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最好的非谓语动词导学案附答案


非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

编制:许兴波

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非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs)
非谓语动词是高考的重点和热点,也是我们英语学习中

所碰到的难点之一。非谓语动词分为三种 形式:不定式(to do),V-ing 分词(又分为现在分词和动名词)和 V-ed 过去分词。

I.不定式(The Infinitive)
定义:动词不定式是非谓语动词的一种,它没有人称和数的变化,在句子中不能独立作谓语,但 它仍保持动词的特点,既可以有时态和语态的变化又有自己的宾语和状语。 一、不定式的构成 (以动词 do 为例) 主动形式 被动形式 一般式 完成式 进行式 完成进 行式 动词不定式的否定形式是由 not 或 never 加不定式构成。 Try _________________________________. 尽量下次不要再迟到。 He _________________________. 他希望我们永远不要再见到她。 二、动词不定式的用法: 动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征。因此在句中可以做主语、表语、宾语、宾语补足语、 定语和状语。 (一)不定式做主语:不定式做主语一般表示具体的某次动作。 e.g: To finish the building in a month is difficult. To lose heart means failure. 完成句子:To see is ________________. 眼见为实。 To wait is better than _____________. 等待比离开好。 注: 1) 不定式作主语时,谓语用________数 2) 当主语较长,谓语较短时,常用 it 做形式主语,而将不定式放到谓语的后面。it 做形式主语, 不定式放在谓语动词之后常用于下列结构中: (1) It is/was +adj.+of sb. to do… It‘s good/kind/nice/bad/clever/wise//silly/stupid/foolish/ honest (2) It is/was +adj.+for sb.+to do… It is easy / difficult / hard / probable/possible / right / wrong / unnecessary/important (3) It is +a +名词+(for) to do... ? It is a pity / a pleasure / a pleasant thing / one‘s duty / an honor / a shame / a crime / no easy job… to do (4) It takes (sb.) some time / courage / patience …to do… ? It requires courage / patience / hard work… to do…
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to do 无 无

完成句子: It‘s kind__________________________。你帮我是好的 It‘s silly ______________________________________________. 学生考试作弊是愚蠢的 It‘s an honor____________________________________________. 参加这样重要的会议我们对我们是一件荣誉的事。 It is important____________________________________. 对我们来说学好英语是非常重要的。 It‘s good manners__________________. 排队等候是很有礼貌的。 It made us very angry _____________________________________ 听到他那样跟他妈妈说话我们很生气。 It is very hard___________________________________________. 十分钟完成这件工作是难的。 It takes us two hours______________________________________. 从这乘飞机到巴黎用我们两个小时的时间。 (二)不定式做表语 eg My idea is to climb the mountain from the north. Your mistake was not to write that letter. 完成句子: Our plan is ____________________for the peasants‘ children. 我们的计划是给农民子弟再成立一所中学。 The problem is _____________________. 问题是怎样才能准时到达哪儿。 (三)不定式作宾语 以不定式结构为宾语的动词有:ask, agree, care, choose, demand, decide, expect, fail, help, hope, learn, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, want, wish 等只能用动词不定式作宾语口诀 (接 不定式作宾语的动词) 想要学习 早打算( want、 learn 、plan) 快准备 有希望( prepare 、hope、 wish、expect) 同意否 供选择(agree、offer、choose) 决定了 已答应(decide、be determined、promise) 尽力去 着手做(manage、undertake) 别拒绝 别假装(refuse、pretend) 失败不是属于你(fail) e.g. Tom refused to lend me his pen. We hope to get there before dark. 另外,不定式在某些复合宾语中作宾语时,常常用 it 代表不定式,而将真实宾语放在补足语之后。如: Do you think it better to translate it in this way? I feel it my duty to serve the people heart and soul.

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

编制:许兴波

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汉译英: I feel ____________________________________________________. 我觉得被邀请在会上面对这么多学生发言是一件很光荣的事情。 All of us think ____________________________________________. 大家认为学好英语很重要。 Do you consider ?你认为不去更好吗 (四)不定式做宾语补足语 如: He want you to be his assistant. I saw her cross the street. 完成句子: I would like you___________________. 我想请你帮我做英语练习。 I never expected the shoes ______________________. 我从来没想到鞋子这么快就穿破了。 注:1. 如果谓语动词为感官动词或使役动词, 在主动语态中作宾补的不式不可带 to, 这些动词有三使、 两听、五看、一感觉、半帮助。 have, make, let, hear, listen to, watch, see, look at, observe, notice,feel, help 等。 I felt my blood run cold. What made you think like that? 但如果句子是被动语态,则 to 不可省略。 He was made to clean the windows as a punishment. Someone was heard to come up the stairs. 完成句子: Though he often __________________, today he was made________ by his little sister. 尽管他经常弄哭他的小妹妹,但今天他却被他的小妹妹弄哭了。 He is often heard__________________. 经常有人听到他唱这首歌。 注:2. get,等词也有―让‖―叫‖的意思,和使役动词意思相近,但它后面的不定式作宾语补足语必须要有 to。如: 完成句子: I‘ll get him __________________________. 我将让他再试一次。 注: 3. allow, permit, advise, consider, forbid,等跟 doing 作宾语,跟 不定式做宾语。但 refuse, agree, hope, demand 等不跟复合宾语。 (五)动词不定式做定语 ①序数词、形容词最高级或被 only, last, next 等词修饰的名词可以用不定式作定语。 完成句子: He is always __________________________________________. 他总是第一个来最后一个离开。 The next person _________________________ is Dr. Baker. 下一个出席会议的人是贝克先生。 ②还有一些名词经常带不定式作定语。如:attempt, decision, promise, plan, intention, failure, wish, determination, ability, time, way, chance, courage, opportunity 等。如:
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We students should have the courage to face any difficulty. 注意:不定式为不及物动词或所修饰的名词是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词。 完成句子: Give me a knife _____________.(削苹果) Some people have no house ___________(住) especially in Beijing. The fox found a box ____________________(站着). Could you lend me a pen _________________(写字) This is the tool _______________________(劳动). Give me a piece of paper _______________(写字). I have nothing ________________________(担心). 如果不定式修饰 time, place, way,可以省略介词: He has no place to live. This is the best way to work out this problem. (六)不定式做状语 不定式做状语修饰动词、形容词、副词等,表示目的、结果、原因 等。 1:表目的 例如:To learn a foreign language well, you must try your best He came here in order to see Charlie. I turned the radio down so as not to disturb him 完成句子: _______________ the young plants from the sun, Mother put them in the shade. 为了保护幼苗不被太阳晒坏,妈妈把它们放到了阴凉处。 He got up very early this morning __________________________. 今天早上他起身很早以免上学再 迟到。 注:1. in order to 置于句首或句中 , so as to 只放在句中. In order to draw maps properly, you need a special pen. 注:2.不定式结构表示目的时,通常句子的主语就是它的逻辑主语 e.g. He bought a bicycle to go to town more quickly. 判断正误:①To save money, every means has been tried. To save money, he has tried every means. ②To learn English well, a dictionary is needed. To learn English well, he needs a dictionary. 注:3 不定式做目的状语放在句末时不用逗号,而 Ving 做目的状语放在句末时用逗号。 He worked hard to enter key university. He worked hard, entering key university. 2. 表结果 不定式结构表示结果更常见于下列句型 ① so …as to … Would you be so kind as to lend me your bicycle / tell me the time?

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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② such (…) as to … I‘m not such a fool as to believe that. ③ adj./adv. + enough to … The boy is old enough to go to school. ④ too … to … His eyesight is too poor to read such small letters. ⑤ only to find, only to be told 出乎意料之外的结果 What I said to make you angry. 注意:too…to 通常表示太……而不……,但在下列句子中没有否定的意思。 She is only too glad to stay at home.。 He is too anxious to know the examination results. 完成句子: The question is too . 对我来说,这个问题很难回答。 He said he was clever enough __________________ it by himself. 他说他足够聪明可以独自应付这件事。 Will you be ___ kind _________________ the radio? 请你帮我把收音机调低一点好吗? He woke up only __________in hospital. 他醒来发现自己在医院里。 The water is ______________. 这水不适合饮用。 The room is very comfortable ___________. 这个房间住起来很舒服 3.不定式作形容词的状语, 如:I‘m glad to meet you. I‘m anxious to know the result. I‘m sorry to say that. 完成句子: They are surprised ______________________________________. 得知他死亡的消息,他们很惊讶。 We are proud __________________________________________. 成为新中国的青年,我们感到很骄傲。 另外,hard, difficult, easy, fit,comfortable 等词也可以接动词不定式。这时候,作句子主语的除了是 表示人的词外,还可以是表示物的词。如: 完成句子: The question is .这个问题容易回答。 The box is .这个箱子搬起来很沉。 The ice is .冰太薄不能在上面滑。 She is .和她工作很好。 The pen is 这支笔写字流畅。 The water is _________________________. 这水不适合喝。
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注意:后两句中的不定式与句子的主语或宾语之间是动宾关系,此时如果不定式动词是不及物动词, 则需要带上适当的介词。 ▲与疑问词连用。疑问代词 who, what, which 和疑问副词 when,where, how 连词 whether 等后加动词 不定式,构成不定式短语,在句子中作主语、宾语、表语等成分。 例如: He didn‘t know what to do next. I haven‘t decided whether to go to Japan. How to get rid of waste is a great problem for the world today. I‘m not sure whether to go to the re. On hearing the news, he didn‘t know whether to laugh or to cry. 完成句子: __________________ has not been decided.什么时候出发还没有定。 The problem is . 问题是怎样才能准时到达哪儿。 注:介词后一般不直接不定式,但可以接疑问词+不定式短语作宾语。完成句子: Mary gave some advice on . 玛丽提了一些如何学习英语的建议。 I have no idea of . 我不知道该怎么做。 ▲不定式的复合结构 由 for + 名词或代词 + 动词不定式构成的复合结构在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、状语等。 由 for 引出的不定式复合结构,经常与以下形容词连用: easy / difficult / hard / probable/possible / right / wrong / unnecessary/important 例如: It is necessary for you to finish the work before Friday. It‘s tome for us to go to school. There are a lot of difficulties for us to overcome. Can you arrange for a car to take us there? It‘s for you to decide. He put the paper on the desk for you to read. 完成句子: His idea is . 他的主意是让我们乘不同的车去旅游。 由 of 引出的不定式复合结构, 经常与以下形容词连用: brave, careless, good, honest, kind, nice, rude, stupid, silly, foolish, thoughtful, thoughtless, wise clever,等。 例如:It‘s kind of you to say so. 完成句子: It‘s brave the burning building to save the baby! 你真勇敢,冲进着火的大楼里救这个婴儿 ▲不定式的省略 1. 不定式省略 to 的规则: 前面我们已经谈到,在一些使役动词和感官动词后的不定式作宾语补语时,不定式符号 to 常常省略, 下面还有几种情况请大家注意:

