前移的宾语从句,在变成反意疑问 句时,反意疑问句的主谓语要与从句一致。

I don't think (that) he is interested in that thing, is he? 我认为他对那件事不感兴趣,对吗?

② 如果主句的主语是第二和第三人称时,它后 面接的宾语从句的否定词通常不前移,它的反 意疑问句的主谓语应该与主句一致,即如果主 句是肯定,反意疑问部分就用否定;如果主句 是否定,那么反意疑问部分就用肯定。
She thought that film was not interesting, didn't she? 她认为那部电影不好看,是吗? You think you can‘t get up, don’t you? 你认为 你起不来,是吗?

三、时态
1. 主句用现在时或将来时,从句可用任何时态, 根据实际情况而定。 ?I know he lives here . ?I know he lived here ten years ago .

?I have heard that he will come tomorrow .

2.如果主句是过去的时态(一般过去时,过去进行时), 从句的时态一定要用相对应的过去的某种时态

(一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时)
?I knew who lived here.

?I saw she was talking with her mother.
?He asked whether his father would come back tomorrow.

?He said that he had seen it .

3. 从句说明的是一般真理、客观事实、自然现象时, 仍用一般现在时。 ? Dad told us that it is better to do than to say. ? He told the boy that three and three is six. ? He told me the earth moves around the sun.
4. 从句中有具体时间状语,即使从句动作发生 在主句动作前,仍用一般过去时。 ? The teacher told me she was born in 1960. ? I heard that he went to Paris last night.

主句时态 从句时态 一般现在时、一般将来 根据句意的需要用任 时、祈使句时 意一种时态 一般过去时 与原句相对应的过去 的时态

客观事实、真理、自然 一律用一般现在时 现象、名言警句、谚语 等

will be cloudy tomorrow. 1. The radio says it _______ (be) goes 2. The headmaster hopes everything ______ well. (go) have returned 3. I hear they __________ (return) it already. had been members of the 4. He said that they _________ Party since 1948. (be) rises 5. Our teacher told us in class the sun _______ in the east. (rise)

Summary (小结)

宾语从句 三要素

引导词(连接词) 语 序 时 态

注意:

宾语从句常用于直接引语转为间接引转变的 时候注意时态和人称的变化

What did your father say?

My father said I was a clever girl.

You are a clever girl.

What did he say?

“I am in space.” He said he was in space.

有些动词如enjoy, love, hate, like, appreciate, take, hide, see to, insist on, depend on, rely on等带宾语从句 时,习惯上在从句前加形式宾语it.
? I hate it when people ask me for money. ? I will appreciate it if you can give me some money.

Practice
1. The young man asked _____ D it's summer or winter. A. either B. that C. weather D. whether

A they did it . 2. We don't know ______ A. how B. who C. what D. which B Jim can come back on 3. The teacher asks us ____ time . A. that B. if C. when D. what time
C we will have a sports 4. Does anybody know ______ meeting this weekend or not . A. if B. where C. whether D. that

D ? 5. Could you show me ________ A. how can I get to the station B. where is the station C. how I could get to the station D. how I can reach the station 6. Please tell me _______. C A. what does he like B. what he does like C. what he likes D. what he like 7. My sister told him ________ B . A. what day was it B. when the train arrived C. who she was waiting D. where did you live

8. Someone is ringing the doorbell . Go and see _______ D .
A. who is he C. who is it B. who he is D. who it is

9. Could you tell me how long __________ ? B
A. you have bought the watch B. you have kept this science book C. have you been away from China D. have you been a member of Greener China

10. He says that if it _______ C tomorrow , he _______ fishing .
A. will rain , won't go C. rains , won't go B. rained , wasn't go D. rain , will go

? The little girl who got lost decided to remain ___ she was and wait for her mother. A. where B. what C. how D. who
? Will you see to ___ that the door is closed before you leave. A. what B. it C. when D.that

将下列句子合并为一句: 1. Where do they stop on the way? I asked. I asked where they stopped on the way. 2. What will you speak at the meeting? Could you tell me? Could you tell me what you will speak at the meeting? 3. Do they like to go skiing? He asked. He asked if they liked to go skiing. 4. He is doing his homework. He said. He said that he was doing his homework. 5. He will come back. Tom said. Tom said that he would come back.

6. Is she doing her homework? Jim asked. Jim asked if she was doing her homework. 7. When will he come back? Tom asked. Tom asked when he would come back. 8.How can I get to the station? Could you tell me? Could you tell me how I can get to the station? 9.Why is the train late? Would you tell me? Would you tell me why the train is late? 10. Where is Tom? They asked. They asked where Tom was.

Predicative Clauses 表语从句

表语从句是在复合句中作表语的名词性 从句, 放在系动词之后,一般结构是 “主语+系动词+表语从句”。可以 接表语从句的系动词有be, look, remain, seem等。另外,常用的还有 the reason why … is that … 和It is because …等结构。例如:

一、表语从句三要素
引导词(连接词) 语 序 时 态

如何区分表语从句?
? He is a student. 主语 谓语 表语 ? The reason is that he is a student. 主语 谓语 表语从句 ▲句子做表语就是表语从句。

. 表语从句:从句在句中充当表语成分,一般放 在连系动词之后. 作用:对主语进行解释说明。
连接词:that / whether /as if /as though( if 不

引导

表语从句) 连接代词:who / whom / whose / which / what 连接副词:when / where / why / how / because
The question is whether we can rely on him. That’s because we were in need of money at that time . He looked as if he was going to cry . That’s why I was late .