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

编制:许兴波

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①在 why 引起的一些疑问句中,疑问词直接跟动词原形或 not+动词原形。 完成句子: Why ? 为什么花这么多钱? Why ? 为什么不再让她试一试? ②在 had better, had best , would rather, would rather…than, cannot but, cannot choose but, cannot help but 等结构后直接跟动词原形或 not +动词原形。 完成句子: You‘d better . 你最好听一听老师的看法。 I would rather . 我宁愿工作而不愿闲坐。 Rather than , he always prefers to ride a bicycle. 他宁愿挤公共汽车也不愿骑自行车。 Liu Hulan would rather die than . 刘胡兰宁死不屈。 ③作介词 but,except,等的宾语不定式,前面有实义动词 do, to do,不定式符号 to 省略。 I have nothing to do but lie down and sleep. They did nothing but watch TV last night. 完成句子: Last evening I did nothing but . 昨晚上我除了修理农具外,没有做其它的事情。 Now there was nothing he could do except . 现在他只有认输。 如 but 之前没有 do,其后的不定式则一般要加 to。如: 完成句子: I‘m afraid we have no choice but . 恐怕我们别无选择,只好乘出租车了。 They desired nothing but .他们只想成功。 ④在出现并列的动词不定式时,为了避免重复,后面的不定式符号 to 可省略。 完成句子: I really don‘t know 我真的不知道该说什么,该干什么。 Can you help me to attend the meeting at 2:00 p.m.? 你能不能帮我打电话给他,叫他下午两点来开会? ⑤当主语部分有动词 do 的某种形式时,用作表语的不定式可以省略 to。如:All you do now is (to) complete the form. The only thing to do now is (to) go on. 但如果两个不定式有对比的意思,则不定式符号 to 不可被省去。To wait is better than to leave. 完成句子: I came
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我是来夸你的,不是来骂你的。 The purpose of the new technology is 新技术的目的是为了使生活更容易,而不是使生活更艰难。 2. 省略 do 保留 to: 上文中出现了某一动词或动词短语,下文中再遇到此动词的不定式结构时,往往要省略动词不定式, 但通常省略动词原形或短语而保留不定式符号 to: 注意:1. 若被省略的不定式为 to be 短语,则通常应保留 to be。 如:He is not the man he used to be. 他已不是原来的那个样子了。 2. 有时省略不定式时,同时也可省略 to。 如:She may go if she likes (to). 她想去就可以去。 高中阶段还有一些不定式短语可以作状语修饰整个句子,也可以称它们为插入语。如:to tell you the truth,to be frank, to begin with, to be brief, to be exact 等。 完成句子: ______________________, I hate him. 说老实话,我恨他。 ______________________, I don‘t agree with what you said. 坦率地说,我不同意你说的话。 II. V-ing (现在分词/动名词) 动词的-ing 形式也是一种非谓语动词。 -ing 形式仍保留有动词的特征, 可以带有其所需要的宾语或状 语而构成-ing 短语。 一、V-ing 的形式: V-ing 有一般式和完成式。及物动词的-ing 还有主动语态和被动语态,而不及物动词的 V-ing 则没有 被动语态。现在以及物动词 make 和不及物动词 go 为例,将其-ing 各种形式列表如下: 及物动词 make 不及物动词 go 动词 语 态 形式 主动语态 被动语态 主动语态 一般式 完成式

注意: 1. V-ing 的否定形式是由 not 加 V-ing 构成。如: _______________________ his address, I could do nothing but stay at home and wait. 不知道他的地址,我只好在家里等着。 ________________________ made all of us angry. 他没来使我们大家都很生气。 二、V-ing 的语法作用 V-ing 分词一方面具有动词的性质,另一方面也相当于一个名词或 形容词、副词,在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语和补语等。 (一)V-ing(短语)作主语:

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

编制:许兴波

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_______________ is easier than doing. 说比做容易。 注意:在下面两种结构中,V-ing 分词也作主语。 ①为了保持句子平衡,通常用 it 作形式主语,而把真实主语放在句末。如: It is no use crying over spilt milk.。 It's a waste of time _______________________________. 辩论这事是浪费时间。 ②在 There is no 结构中,通常用 V-ing 分词。如: There is no joking about such matters. There is no holding back the wheel of history. 2. V-ing(短语)作表语: ①V-ing 分词作表语可以表示主语的内容是什么。如: Their job is building houses. The real question is _____________________________________. 真正的问题是了解人民的需要。 ②V-ing 分词(使役动词)作表语可以表示主语所具有的特征。 This story is very interesting. The problem is quite puzzling. 这个问题很令人困惑。 The news is surprising. 这条信息令人鼓舞。 The situation is encouraging. 形式令人鼓舞。 3. V -ing 作宾语: ①V–ing 作动词宾语。如: The students wasted much time (in) playing computer games We enjoy attending Miss Li\'s class. 我们喜欢听李老师的课。 I suggest _______________________________. 我建议用另一种方法做这件事。 高中阶段常见的能接-ing 分词作宾语的动词:mind, suggest, enjoy, admit, appreciate, avoid, delay, dislike, escape, finish, forgive, imagine, keep, miss, practise, resist, risk, deny, allow, permit, advise, consider, forbid 等。 ②V-ing 作宾语也可用在复合宾语中作真正的宾语,而用 it 作形式宾语。如: I don‘t think it possible living in such a cold place. Do you consider ___________________________? 你觉得再试一次会有好处吗? ③V-ing 作介词宾语,经常用在一些短语的后面。如: I'm against inviting him to dinner. He went to London in the hope of__________________________. 他去了伦敦,希望能成为一个著名的画家。 注意:在有些句子中,介词常可省去。如: I have no difficulty (in) communicating with foreigners.
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What can prevent us (from) getting married? 动名词前省略介词 in 的常用结构 be careful (in) doing sth be busy (in) doing sth have difficulty(in) doing sth have trouble (in) doing sth have a problem(in) doing sth have a good time / fun (in) doing sth have a hard time(in) doing sth spend money(time) (in) doing sth waste money(time) (in) doing sth There is no difficulty(in) doing sth There is no need / use(in) doing sth There is no point(in) doing sth 另外,V-ing 可以和一些介词如 in, on, after, against, before, by, for, without, besides 等构成短语,在句 中作状语。如: He left ahead of time ____________________________. 他一句话也没说就提前离开了。 __________________________, she had to take care of four children. 除了做饭和缝纫(sew)以外,她还要照顾四个孩子。 高中阶段常见的带介词 to 的短语,后接-ing 分词或名词。如: admit to, contribute to,get down to, lead to ,look forward to, turn to , stick to, point to, see to , be used to , devote oneself to , pay attention to 等。 ④下列动词既可跟不定式又可跟 Ving 的动词,区别如下 (1).begin 和 start 本身为进行时,或后面动词为心理变化意义的动词时,须接不定式。 When we came in, they were beginning to have supper. After his explanation, I began to understand it / realize that I was wrong. (2).有些词后面既可以接不定式.亦可接动名词,但其意义有很大区别,须特别注意: A.remember,forget,regret 接动名词,表示完成意义(=having done),接不定式,表示将来意义: Please remember ________(bring)me the book I want next time. I remember ______(see) her (=having seen her) somewhere before. Don't forget ________(write)to me soon. I never forget ________(visit) (=having visited) them for the first time. I regret _______(miss) that good film last week.(后悔干……事) I regret not ______(take) (not having taken) your advice. I regret ______(say) I can't take your advice. (遗憾=be sorry) B.mean:mean to do=want to do 打算,想要……;mean doing:意味着,就是 I am sorry, I didn't mean _______(hurt)your feelings, Learning a foreign language doesn't mean just _______(work) in class.

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

编制:许兴波

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C.stop:stop to do 停下来,要干另一件事,不定式作目的状语;stop doing 停止干……,动名词作 宾语。 After some time, they stopped _______(work)and had a rest. After walking some time, they stopped ________(have)a rest. D.try:try to do,努力,试图干……事;try doing:试着干……事 He searched everywhere and tried _______(find) his key. He came to the city from the countryside and tried________(find) a job. The mother is out and the boy had to try _______(cook) for himself. They tried to succeed and tried ______(do) their experiments again and again. E.want,need,require 接动名词表示被动意义,主语与动名词之间为动宾关系。 The bike requires _________(repair). These young trees require _____________(look after). The matter needs ________(think)over.(=to be thought over) A Mr. Wang wants _______(see) you. You don't need ________(leave)so early. F.go on:go on to do 继续干和原来不同的另一件事,不定式作目的状语。 go on doing 继续干原来同一件事,动名词作宾语。 After a smoke,he went on _______(tell)us that interesting story. After writing the composition he went on _______(work)out his maths problems. G.动词 advise,allow,permit,forbid 后面接单宾语时用动名词,接复合宾语时用动词不定式。 Doctors advise _________ smoking to benefit one's health. 放弃 The doctor advised him _________ smoking so as to improve his health. 放弃 She doesn't allow (permit) _______ in her room.抽烟 I. be used to doing 习惯于 be used to do 被用来做 I ?m used to __________________. 早晨六点起床 Wood is used _________________. 被用来制作家具 J.can‘t help doing 情不自禁 can‘t help to do 不能帮助做 Hearing the news, she _______________.不禁大哭 I couldn‘t help ____________________. 打扫教师 4. V-ing 分词作补语: ①V-ing 分词做 see, hear, notice, watch, feel, look at, lis ten to, observe, 等动词的宾语补语。 saw two I dogs fighting fiercely. I saw the child being beaten by his father. 注:V-ing 分词作宾语表示正在进行的动作;不定式表示动作的全过程或动作的结束。 I heard someone knocking at the door.. I heard someone knock at the door. Three times. _______________________________我看到一个男孩正在沙滩玩。 ________________________________________________________我看到一个男孩穿过了马路上了汽 车。
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I noticed a man running out of the bank when I got off the car. 我下车的时候注意到一个男人匆匆忙忙地从银行里跑出来。 I noticed a man __________________________________爬入银行拿走了一大包钱。 ②V-ing 分词做 have, get, set 的宾补表示一直进行的动作, 不定式表示一个将来的动作。 What he said set me thinking deeply. He set the boy to chop wood. I‘ll have my son see him off. The farmers had the tractors working all night long. _______________________________________别让车一直等着。 ______________________________________我让着去车站接你。 ③做 leave, keep, catch, find 等动词的宾语补语。如: Don‘t leave the boy waiting at the gate in such a cold day. Last night the shopkeeper caught ____________________________ in the shop. 昨晚,店主在商店里 抓到一个小孩在偷东西。 ④上面这类句子也可变成被动语态,这时,V-ing 分词可看成是主语补语。如: We were kept waiting for quite a long time. 让我们等了好长时间。 Jill was never heard _______________________________. 人们再也没有听到吉丽唱这首歌了。 ⑤ understand sb doing 理解(多用否定句),understand to do 知道,料定(多用肯定句); send sb. to do 派, send sb. doing 使…..突然; I can‘t understand him speaking to me like that. I understand him to speak to me like that. I sent the boy to catch the bird. The sound of the gun sent the birds flying away. 5. V-ing 作定语: ①单个的分词作定语一般放在被修饰词的前面。如: ____________ room 阅览室 ___________ pool 游泳池 ____________ car 餐车 ____________ car 卧车 a ____________ car 一辆等待着的车 a ____________ child 一个酣睡的孩子 the ____________ news 令人振奋的消息 a ____________ speech 令人乏味的演讲 ②V-ing 分词短语作定语应放在被修饰词的后面,也相当于一个定语从句。如: When she appeared, John, wearing a dirty and worn-out overcoat, ran to her with joy. 当她出现的时候,约翰穿着一件又脏又破的大衣高兴地跑了过去。 Who is the comrade __________________________? 站在门边的同志是谁? 注:不定式作定语表示将来的动作;现在分词作定语表示正在进行的动作,过去分词作定语表示完成 和被动的动作。

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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The meeting to be held soon is very important. The meeting being held now is very important. The meeting held yesterday soon is very important. 6. V-ing 分词做状语:时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、方式、伴随 ①V-ing 分词短语作时间状语,相当于一个时间状语从句,有时可由连词 when, while 引出。如: Hearing the news, he couldn‘t help thinking the days in the college. Walking out of the room, he found the boy still there. While , he nodded from time to time. 他一边看书,一边不时地点头。 ________________________, she remembered her childhood. 看到那些画,他想起了她的童年。 ②V-ing 分词短语作原因状语,相当于一个原因状语从句。如: Being ill, he couldn‘t go to school. Many of us, being so excited, couldn‘t go to sleep that night. ________________________________,he asked the teacher for help. 因为不知道如何解这道物理难题, 他求助老师。 ③V–ing 分词短语作结果状语,相当于一个结果状语从句。如: By 1820,the population of New York had grown to about 125,000, making it the largest city in USA. He hit a parked car, thus breaking his leg. His father died, ______________________________. 他父亲死了,留给他许多钱。 She was so angry that she threw the toy on the ground,_____________ ______________.她非常生气,把玩具扔在地上,把它摔成了碎片。 ④V-ing 分词也可作条件状,相当于一个条件状语从句。如: Having time, I‘ll come and help you. Thinking it carefully, you will not take the job. ___________________, you will find the path leading to the park. 向左转你会发现通向公园的路 ⑤V-ing 分词作伴随状语,可以放在句子的前面、后面或中间,表示主语的另一个较次要的动作,相 当于一个并列句句。如: ―You can‘t catch me.‖ Jane shouted, running away. They sat in the garden, thinking about the days they spent together. They sat in front of the house, . 他们坐在房前聊天。 They stood there for half an hour, in the sky. 他们在那儿站了半小时,观察着天上的星星。 ⑥让步状语,相当于一个状语从句。 Being ill, he still came to school. He is unhappy, though having a lot of money. Whether supporting or not, I‘ll go on with it .
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⑦方式状语,相当于一个方式状语从句 Children usually count the numbers, by using their fingers. They show disagreement shaking their hands. She came . 她向我们跑来。 注:-ing 分词作状语时,它的逻辑主语就是整个句子的主语。 三、V-ing 分词的复合结构: V-ing 分词的复合结构通常由形容词性物主代词、人称代词宾格、名词所有格或者名词的普通格 +-ing 分词构成,通常在句中作主语、表语、宾语。如: 1.主语 His coming made us very happy. Do you think my going there will be of any help? ________________________ made her teacher angry. 玛丽迟到使她老师生气 2.表语 What made him angry was their laughing. What‘s troubling me is . 使我烦恼的事情是他们没有足够的经验。 3.宾语 He was awakened by someone‘s knocking at the door. Do you mind my opening the window? Can you imagine the Atlantic Ocean in five days? 你能想象彼得五天之内横跨大 西洋吗? He insisted on . 他坚持主张他儿子上大学。 注:作主语时必须用形容词性物主代词或名词所有格,作宾语时可用人称代词宾格、或名词的普通格 +-ing 分词,无生命的代词或不定代词常用普通格。 四、高中阶段有一些固定的-ing 分词短语,如 generally speaking, judging from…, considering…, supposing…,providing concerning 等,它们的逻辑主语和句子的主语不一致。这种短语可以被称之 为句子的状语,也可当作一个插入语。如: _________________________________, he must come from Canada. 从他的口音看他一定来自加拿大。 ______________________, we decided to let him attend the concert for free. 考虑到他是多么的穷,我 们决定让他免费听音乐会。 五.非谓语动词的一般式和完成时 1. 不定式的一般式(to do ) 一般式表示的动作或状态,发生在谓语动词表示的动作或状态的同时或之后 My wish is to become a doctor. Who heard him say that. I am glad to meet you. She is waiting to hear your answer. He seemed to leave soon. 2. 不定式的进行式

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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如果谓语表示的动作(情况)发生时, 不定式表示动作正在进行,这时候不定式就要用进行式.(to be doing) When I went to his home, he happened to be traveling around the world. They seemed to be talking about something important. 3. 不定式的完成式 如果不定式所表示的动作或状态发生在谓语动词所表示动作或状态之前,就用完成式 (to have done) 。 ① 主补 He is said to have written a novel about the Long March. =It is said that he has written a novel about the Long March. 比较 He is said to write a novel about the Long March next month. =It is said that he will write a novel about the Long March next month. Einstein is said to have built up his theory when he was in his twenties. Sadam was reported to have been hanged. ②表语 The assistant seemed to be fired. = It seemed that the assistant would be fired. 比较 The assistant seemed to have been fired already. = It seemed that the assistant had been fired already.. ③宾语 He pretended to be sleeping when I came in. =He pretended that he was sleeping when I came in. 比较 He pretended not to have seen me. =He pretended that he hadn‘t seen me. ④状语 You are lucky to have got tickets to the concert. = You are lucky that you have got tickets to the concert. You are lucky to be here.= You are lucky that you are here. I am glad to meet you =I am glad that I see you. I am glad to have met you the other day. = I am glad that I met you the other day. 注:谓语动词是表示打算、愿望、意图的动词,如 hope, think, want, plan, intend, mean, expect, 加不 定时的完成时, 表示未实现的愿望,等同于该动词的完成时+不定时的一般时。 would like to, had better, would rather 加不定时的完成时也表示未实现的愿望,但加不定时的一般式则表示一个将来的动作。 We meant to have stopped him from ding such a foolish thing. =We had meant to stop him from ding such a foolish thing. I‘d like to have attended your wedding ,but I had an unexpected visitor. 比较 I‘d like to attend your wedding this evening. I‘d rather not have told her the news. She is a gossip. 比较 I‘d rather go fishing tomorrow. 二. V-ing 的一般式和完成式: 1. V-ing 的一般式表示和谓语动词所表示的动作同时进行,或没有时间性的动作。 Being a student, he is interested in books. They are all interested in climbing mountains.
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He takes delight in helping others. I heard him singing in the next room. He hurried home, looking behind from time to time. Not knowing her address, he couldn‘t getting in touch with her. 2.V-ing 的完成式表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作。 ①宾语 I regret not having taken her advice.=I regret that I didn‘t take her advice. I regret to say you are wrong. I don‘t remember having ever promised you that. =I don‘t remember that I have ever promised you that. I apologize for not having kept my promise. He was praised for having made so much progress. I have no idea of their having done such a thing. 注:某些动词 excuse, remember, forget, regret 等和介词后面常用一般式代替完成时。 Excuse me for coming late. I don‘t remember ever seeing him everywhere. He apologize for interrupting you. ②非限制性定语 The problem , having been discussed for years , has been solved. The old man, having worked for twenty years abroad, is now on his way to his motherland. ③状语 Not having studied his lessons very hard, he failed the examinations. = As he didn‘t study his lessons very hard, he failed the examinations. Not having got well prepared, they decided to put off the meeting. =As he hadn‘t got well prepared, they decided to put off the meeting. Not having received her letter, he decided to write again. =As he hadn‘t received her letter, he decided to write again. Not having been there before, he knows little about it. =As he hasn‘t been there before, he knows little about it. Having been a worker for many years , he knows how to operate the machine. =After he was a worker for many years , he knows how to operate the machine. 完成句子: 1.They invited us . 他们邀请我们今年夏天去那儿。 2. He stood aside for me . 他站到一边让我通过。 3. She seemed about this matter. 她似乎已听说过这件事。 4.I am sorry so long. 我很抱歉让你等了这么久。 5.I meant you about it, but I happened to have an important thing to do.

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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我本来想告诉你这件事的,但我碰巧有一件重要的事要做。 6. He pretended the teacher carefully. 他假装在认真地听老师讲课。 7. We didn‘t expect you . 我们没料到你一直在这儿等我们。 8. More than 20 people were reported . 据报道,有 20 多个人死于事故。 9. I happened with him when he was hit by a car. 他被汽车撞的时候,我碰巧在和他谈话。 10. , I could do nothing but stay at home and wait. 不知道他的地址,我只好在家里等着。 III. 过去分词 一、过去分词的形式:V-ed 过去分词表示的动作是一个被动或完成的动作。 二、过去分词的基本用法: 过去分词在句中也可用作定语、表语、宾补或状语,但不作主语或宾语。过去分词在句中作某种成分 时,其逻辑主语一般为该分词所表示的动作的承受者,如: (一)作定语:过去分词作定语时,如果这个分词是一个单词,就位于其修饰的名词之前,如果是分 词短语,就位于其修饰的名词之后。被过去分词所修饰的名词,就是该分词的逻辑主语 e.g. The stolen car was found by the police last week. We need more qualified teachers. The excited people rushed into the building. 过去分词短语作定语通常放在被修饰的词后面,相当于一个定语从句。如: We have read many novels written by this author. What's the language spoken in Germany? Prices of goods bought through a computer can be less than store prices. The student dressed in white is my daughter. Is there anything ? 明天有什么活动吗? The suggestion was adopted by the manager. 外国专家提出来的建议被经理采纳了。 过去分词作定语也可用作非限制性定语,前后用逗号隔开。如: The books, , are popular with many Chinese people. 这些书是鲁迅写的,受到了许多中国人民的喜爱。 The meeting, , was a success. 这次会议获得很大的成功,共有一千个学生出席了。 (二)作表语: 1. 过去分词作表语时,表示其逻辑主语所处的状态,其逻辑主语就是句中的主语, I am pleased with what he has done. I am deeply moved by his heroic deeds He is quite the design of the dress. 她很喜欢那礼服的式样。
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2. 过去分词作表语时,和动词的被动语态结构相似,但两者表达的意义不同, The glass is broken. The glass was broken by my little brother. The letter is well written. The letter was written in 1970. 3. 作表语用的过去分词在许多词典中已列为形容词 如:crowded, devoted, discouraged, dressed, drunk, experienced, frightened, gone, interested, known, learned, lost, pleased, satisfied, surprised, tired, worried, astonished, broken, advanced, balanced 等。 (三)作宾语补足语: 1. 过去分词作宾语补足语时,句中的宾语就是其逻辑主语 e.g. When I opened the door, I found the ground . 过去分词可以在 see, hear, notice, watch, find, get, have, feel, make, leave, keep 等词后与一名词或代词 构成复合宾语,用作宾语补语。 When will you go to the hospital and ? 你什么时候去医院检查你的牙齿? When you are making a speech, you should speak louder to make yourself . 当你在作报告时,你应该讲响一点使自己被人听清。 当这类句子变成被动语态时,过去分词用作主语补语。如: One of the glasses was found . 有人发现其中一个杯子破了。 They should be kept . 应该让他们知道那儿的形势。 2. 动词 have 后的复合宾语中,宾语补足语如为过去分词,常表示该分词所表示的动作是由别人来执 行的而不是句中主语自己来执行的 e.g. I had my bike . 昨天我(找别人)把我的自行车给修了。 (四)作状语:过去分词作状语时,和 V-ing 形式作状语一样,也可以表示时间、原因、条件、让步、 方式或伴随情况等。 ①表时间 Accepted by the Party, he decided to devote his life to the cause of the Party. _____________________, the city looked like a big garden. 从山顶上看,这个城市就像一个大花园。 ②表原因,相当于一个原因状语从句。如: Encouraged by the speech, the young people made up their minds to take up the struggle. __________________________________, the excited people stopped quarrelling with each other. 激动的人们被那个故事深深地感动了,停止了争吵。 ③表条件,相当于一个条件状语从句,有时过去分词前可用 if 等词。如: If heated, water can be turned into steam. ______________________________, he will do better. 再给他一次机会,他会做得更好。 _______________________, you should make greater efforts to study English. 和你哥哥相比, 你应该更 加努力学习英语。