肯定句: That is why I was late.
否定句: That isn’t why I was late.

一般疑问句:Is that why you were late?

(一)引导词
1 2

由从属连词 that 引导的表语从句 由从属连词 whether引导的表语从句 由连接代词 Who, whom, whose, which, what 和连接副词 where,how,why,when 引导的表语从句

3

由从属连词 whether, as if 引导的表语从句
whether “是否”,说明对陈述的事物不明确或不清楚。

it is worth doing. 1. The question is whether _______________________ whether it is right or wrong . 2. I wonder _________________________ as if 表似乎,猜测 it was going to rain It looked as if____________________

表示好像,犹如 ? ? The little boy talks as if he were an adult.

as if / as though 引导的表语从句常置 于系动词look , seem , sound , become 等后面,可用虚拟语气,也可用陈述语 气。

由从属连词 that 引导的表语从句
注:that 在从句中不能省略 e.g. 1.What I want to say is that I’m sorry. ?The point is that you should read English aloud.

由连接代词 Who, whom, whose, which, what 和连接副词 where, how, why, when引导的宾从 代词或副词连接主句和从句,并在从句中担任 句子成分,具有一定的意义,不可省略。 what he is worried about 1. That is _________________________. why they made a bet 2. That was ____________________. how they can get food 3. The problem is_____________________. 4. His trouble is ______________________. where he can find his book

注 意:
1.在表语从句中,表“是否” 时,只能用 “whether”不能用“If”。
2.一般情况下,“that”不能省。 3. It is /was because …. It is /was why….

3. The reason (why…/for…)is /was that….
4 The reason is because that …. /why…

注意

表语从句的引导词与宾语从句相同. 但: 1. that引导表语从句时不能省. 2. if不能引导表语从句.

关联词比较

whether / if
1.Please tell me whether / if you will go to the lecture tomorrow. 2. It all depends on whether the sky will clear up. 3. The question is whetherthe film is well worth seeing. 4. whether He will be well tomorrow I am not sure. 5. whether it is true remains a problem.

二、语序 宾语从句的语序用陈述语序:

连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分

1. When will he go to the library? library .

主句+连接词+从句(主+谓+其他成分)

The question is when he will go to the The question is when will he go to the

library .
2. That is what he is worried about . That is what is he worried about.

三、时态
1.主句用现在时或将来时,从句可用任何时态, 根据实际情况而定。 ?It is where he lives . ?It is where he lived 10 years ago.

2.如果主句是过去的时态(一般过去时,过去进行时), 从句的时态一定要用相对应的过去的某种时态

(一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时)
?Her wish was that she could lose weight soon.

?It looked as if it was going to rain.
?The question was whether his father would come back

?tomorrow.
?The reason why he was late was that the train had already left.

名词主语+be+that引起的表语从句 在这种句型中,常用表示事实,真理的名词, 如:fact, truth 或表示看法,观点的名词,如: idea,opinion,belief,view,feeling等作主语。
如:

1.The fact is that our team has won the game. 2.The truth is that she was the very person who informed against her husband.

主语是表示建议、命令、要求、计划 (suggestion, advice, order, request, proposal, plan)等的名词的时候,表语 从句应该用虚拟语气,谓语动词用 should+动词原形,should可以省略。
? The suggestion is that you (should) win back.

名词从句 who whoever

what whatever

让步状语从 句 / 表 “谁” 表”….” 的任 表” 不论谁” 何人 / 表”什么” “所….的东西” 表”…..的任 “无论什么” 何东西”

? who / whoever

1.The competition is coming. who will attend the meeting hasn’t been decided yet. 2. I believe whoever takes part in the competition will try his best. what / whatever 3. Can you tell me what you ‘d like to order? 4. whatever happens, don’t be surprised. 5.All the food here is delicious. Just order whatever you like.

1. That’s ___ the Party called on us to do. A. why B. what C. how D. that

2. The reason is ___ he is unable to operate the machine.
A. because B. why C. that D. Whether

3 .That is ___ they were separated. A. that B. what C. which D. where

4.Jane is no longer ___ she was four years ago. A. what B. which C. that D. when

5. Go and get your coat. It’s ___ you left it.
A. there B. where C. there were D. where there

6. The problem is ___ he has enough time.

A. if B. whether C. / D. that
7 . Tom is no longer ___ he used to be.

A. that B. what C. which D. where 8. That’s ___ I can’t agree with you. A. what B. which C. that D. where

9. This is ___ Sara was late for the meeting. A. why B. what C. how D. that
10.This is ___ they overcome the difficulties. A. because B. how C. why D. That

11 . It sounds ___ somebody was knocking at

the door. A. that B. whether C. as if D. where

12. My strongest memory is ___ I attended an American wedding. A. how B. what C. when D. as if
13 --Are you still thinking about yesterday’s game?

-- oh, that’s ___

A. what makes me excited
B. whatever I feel excited

C. how I feel about it
D. when I feel excited

14. --I was ill in bed last week. --Is that ___ you had a few days off? A. why B. what C. how D. that


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