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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④表让步,相当于一个 though/although 引导的让步状语从句。如: Exhausted by the running, they went on running after the robber. ____________________________, he continued his study. 尽管被许多人嘲笑,他还是继续他的研究。 ⑤表方式或伴随情况。如: Seated at the table, my father and I were talking about my job. The old man went into the room, . 那个老人在他的妻子的搀扶下走进了房间。 注:Ving 的被动式不做方式或伴随情况。 The professor came into the class room, followed by a group of students. IV 非谓语动词的主动式和被动式 非谓语动词是用主动式还是用被动式,关键在于和其逻辑主语之间的关系。非谓语动词和其逻辑主语 是主动关系,用主动式;反之用被动式。 1.主语 ①It‘s kind of you to help me. It‘s an honor for me to be asked to speak here. ②His being beaten black and blue made his mother very angry. His beating the pet dog made his mother very angry. 在复合结构中,非谓语动词的逻辑主语是_________ 2.宾语 ① She wanted to be sent to work in Beijing. She wanted to work in Beijing. ②No one likes to be laughed at. He likes to laugh at others. ③ He left without saying goodbye. He came in without being asked . 3.表语 ①He remained to be there. A lot of work remains to be done. The door remains unlocked. ② The news is disappointing. He looks disappointed at the news. 4.状语 ①He was too young to be given such hard work.. He was too young to do such hard work.. ②The boy was sent to hospital to be operated on. The doctor was sent to hospital to operate on the boy. ③Having been given such a good chance, how could he let it slip away.
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Having such a good chance, how could I let it slip away. ④The headmaster came into the meeting, followed by teachers. The headmaster came into the meeting, following teachers. 通过以上看出,非谓语动词做宾语、表语、状语其逻辑主语是 _________. 5.定语 ① The president to hold the meeting will come here soon. The meeting to be held soon is very important. ②The president holding the meeting is my neighbor. The meeting being held is very important. The meeting held yesterday was very important. 通过以上看出,非谓语动词做定语,其逻辑主语是_________ 6.宾补和主补 ① He wanted me to type the letter at once. He wanted the letter to be typed at once. ② He didn‘t expect the books to be well received. He didn‘t expect the clerk selling so many books He didn‘t expect the books selling so well. ③The old professor had a dentist pull out his bad tooth. The old professor had his bad tooth pulled out. ④The magazines are not allowed to be taken out of the reading-room. Readers are not allowed to take the magazines out of the reading- room 非谓语动词做宾补, 其逻辑主语是________,作主补,其逻辑主语是________ 单项填空 1. (2002)Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains____ whether they will enjoy it. A. to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. seen 2. (2002 上海) ______ to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one's skin. A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed 3.(2002 春招)Prices of daily goods______ through a computer can be lower than store prices. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying 4. (2002 上海春招)When_____, the museum will he open to the public next year. A. completed B. completing C. being completed D. to be completed 5. (2003 上海)The discovery of new evidence led to______. A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught 6. (2003 上海春招)Friendship is like money: easier made than ____. A. kept B. to be kept C. keeping D. being kept

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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7. (2003 上海春招)Unless______ to speak, you should remain silent at the conference. A. invited B. inviting C. being invited D. having invited 8. (04 上海)The flu is believed ________ by viruses that like to reproduce in the cells inside the human nose and throat. A. causing B. being caused C. to be caused D. to have caused 9 (05 湖北卷)______from other continents for millions of years ,Australia has many plants and animals not found in any other country in the world. A.Being separated B.Having separated C.Having been separated D.To be separated 10. (05 上海卷)He got well-prepared for the job interview, for he couldn‘t risk _______ the good opportunity. A. to lose B. losing C. to be lost D. being lost 11. (05 辽宁卷)All these gifts must be mailed immediately _______ in time for Christmas. A.in order to have received B.in order to receive C.so as to be received D.so as to be receiving 12. The first textbooks_____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written 13. (05 北京卷)The prize of the game show is $30,000 and an all expenses _________ vacation to China. A. paying B. paid C. to be paid D. being paid 14. (05 湖北卷)The repairs cost a lot ,but it‘s money well ______. A.to spend B.spent C.being spent D.spending 15.Little Jim should love _____ to the theatre this evening. (92 全国) A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taking 16.After he became conscious, he remembered _______ and ________ on the head with a rod. A. to attack; hit B. to be attacked; to be hit C. attacking; be hit D. having been attacked; hit 17.At the beginning of the class, the noise of desks_____ could be heard outside the classrooms. A. opened and closed B. to be opened and closed C. being opened and closed D. to open and close 18. (05 广东卷) He glanced over at her, ______ that though she was tiny, she seemed very well put together. A. noting B. noted C. to note D. having noted 19. (05 广东卷)He hurried to the station only ______ that the train had left. A. to find B. finding C. found D. to have found 20. (05 北京卷) I couldn‘t do my homework with all that noise __________. A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on 非谓语动词不用被动式的现象 1.不定式和被修饰的名词或代词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,但又和该句主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系时, 不定式常用主动式。
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I have a letter to write.(I write a letter.) I have a lot of work to do.( I do a lot of work.) We still have many difficulties to overcome. ( We overcome many difficulties) 2. 不定式和被修饰的名词或代词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,但又和该句宾语构成逻辑上的主谓关系时, 不定式常用主动式。 Give me something to drink. Please fetch me some water to drink. He‘ll show you the right way to take. The teacher assigned us some homework to do at home. 3. there be 句型 There is a meeting to attend.(to be attended 也可) There is no time to lose. 注:即可用主动态,也可用被动态。 4.不定式用作表语或宾补的形容词的状语,和句子中主语或宾语构成逻辑上的动宾关系时,不定式要 用主动式。 The book is difficult to read. He is easy to get along with. He is hard to talk with. I find the man hard to work with. I find the box heavy to carry. The teacher made the question easier to answer. 3.及物动词 want, need, deserve, require 等的主语是―物‖时,表 示―需要‖,之后可用动名词的主动行式,来表示被动或用动词不定式的被动式。 The desk needs repairing. = The desk needs to be repaired. Your hair wants cutting. = Your hair wants to be cut. The baby requires looking after.= The baby requires to be looked after. That point deserves mentioning.= That point deserves to be mentioned. 5.有些分词作状语是固定结构,常用现在分词的主动式来表示说话人的语气或态度,不用被动式。如, generally(strictly)speaking, judging from…,providing…,considering…,supposing… Generally speaking,men can run faster than women. Judging from his accent, he must be a southerner. Considering everything, they did a good job. I would lend you the money providing that you can pay it back before Easter. Supposing there was a war, what would you do? 6.在 worth 形容词后,总是用 V-ing 的主动形式表示被动概念: Her method is worth trying. ---What do you think of the book? ---Oh, excellent. It‘s worth reading a second time.(MET1989 )

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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7. to blame, to rent 习惯用主动 He is to blame for the accident. The house is to rent. 完成句子: 1. Have you got anything ? 今晚你有事情要做吗? 2. Mum ,I have got some clothes . 妈妈 ,我有一些衣服要你洗。 3. English is ___________________________ .英语很难学。 4. He is hard . 他这个人很难对付。 5. Mr Smith is a good man . 史密斯先生是一个可以与其合作的好人 。 6. As far as I am concerned, the Great Wall is a good place of interest __________ . 据我所知,长城是一个可以参观的好名胜。 7. The flowers need ____________ .这些花需要浇水啦。 8. Does your suit want __________________ , sir? 先生,您的衣服要烫吗? 9. This problem requires . 这个问题需要仔细研究。 10.The film is worth .这部影片值得一看。

由于眼镜摔坏了,她看不见黑板上的字。 注意:以上两种结构的功能相似于分词或分词短语作状语,只是分词的逻辑主语是句子的主语,而独 立主格结构中非谓语动词的逻辑主语是它前面的名词或主格代词。

3. 名词/主格代词+不定式。名词/主格代词与不定式之间是逻辑主谓关系,多表示将来的 行为,表示―企图‖―约 定‖等,指的是按计划安排要做的事,且强调的是一次具体性 的动作。
如:He is going to make a model plane, some old parts to help. 借助于一些旧零件,他要做一个飞机模 型。 They said good-bye to each other, one to go home, the other to go to the bookstore. 他们道别后,一个回了家,一个去了书店。

4. 名词/主格代词+形容词。形容词在独立主格结构中表伴随或对细节起补充作用,形容 词与名词或代词之间逻辑上有主表关系。
如:An air accident happened to the plane, nobody alive. 那架飞机遭遇了空难,无一人生还。 So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off. 这么多人缺席,会议不得不取消。

5. 名词/主格代词+副词。
如:The meeting over, they all went home. 会议一结束,他们就都回家了。 6. 名词/主格代词+介词短语。此结构有两种习惯用法,一种是在―名词/主格代词+介词短语‖的独 立主格结构中, his, her, my, their, a, an, the 等词分别修饰前后两个名词或名词本身为复数, 有 有时有 with 引导。 另一种习惯用法是:在―名词/主格代词+介词短语‖的独立主格结构中,名词或代词和介 词后面的名词没有任何冠词或所有格修饰,也不用 with 引导。 如:如: Miss Smith entered the classroom, book in hand.史密斯先生走进了课室,手里拿着一本书。 比较 with 的复合结构。如:Miss Smith entered the classroom, with a book in his hand. Mary was sitting near the fire, her back towards the door. 玛丽靠近火炉坐着,背对着门。

V 独立主格: 一.定义:独立主格结构没有主语和谓语,所以在语法上不是句子,独立主格结构有两部分组成,
前一部份是名词或者代词,后一部分是非谓语动词或其他的一些词。独立主格之所以不叫独立主语, 就是因为该名词或代词与后面的其它部分有逻辑上的句子关系,但无论长短,都不能构成句子,当后 面是非谓语动词时,前面与后面能够构成逻辑上的主谓或谓宾关系。独立主格结构在句中做状语,偶 尔作定语,使用时,注意要用逗号与句子的主体部分分隔开来。

7. There being +名词(代词),独立主格结构中的 being(或 having been)不能省略。通 常可以理解为后面句子动作发生的前提条件或理由。
如:There being nothing else to do, we went home. 没有别的事可做,我们就回家了。 There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed. 没有再要讨论的事了,我宣布散会。 There being no bus, we had to go home on foot.因为没有公共汽车,所以我们不得不步行回家。

二.常见的独立主格 9 种结构及其使用特点
1. 名词/主格代词+现在分词。名词/主格代词与现在分词之间是逻辑主谓关系。
如:The girl staring at him (= As the girl stared at him), he didn't know what to say. 姑娘两眼望着他,他不知道说什么好。 Time permitting (= If time permits), we will go for an outing tomorrow. 如果时间允许的话,我们明天去郊游。

8. It being +名词(代词)独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时,独立主格结构中的 being(或 having been)不能省略。
如:It being Christmas, the government offices were closed. 由于圣诞节的缘故,政府机关都休息。 It being Sunday, we went to church.因为是星期天,我们去了做礼拜。

9、独立主格结构有时可在其前加上介词 with。即 with+名词\(主格代词)+其它。
With the new term to begin soon, we‘ll be very busy again.新学期很快就要开始了,我们又要忙起 来了。 Don‘t sleep with the windows open. 别开着窗睡觉。 He was lying on the bed with all his clothes on. 他和衣躺在床上。

2. 名词/主格代词+过去分词。名词/主格代词与过去分词之间是逻辑动宾关系(逻辑谓宾 关系)。可以理解为被动句结构中删掉了―be‖部分。
如:The problems solved (= As the problems were solved), the quality has been improved. 随着问题的解决,质量已经提高了。 Her glasses broken (= Because her glasses were broken), she couldn't see the words on the blackboard.

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非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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三、独立主格结构的功能 6 点 独立主格结构主要用于描绘性文字中,其作用相当于一个状语从句或并列句,常用来表示时间、原因、 条件、行为方式或伴随情况等。例如:

1. 表示时间(状语)
The meeting being over, all of us went home. 开完会后我们都回家了。 Her work done, she sat down for a cup of tea. 她干完了活,坐下来喝茶。

2. 表示条件(状语)
The condition being favourable, he may succeed. 若条件有利,他或许能成功。 Weather permitting (=If weather permits), they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow. 如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨小游。

一般来说,独立主格中的形容词、副词和介词短语表示状态;不定式表示未发生的动作;而独立主格 结构中的现在分词表示主动的含义,它的逻辑主语是这个动作的发出者。现在分词有时可换成现在分 词的完成式(having done), 表示该动作发生在谓语之前。过去分词表示被动的含义,它的逻辑主语 是这个动作的承受者。过去分词有时可换成现在分词完成式的被动形式(having been done). 也表示 该动作发生在谓语之前。 Spring having been here, they still haven‘t got ready for sewing. 春天已到,但他们还未做好春播的准 备。 The listeners having taken their seats, the concert began.听众坐好后,音乐会开始了。 The book having been published, the students will benefit a lot from it. 那本书已经出版,学生们会从 中受益匪浅。

3. 表示原因(状语)
There being no taxis, we had to walk. 没有出租车,我们只好步行。 He wrapped her up with great care, the night being dark and frosty. 夜又黑又冷,所以他把她裹 得严严实实的。 An important lecture to be given tomorrow (=As an important lecture will be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night. 因为明天要发表一个重要的演讲,教授不得不熬夜到 很晚。

五、独立主格结构与从句的转换
当状语从句的主语与主句的主语不是指同一个对象时,可用独立主格结构取代状语从句,但不再保留 连词。 含有独立主格结构的句子通常是个简单句。独立主格结构做状语,常常能够换成相应的状语从句。但 表示伴随情况的独立主格结构只能换成与主句并列的句子。独立主格结构作定语时,通常能转换成定 语从句。这时整个句子就由原来的简单句变成了复合句。 ●After class was over , the students soon left the classroom. (复合句) ●Class being over / Class over, the students soon left the classroom. (简单句)下课后,学生很快离开 了课室。 ★John being away, Henry had to do the work. (简单句) ★Because John was away, Henry had to do the work.(复合句) 因为约翰不在,亨利只好做这项工作。 ▲There being no buses, we had to go on foot. (简单句) ▲Because there were no buses, we had to go on foot. (复合句) 因为没有公共汽车,我们只得步去行。 ■The book with its front cover missing is a textbook. (简单句,独立主格做定语) ■The book whose front cover is missing is a textbook. (复合句,变成定语从句) 封皮不见了的那本书是 教科书。 ◆The house with its window broken is now a stable. (简单句) ◆The house whose window is broken is now a stable.(复合句) 窗户破了的那栋房子现在是马厩。

4. 表示伴随情况(状语)
Almost all metals are good conductors, silver being the best of all. =Almost all metals are good conductors, and silver is the best of all. 几乎所有的金属都是良导体,而银则是最好的导体。 He was lying on the grass, his hands crossed under his head (=and his hands were crossed under his head). 他躺在草地上,两手交叉枕在脑后。

5. 表示补充说明
A hunter came in, his face red with cold (=and his face was red with cold). 一个猎人走了进来, 他的 脸冻得通红。 We redoubled our efforts, each man working like two. 我们加倍努力,一个人干两个人的活。 注意:独立主格结构表示时间、条件或原因时,相当于一个状语从句,一般放在句首,表示原因时还 可放在句末;表伴随状况或补充说明时,相当于一个并列句,通常放于句末。 6. 独立主格住定语:做定语时放在所修饰的名词之后,通常是带有 with 结构的独立主格。此时与 做状语不同,不需要用逗号隔开。 The team with a boy leading the way got to the village at 10 p.m. 由一个男孩带路的那个小分队晚上 10 点到达那个村庄。 The woman with her hand burnt badly was sent immediately to the hospital. 那位一只手严重烧伤的妇女被马上送到了医院。 The child with only a shirt on was trembling with cold. 只穿着一件衬衫的那个孩子冻得直发抖。

六、独立主格结构与非谓语动词的不同之处
1. 独立主格中的名词或代词与主句中的主语不一致。而非谓语动词做状语时,其逻辑主语和句中主语 一致。 2. 独立主格使用名词或代词主格,没有所有格形式,而非谓语动词里,动名词做主语时,如果是泛指 的行为就不需要出现逻辑主语,如果是特指某个人的某一次行为,必须在动名词前加上逻辑主语,其 构成是名词所有格或形容词性物主代词。动名词做宾语时,如果其逻辑主语不是句中主语时,需要在 其前加上其逻辑主语,其构成是名词所有格或形容词性物主代词和人称代词宾格(对独立主格的代词 主格)。 The chief-editor arriving, we began the meeting. 主编来了,我们开始开会。(独立主格) The chief-editor‘s arriving made us very surprised. 主编的到来使我们大家非常吃惊。 (动名词做主语) I am considering Peter‘s\Peter going abroad. 我正在考虑彼得出国的事。(动名词做宾语)
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四、独立主格用法小结

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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I insist on his\him being sent. 我坚决主张(他被派去)派他去。(动名词做宾语) 练习 1:请选择最佳答案 1)With nothing___ to burn,the fire became weak and finally died out. A. leaving B. left C. leave D. to leave 2)The girl sat there quite silent and still with her eyes____ on the wall. A. fixing B. fixed C. to be fixing D. to be fixed 3)I live in the house with its door_________ to the south. A. facing B. faces C. faced D. being faced 4)They pretended to be working hard all night with their lights____. A. burn B. burnt C. burning D. to burn 练习 2:用 with 复合结构完成下列句子 1)_____________(有很多工作要做),I couldn't go to see the doctor. 2)She sat__________(低着头)。 3)The day was bright_____.(微风吹拂) 4)_________________________, (心存梦想)he went to Hollywood.

A. completed B. have been completed C. had been completed D. been completed (2) Such _______ the case, I couldn‘t help but______ him. A. being, support B. was, support C. has been, supporting D. is, to support 比较以下各题,句中使用了并列连词 and: (1) All the preparations for the project ______, and we‘re ready to start. A. completed B. have been completed C. had been completed D. been completed (2) Such _______ the case, and I couldn‘t help but______ him. A. being, support B. was, support C. has been, supporting D. is, to support

―with+宾语+非谓语动词‖用法归纳
】3. —Come on, please give me some ideas about the project. —Sorry. With so much work ______ my mind, I almost break down. (福建卷) A. filled B. filling C. to fill D. being filled 【 】4. John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work ______, he gladly accepted it. (安徽 卷) A. finished B. finishing C. having finished D. was finished 以上两题均考查―with+宾语+非谓语动词‖结构。该结果中的―非谓语动词‖可以是不定式、现在分词、 过去分词,它们在用法上的区别如下: 1. 用不定式:通常指不定式所表示的动作尚未发生或在当时看来尚未发生。 如:With all this work to do, I won‘t have time to go out. 有这么多工作要做,我就没有时间出去了。 2. 用现在分词:指动作正在进行或在当时看来已是一种在持续的状态。 如:He soon fell asleep with the light still burning. 灯还亮着他很快就睡着了。 3. 用过去分词:指与其前的名词或代词为被动关系。 如:He painted her sitting with her hands folded. 他画她坐着手叉在胸前。 【

七、独立主格结构妙题赏析
【 】1. Not far from the school there was a garden, _________ owner seated in it playing chess with his little grandson every afternoon. A. its B. whose C. which D. that (1) He wrote a lot of novels, many of _________ translated into foreign languages. A. it B. them C. which D. that (2) He wrote a lot of novels, many of _________ were translated into foreign languages. A. it B. them C. which D. that 再请看下面一例: (3) He wrote a lot of novels, and many of _________ were translated into foreign languages. A. it B. them C. which D. that 请做做以下三题: (1) There I met several people, two of _________ being foreigners. A. which B. them C. whom D. that (2) There I met several people, two of _________ were foreigners. A. which B. whom C. who D. that (3) There I met several people, and two of _________ were foreigners. A. which B. them C. whom D. that 【 】2. All her time _______ experiments, she has no time for films. A. devoted to do B. devoted to doing C. devoting to doing D. is devoted to doing 请做以下类似题: (1) All the preparations for the project ______, we‘re ready to start.
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独立主格及时巩固练习一:
1. The weather___fine, they decided to go out for a walk. A. were B. was C. is D. being 2.The composition given by the teacher___ , Alice went to watch TV. A. being done well B. has been done well C. having done well D. done well 3. The last plane___ , they had to stay in the hotel for another night. A. left B. having left C. having been left D. be leaving 4. It is a beautiful village with a mountain____ it.

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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A. Surrounded B. surrounding C. having surrounded D. having been surrounded 5. Everything___ into consideration, his work is well done. A. taking B. taken C. has been taken D. being taken 6. All his work___, he left his office at ease. A. finished B. had been finished C. finishing D. to finish 7. The power station was built on the river with our village and some others___ with electricity. A. to supply B. supplied C. supplying D. having supplied 8. ____five minutes____ before the last train left, we arrived at the station. A. There being; to go B. It was; left C. It had; left D. There was; to go 9. Christmas____, the family was full of excitement A. was then only days away B. were then only days away C. then only days away D. having been then only days away 10. They first reach an agreement on the basic principle, the details ____ later. A.to work it out B.having been worked out C.to be worked out D.being worked out 11. The purse_____, they went to the police. A.not yet found B.hasn‘t been found C.being not found D.not having yet found 12. They sat in the room with the curtains_____. A. drawing B. having been drawn C. drawn D. being drawn 13. Cars_____, they were punished by the police. A. parking illegally B. parked illegally C.being parked illegally D.having parked illegally 14. Mr. Smith stood beside the window, his attention ____ the car outside. A. focus on B. focusing upon C. focused on D. been focused on 15. There____, we left. A. being nothing else to do B. is nothing else to do C. was nothing else to do D. having nothing else to do
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独立主格及时巩固练习二 A
1. The lecture ______, he left his seat so quietly that no one complained that his leaving disturbed the speaker. A. began B. beginning C. having begun D. being beginning 2. Such ______ the case, I have no other choices. A. being B. is C. was D. to be 3. Darkness ______ in, the young people strolled on the streets. A. set B. setting C. has set D. was set 4. With all factors ______ ,we think this program may be better than all the others in achieving the goal. A. being considered B. considering C. considered D. are considered 5. A new technique ______, the production increased by 20 percent. A. to have been worked out B. having worked out C. working out D. having been worked out 6. On the top was the clear outline of a great wolf sitting still, ears ______, alert, listening. A. pointed B. pointing C. are pointed D. are pointing 7. Walter offered us a lift when he was leaving the office, but our work ______, we didn‘t accept the offer. A. not being finished B. not having finished C. had not been finished D. was not finished 8. There are various kinds of metals, each ______ its own properties (特性). A. has B. had C. to have D. having 9. The old man stood under a big tree, ______. A. a pipe in mouth B. with a pipe in mouth C. pipe in mouth D. pipe in his mouth 10. The production ______ steadily, the factory needs an ever-increasing supply of raw material (原料). A. has gone up B. is going up C. having gone up D. being gone up

B
1. Ford tried dividing the labor,each worker ________ a separate task. A. assigning B. assigned C. was assigned D. would be assigned 2. The lecture________,he left his seat so quietly that no one complained that his leaving disturbed the speaker. A. began B. beginning C. having begun D. being beginning

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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3. Such ________ the case ,there are no grounds to justify your complaints. A. being B. is C. was D. to be 4. Darkness ________ in,the young people lingered on merrymaking. A. set B. setting C. has set D. was set 5. With all factors________,we think this program may excel all the others in achieving the goal. A. being considered B. considering C. considered D. are considered 6. A new technique________,the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent. A. to have been worked out B. having worked out C. working out D. having been worked out 7. On the top was the clear outline of a great wolf sitting still,ears_________,alert,listening. A. pointed B. pointing C. are pointed D. are pointing 8. Walter offered us a lift when he was leaving the office, our work ________, declined the offer. but we A. not being finished B. not having finished C. had not been finished D. was not finished 9. There are various kinds of metals,each ________ its own properties. A. has B. had C. to have D. having 10.The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports, each ________ one major point in contrast with the other. A. makes B. made C. is to make D. making 11. ________ no bus, we had to walk home. A. There was B. There being C. Because there being D. There were 12. _______, I'll go there with you tomorrow afternoon. A. Time permits B. If time permitting C. Time permitting D. Time's permitting 13. _______, we all went home happily. A. Goodbye was said B. Goodbye had been said C. Goodbye said D. When goodbye said 14. _______, we all went swimming in high spirits. A. It being fine weather B. It fine weather C. It was fine weather D. It being a fine weather 15. _______, the bus started at once. A. The signal was given B. The signal giving C. The signal given D. When the signal given 16. She stood there, _______ from her cheeks. A. tears' rolling down B. tears rolled down C. with tears rolled down D. tears rolling down
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17. ______, the leaves are turning green. A. When spring coming on B. Spring coming on C. Spring came on D. Spring being come on 18. _______, I had to buy a new one. A. My dictionary losing B. My dictionary having been lost C. My dictionary had been lost D. Because my dictionary lost 19. I used to sleep with the window _______. A. opened B. open C. opening D. to open 20. ______, the hunter went into the forest. A. A gun on shoulder B. A gun was on his shoulder C. Gun on shoulder D. A gun being on shoulder 21. ______ production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year. A. As B. For C. With D. Through 22. With a lot of work _______, I have to sit up tonight. A. do B. doing C. done D. to do 23. He stood there silently, his lips_______. A. trembling B. trembled C. were trembling D. were trembling 24. _______, her suggestion is of greater value than yours. A. All things considering B. All things considered C.All things were considered D. With all things were considered 25. ________, we will surely succeed. A. The teacher helping us B. The teacher to help us C. The teacher will help us D. With the teacher helping 26.All her time _______ experiments, she has no time for films. A. devoted to do B. devoted to doing C. devoting to doing D. is devoted to doing 27. All the preparations for the project _______, we‘re ready to start. A. completed B. have been completed C. had been completed D. been completed 28. All the preparations for the project _______, and we‘re ready to start. A. completed B. have been completed C. had been completed D. been completed 29. Such _______ the case, I couldn‘t help but_______ him. A. being, support B. was, support C. has been, supporting D. is, to support 30. Such _______ the case, so I couldn‘t help but_______ him. A. being, support B. was, support C. has been, supporting D. is, to support

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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非谓语动词高考考点经典易混易错 30 题:
1.(1)Smoking means ______ yourself with your own hands. A. to kill B. killed C. killing D. kill (2)I‘m sorry? but I didn‘t mean ______ you. A. to hurt B. hurt C. hurting D. having hurt 2.(1)I regret ____ you that your mother is absent in Beijing. (2)I don‘t regret _____ her what I thought even if it might have upset her. A. to tell B. to telling C. having told D. tell 3. ⑴We don‘t allow _____ in the reading room. ⑵We don‘t allow them _____ in the reading room. A. to smoke B. smoking C. smoke D. smoked 4.(1)______ hard and you‘ll make rapid progress in your English learning. (2)___hard, you‘ll make rapid progress in your English learning. A. Working B. To work C. Work D. Worked 5. ⑴_____ , we went for a swim in the river. ⑵_____, so we went for a swim in the river. A. Being hot B. It being hot C. As it hot D. It was hot 6. ⑴The flower needs ______ right now. A. water B. watering C. to water D. being watered ⑵The warm-blooded animals don‘t need____. A. hibernate B. to hibernate C. hibernating D. being hibernated 7.⑴I can‘t help ____ when I hear that terrible noise. (2)He said he couldn‘t help but ____ when he heard that terrible noise. A. laughing B. laughed C. laugh D. being laughed ⑶I can‘t help ____ the room, for I am very busy now. A. clean B. cleaning C. have clean D. cleaned 8. ⑴In the _____ week we‘ll have another exam. ⑵In the week ____,we‘ll have another exam. A. coming B. to come C. come D. came 9⑴_____from the tower, our Tianjin city looks more beautiful. ⑵_____ from the tower, we can see our beautiful Tianjin city . A. Seeing B. Seen C. To see D. Having seen 10.⑴The sport meet ______ next week is of great importance.
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⑵The sports meet ______ now is very important ⑶The sports meet ____ last week is of great importance. A. holding B. being held C. to be held D. held 11.⑴He raised his voice in order to make us ___ him. ⑵He raised his voice in order to make himself _____. A. heard B. hearing C. hear D. to be heard 12.(1)He stood there with his eyes _________ his mother. (2)He stood there, _______his mother. A. staring at B. stared on C. fixing upon D. fixed upon 13.⑴Most of us went to see her, ____ some girls. ⑵Most of us went to see her, some girls ____. A. include B. including C. included D. to include 14.⑴He was surprised to see some villagers ____ there. ⑵To his surprise, he saw some villagers _____ themselves. A. seat B. seated C. seating D. to seat 15.⑴The man _____ Zhaosan used to live here. ⑵The man ____ himself Zhaosan used to lived here. A. called B. calling C. to call D. call 16.⑴He had no choice but ________ at the bus-stop in the rain. (2)He had nothing to do but ________ at the bus-stop in the rain. A. to wait B. waiting C. wait D. should wait 17.⑴The book is used in English ________ countries. (2)To improve his ___ English, he practices speaking every day. A. spoken B. speaking C. to speak D. spoke 18.(1) I‘m not free this evening because I have a lot of things _. (2) He was so lazy that he had all of his washing ______. A. to do B. to be done C. doing D. done (3) I won‘t have you ________ to your mother like that. A. to speak B. spoken C. speaking D. speak 19.(1)He often see them _______ football on the playground. ⑵The missing boys were last seen _____ near the river. A. playing B. played C. play D. to play 20.(1)We are considering __up a new factory here in this town. (2) We are considering how__up a new factory here in this town. (3) The boy is considered __a good example to his classmates. A. setting B. to set C. to have set D. having set 21.⑴I‘d like ____ you for advice on how to learn English. ⑵ I‘d rather ____ my teacher for help with my English. A. to ask B. asking C. asked D. ask

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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22.⑴Soon he has got used to _____ in such a climate. (2)He used to ______ in such a climate when he was in the army. (3)A .living B. lived C. having lived D. live 23.(1) Mr. Li is said ______ abroad? but I don‘t know which country he studied in. (2) Mr. Li is said ______ abroad? but I don‘t know which country he is studying in. A. to study B. to have studied C. to be studying D. having studied 24.(1)He did what he could_______down the weeping woman. ⑵He said he could _____ down the weeping woman. A. to calm B. calm C. calming D. calmed 25. (1)I insist that you ______ me my money back. (2)I insisted on your __________me my money back. A. give B. to give C. giving D. would give (3)The old man insisted that I ______ his wallet. A. has taken B. took C. should take D. had taken 26.(1)I don‘t enjoy _____ fun of others. (2)I don‘t enjoy _____ fun of by others. A. to make B. to be made C. making D. being made 27. (1)If time _____, I‘ll go to see my friends tomorrow. (2)Time _____, I‘ll go to see my friends tomorrow. A. permitted B. permits C. permitting D. permit 28.(1)He had no choice but ____ aloud the text in the classroom. (2)He did nothing but _____ aloud the text in the classroom A. reading B. to read C. read D. to be reading 29.(1)Would you mind my _____ her to the party? (2)Would you mind not ____to the party? A. inviting B. to be invited C. being invited D. invited 30.(1)This is an important letter. Don‘t forget __it this afternoon. (2)Don‘t look for the letter. You must have forgotten____ it this afternoon.. A. to post B. posted C. posting D. post

非谓语动词升华提高
一:基础知识总结
1.非谓语动词的语法功能 所能充当的成分 现在分 词 动名词
● ●

主语

表语

宾语

宾语 (主 语) 补足 语


定语

插入语 (独 立成分)

V-ing 形 式
]

● ● ● ● ● ●

● ●



不定式(to do) 过去分词(done)

● ●

● ●

● ●

注:常见作独立成分的非谓语动词 to tell you the truth(实话说),needless to say(不用说),to be honest/frank(老实说,坦白说),to be more exact(更确切地说), make things worse (更糟的是), to mention…(更不用说), to not Generally / Frankly / Roughly Exactly speaking (一般说来 / 坦白说 / 粗略地说/准确地说) 2.非谓语动词的变化形式(见下页表格)

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非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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非 谓 语 形 式

构成 语态 时态 主动 被动 复合结构 否定式

不 定 式

动 名 词

一般 式 进行 式 完成 式 完成 进行 式 一般 式 完成 式

to do to have done to be doing to have been doing Doing

to be done to have been done /

for sb. to do sth. 或 of sb. to do sth.

在―to‖前加 not 或 never

/ 在前加 not 特别注意复合结 构的否定式: sb‘s not doing sb‘s not having done

being done sb.或 sb‘s doing 作主语要用 sb‘s doing

having done

having been done

现 在 分 词

与动名词变化形式相同

在前加 not

二:重难点
(一)辨别谓语与非谓语
特别注意分析句子的结构才能辨别谓语与非谓语。 ①The traffic rule says young children under the age of four and a child safety seat. A. being weighed B. weighs C. weighed D. weighing ②______ blood if you can and many lives will be saved. A. Giving B. Give C. Given D. To give __ less than 40 pounds must be in

②I think it important for us to learn English very well.我认为对我们来说学好英语是非常重要的。 it 作形式主语使用动名词的句型 ①It is no use/no good/useless+doing sth. It is no use crying.哭没有用。 ②It is fun(a great pleasure, a waste of time) It is a waste of time trying to explain.设法解释是浪费时间。 2.用不定式还是用动名词作宾语有特殊规定 ①I don‘t want ____ like I‘m speaking ill of anybody, but the manager‘s plan is unfair. A. to sound B. to be sounded C. sounding D. to have sounded 类似的知识点要记牢。 help, hope, ask, refuse, decide, promise, wish, pretend, expect, arrange, learn, 如: plan, demand, dare, manage, agree, prepare, fail, determine, offer, choose, desire, elect, long 等动词后 要用动词不定式作宾语。 ②It is difficult to imagine his ________the decision without any consideration. A. accept B. accepting C. to accept D. accepted 类似的知识点要记牢。下列常见的这些动词(组)后要用动词动名词作宾语 suggest, risk, devote oneself to(建议冒险去献身) finish, imagine, bear/stand, look forward to(完成想象忍盼望) give up, delay/put off, regret, miss(放弃延期悔失去) insist on/stick to, enjoy/appreciate, fe el like, practice (坚持欣赏要实践) pay attention to, excuse, escape/avoid, object to (注意原谅逃/避反对) keep, be/get used to/be accustomed to, mind (保持习惯勿介意) be worth, set about/burst out/get down to, be busy (值得开始将忙乎) 3.用不定式还是用动名词作宾语意义不同 In some parts of London, missing a bus means ____for another hour. A. waiting B. to wait C. wait D. to be waiting 类似的知识点要记牢。 ①动词本身意义不变,跟不定式和动名词意义不同 remember to do sth. 记住要做 remember doing sth.记得过去做过 forget to do sth. 忘了已做过的事 forget doing sth. 忘记要做某事

(二)非谓语作主语、宾语的重点
1.it 充当动词不定式的形式主语或形式宾语 ①It is important for us to learn English very well.对我们来说学好英语是非常重要的。
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非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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②动词本身意义改变,跟不定式和动名词意义不同

regret to do sth.对马上要或不做的事表示遗憾 regret doing sth.对已发生的事表示遗憾或后悔 mean to do sth.打算,想要 mean doing 意味着,意思是 try to do sth. 努力做某事 try doing sth. 尝试做某事 can‘t help doing sth.情不自禁,忍不住 can‘t help (to) do sth.不能帮忙做某事 be considered to have done 被认为已经做了 consider…to be 认为是 consider doing 考虑做某事 ③动词本身意义不变,跟不定式被动式和动名词意义相同 want,need,require 接动名词表示被动意义,接不定式就要用被动式,这时主语与动名词之间为动 宾关系 These young trees require looking after(=to be looked after). The matter needs thinking over(=to be thought over). ④下列动词跟动词不定式做目的状语,跟动名词作宾语 stop to do 停下来,要做另一件事(不定式作目的状语) stop doing 停止做(动名词作宾语) go on to do 接着做另一件事(不定式作目的状语) go on doing 继续做同一件事(动名词作宾语) 4.有些动词后要用―疑问词+不定式‖结构作复合宾语 It is said that in Australia there is more land than the government knows _____. A. it what to do with B. what to do it with C. what to do with it D. to do what with it

②现在分词和过去分词作表语的区别。现在分词和过去分词作表语都是用于回答主语―怎么样‖的。现 在分词说明主语的特征,过去分词说明主语的状态。如: This dog is frightening.这条狗让人害怕。 (说明狗的特征) This dog is frightened.这条狗有些害怕。 (说明狗的心理状态) Climbing is tiring and we are completely tired after a day's climbing. 爬山是累人的,爬了一天的山我们都全累坏了。 (tiring 说明 climbing 的特征,tired 说明我们的状态) 注意:在下列句中,非谓语动词具体的语法功能 What he wanted to suggest is to cut down the price and increase the sales. 他想建议的是降价促销。 (不定式作表语,说明主语―是什么‖) My American teacher is to leave China soon. 我的美国老师即将离开中国。 (不定式作表语,表示将来) Her work is taking care of the children.她的工作是照顾小孩。 (现在分词作表语,说明主语―是什么‖) She is taking care of the children.她在照料小孩。 (构成进行时,说明主语正在执行的动作) The cup is broken.杯子碎了。 (过去分词作表语,说明主语所处的状态) The cup was broken by Peter.杯子是被彼得打坏的。 (构成被动语态,说明主语是动作的承受者)

(四)非谓语作宾语补足语的重点
1.理解下表中所列的关系 与宾语的逻辑关 非谓语 系 不定式 现在分词 过去分词 主动关系 主动关系 被动关系 与谓语动作的时间关系 ①在谓语动词后发生 ②不带 to 的不定式表示动作的全过程 同时进行 动作已经完成或表示状态

(三)非谓语作表语的重点
①不定式、动名词与分词作表语的区别。不定式和动名词作表语相当于一个名词作表语,含义是回答 主语―是什么‖;分词作表语相当于形容词作表语,含义是回答主语―怎么样‖。 Our plan is to keep the affair secret.我们的计划是让这件事成为秘密。 Their job is making wheelchairs for disabled people.他们的工作是为残疾人制造轮椅。 The music they are playing sounds exciting.他们演奏的音乐听起来令人激动。 This beautiful village remains unknown to the rest of the world. 这个美丽的村庄仍未外界所知。
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When I came in, I saw her dancing happily. (主动进行) I saw him go to the cinema.(主动,全过程) We heard her singing next door.(主动进行) We heard the song sung by her next door. (被动完成) We heard the song being sung next door. (被动进行) 2.下列动词和短语必须以用不定式作宾语补足语 wish, want, ask, require/request, order, warn, allow/permit, forbid, expect, remind, encourage, inspire, call on, depend on 注意:advise/allow/permit/forbid +宾语+不定式作宾语补足语 advise/allow/permit/forbid +动名词作宾语时

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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①What did the librarian _____ out of the library? A. permit to take B. forbid to be taken C. allow to take D. insist being taken ②I don‘t allow ______ in my office and I don‘t allow my family ______ at all. A. to smoke…smoking B. smoking…to smoke C. to smoke…to smoke D. smoking…smoking 3. 在 think, consider, find 等动词后常用 to be +adj. 结构作宾语补足语,有时 to be 省略。 We all discover him (to be) kind and honest. 4.几个特别的结构 ▲have+宾语+do/doing/done ①― have + 宾语+ do sth ‖意为―让/叫/使某人做某事‖。 此结构中的 have 是使役动词, 宾语后的 do sth 是不带 to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语。 The boss often has them work for 14 hours a day.老板经常要他们一天工作 14 个小时。 ②―have +宾语+ doing‖意为―叫/让/使某人做某事或让某种情况发生‖。宾语后面用现在分词作宾语补 足语,表示宾语与现在分词表示的动作之间为主动关系,且动作正在进行。 Don‘t have the dog barking much, Lilin. 李林,别让狗狂吠不停。 ③― have + 宾语+done‖意为―让/叫/使/请别人做某事‖或者是―遭受/遭遇了……,此时,主语是无意中 的受害者,而不是动作的执行者‖的意思。宾语后面用过去分词作宾语补足语,说明宾语与过去分 词表示的动作之间是被动关系。 We had the machine mended just now.我们 刚才请人把机器修好了。 He had his leg injured while playing football.他在踢足球时腿受了伤。 ▲get+宾语+to do/doing/done 三种结构的意义请参看上述―have+宾语+do/doing/done‖的意义解释。 He got his sister to help him with his clothes. 他让姐姐帮他洗衣服。 Can you really get that old clock going again 你真的能让那辆旧钟再走起来吗? Doris got her bad tooth pulled out in the hospital. 多丽丝在医院把坏牙拔了。 ▲catch sb. doing sth 逮住某人干某事 If she catches me reading her diary, she‘ll be furious.如果她抓住我偷看她的日记,她会愤怒的。 ▲make + oneself + done oneself 与其后的过去分词存在着动宾关系,或者说是被动关系 He raised his voice in order to make himself heard. 他提高了嗓门为了使别人听清他的讲话。

分类

形式

不定式

to do

现在 分词 过去 分词

to be done Doing being done Done

与被修饰词的逻辑关系 动宾关系 ―the last/next/first...‖ 后常接不定式作定语, 表示主谓关系 被动关系 主动关系 被动关系 被动关系

与谓语动作的时间关系 在谓语动作后发生 在谓语动作前或者后发生 在谓语动作后发生 与谓语动作同时进行 与谓语动作同时进行 在谓语动作之前发生 存在的状态或情况

It is a good chance to practice your spoken English.这是练习你的口语的好机会。 He was the last one to leave the office. 他是最后一个离开办公室的。 The woman standing over there is our English teacher.站在那边的那个妇女是我们的英语老师。 The house to be built (=which will be built/which is to be built) next year will be our new library.(将要建的) The house being built (=which is being built) now will be our new library.(正在建的) The house built (=which was built) last year is our new library now.(已经建成的) I like reading books written by Lu Xun.我喜欢读鲁迅写的小说。 2.动词不定式尾后的介词不能丢 When I handed the report to John, he said that George was the person ______. A. to send B. for sending it C. to send it to D. for sending it to

(六)非谓语作状语的重点
1.理解下表中所列的关系 与逻辑主语(即句子的主 非谓语 语)的关系 doing (一般式)作状语 主动关系 having done(完成式) 主动关系 作状语 having been done 完成 ( 被动关系 被动式)作状语 done(过去分词)作状 被动关系 语 Waiting (=When I was waiting) to see the doctor, I met with a friend of mine. Having (=Because we have) made full preparations,
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与谓语动作的时间关系 (几乎)与谓语动作同时进行 先于谓语动作发生 先于谓语动作发生 已经在过去发生或是 不十分强调时间概念

(五)非谓语作定语的重点
1.理解下表中所列的关系

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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we are sure to be successful. Having been shown around(=After we had been shown) the library, we were then taken to see the laboratory. Seen (=When the town is seen) from the hill, the town looks more beautiful. Locked (=When he was locked) up in the room, he found himself isolated from the outer world. 2.too…to…, enough to do…, only to…等结构表示结果 The boy is too young to join the navy.这男孩太小参不了海军。 The hall is big enough to hold 1,000 people. 这厅大得足以容纳一千人。 They lift a rock only to drop it on their own feet. 他们搬起石头结果却砸了自己的脚。 注意: 动词作结果作状语表示未曾预料的结果, 而现在分词作结果状语表示自然而然或必然的结果。 Her husband died in 1942, leaving her with five children. The bus was held up by snowstorm, thus causing the delay. 3.分词(短语)作状语的附着规则 使用分词(短语)作句子状语时,有一条规则必须遵守:即分词(短语)的逻辑主语应当与句子的主 语一致,否则句子就是错句。 _____from the top of the tower, the south foot of the mountain is a sea of trees. A. Seen B. Seeing C. Have seen D. To see 对比:Seeing from the top of the tower, we can find the south foot of the mountain is a sea of trees. 主要:已经成为固定用法的非谓语动词(短语)不需要遵守这条附着规则 常见的的有:considering…(鉴于/考虑到……),judging by/from…(从……来看,依据……来判断), supposing that…(假定……),providing that… (假定……),according to…(依据……),including…(包 括……),owing to…(由于……),talking/speaking of…(谈及……) given…(考虑到……), provided that…(如果……) 4.独立主格结构和 with 复合结构 ▲逻辑主语+不定式/现在分词/过去分词 I send you 100 dollars today, the rest to follow in a year. 今天我先给你寄 100 美元。其余的钱一年内陆续寄过去。 Weather permitting, I‘ll go to the park with my parents on Sunday. 如果天气允许,星期天我将和爸妈去公园。 All things considered, the planned trip will have to be called off. 考虑到所有的情况,原来计划好的旅行不得不取消。 ▲with(without)+宾语+不定式/现在分词/过去分词 With a lot of difficult problems to settle , the newly—elected president is having a hard time. 有很多难题要解决新任总统日子可不好过!
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Without anything to eat, he died of hunger. 由于没有东西吃,他饿死了。 The Yangtze river is very busy with so many boats and ships coming and going every day. 每天长江上各种船只来来往往显得格外忙碌。 Without any more time given, we couldn't finish the task in three weeks. 如果不另给我们时间的话,我们三星期之内完成不了任务。 With everything well arranged, he left the office. 一切都安排妥善之后,他离开了办公室。

(七)不定式的省略
不定式的省略我们可以分作两种,一种是对不定式符号―to‖的省略(如:make sb. do sth 等) ;另 一种则是不定式符号― to ‖后省略实义动词的形式。这儿讲的是第二种情况(又称不定式符号 to 的替 代作用) 。 常见情形有: ①would/should like/love to, used to, have to, ought to, be going to, be able to, be willing to 等后 面的 to 均 为不定式符号,重复时可省略 to 后该不定式短语。如: — Could you lend me your dictionary? 能把你的词典借给我吗? — I‘d like to (lend you my dictionary). 行。 ②动词 afford, agree, expect, forget, hope, intend, manage, need, pretend, refuse, try, want, wish 等后面常 接不定式短语作宾语,重复时可省略 to 后该宾语。如: You may ask him for help if you want to (ask him for help). 如果你愿意,可以请他帮你。 ③ 动词 allow, beg, expect, forbi d, force, invite, order, permit, tell, persuade 等后面常接不定式短语 作宾语补足语,重复时可省略 to 后该宾语补足语。 如:I‘ll go to her birthday party if she invites me to (go to her birthday party). 如果她邀请我参加她的生日聚会,我会去。

(八)非谓语动词的逻辑主语
一般说来非谓语动词的逻辑主语要么就是句子的主语或宾语,要么就是被它所修饰的中心词。 但是有时需要明确非谓语动词所表示动作的执行者或承受者,这时就要标明它的逻辑主语。 ①当动名词短语作主语、宾语或表语时,具有名词特性,其逻辑主语由―名词所有格或形容词性物主 代词‖表示,放在动名词短语之前。当动名词短语不在句首时,也可由―名词普通格或代词宾格‖ 表示。 Helen‘s/Her being absent made the teacher very angry. 海伦/她没来上课,让老师很生气。 They insisted on my/me speaking at the meeting. 他们坚持要我在会上发言。 ②形容词+for + 名词或代词 + 动词不定式 形容词通常表示事物的性质

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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I t is necessary for you to finish the work before Friday. 你们有必要在星期五前做完这项工作。 His idea is for us to travel in different cars. 他的主意是让我们乘不同的车去旅游。 ③形容词+of+ 名词或代词 + 动词不定式 形容词往往表示人物的性格和特征 How careless it is of him to break such a valuable vase! 他真不小心,把如此贵重的花瓶打破了。 It‘s brave of you to go into the burning building to save the baby! 你真勇敢,冲进着火的大楼里救这个婴儿 (九)关于 there be 的非谓语形式 there be 非谓语形式可在句中作主语、宾语、状语和定语 1.作动词宾语时,通常用 there to be 结构,而不用 there being。能这样用的及物动词为:expect,like, mean,intend,want,prefer,hate 等,如: We don't want there to be any comrades lagging behind. 我们不希望有任何同志掉队。 They hate there to be long queues everywhere. 他们不愿意处处都要排长队。 We have no objection to there being a meeting here. 我们并不反对在这里开会。 注释:我们有动词 object to doing 这里 to 为介词因此后面的 there be 的 be 动词应该为 being. 2.作状语多用 there being 结构,但若置于介词 for 之后要用 there to be There being nobody else at hand, I had to do by myself. 由于附近没有人,我只得独自干了。(原因状语) It‘s too early for there to be anybody up. 太早了,还不会有人起床。(作程度状语) There having been no rain for a long time,the ground was very dry. 因为好长时间没下雨了,地面非常干燥。(原因状语) 3.作主语时两种结构都可以,但如是用 for 引导则要用 there to be. It is not uncommon for there to be problems of communication between old and young. 老人与年青人之间存在着沟通问题是很常见的。 There being a kindergarten on campus is a great convenience to female teachers. 校园内有幼儿园对女教师十分方便。

1.作宾语时的区别 ①I can‘t stand _____ with Jane in the same office. She just refuses______ talking while she works. A. working , stopping B. to work, stopping C. working, to stop D. to work , to stop ② Isn't it time you got down to______ the papers? A. mark B. be marked C. being marked D. marking ③There is a new problem involved in the popularity of private cars ____ road conditions need _______. A. that, to be improved B. which , to be improved C. where, improving D. when, improving ④Susan wanted to be independent of her parents. She tried alone, but she didn‘t like it and moved back home.? A. living B. to live? C. to be living D. having lived ⑤All the staff in our company are considering______ to the city centre for the fashion show. A. to go B. going C. to have gone D. having gone

2.作表语时的区别
①Tom sounds very much ______ in the job, but I‘m not sure whether he can manage it. A. interested B. interesting C. interestingly D. interestedly ②Please remain ;the winner of the prize will be announced soon. A. seating B. seated C. to seat D. to be seated

3.作宾语(主语)补足语时的区别
①The teacher asked us _________so much noise. A. don‘t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make ②—Excuse me sir, where is Room 301? —Just a minute. I‘ll have Bob ____you to your room. A. show B. shows C. to show D. showing ③A cook will be immediately fired if he was found____in kitchen. A. smoke B. smoking C. to smoke D. smoked ④To learn English well, we should find opportunities to hear English as much as we can. A. speak B. speaking C. spoken D. to speak

考点聚焦
考点一:辨别谓语与非谓语 Please do me a favor — ______ my friend Mr. Smith to Youth Theater at 7:30 tonight. A. to invite B. inviting C. invite D. invited 考点二:非谓语动词做各成分时的区别
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4.作后置定语时的区别
①If there is a lot of work _______, I‘m happy to just keep on until it is finished. A. to do B. to be doing C. done D. doing ②When I handed the report to John, he said that George was the person ______.

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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A. to send B. for sending it C. to send it to D. for sending it to ③—The last one ___________ pays the meal. —Agreed! A. arrived B. arrives C. to arrive D. arriving ④The Chinese are proud of the 29th Olympic Games ______in Beijing in 2008. A. hold B. holding C. held D. to be held ⑤Reading is an experience quite different from watching TV; there are pictures ______ in your mind instead of before your eyes. A. to form B. form C. forming D. having formed ⑥At the beginning of class, the noise of desks ____ could be heard outside the classroom. A. opened and closed B. to be opened and closed C. being opened and closed D. to open and close ⑦The Town Hall ______ in the 1800‘s was the most distinguished building at that time. A. to be completed B. having been completed C. completed D. being completed ⑧—Can those at the back of the classroom hear me? ?—No problem. A. seat B. sit C. seated D. sat

breakdowns. A. Put B. Putting C. Having put

D. Being put

考点三:分词(短语)作状语的附属规则 ①Faced with a bill for $10,000, _______. A. an extra job has been given to John B. the boss has given John an extra job C. an extra job has been taken D. John has taken an extra job ②_________, the more expensive the camera, the better its quality. A. General speaking B. Speaking general C. Generally speaking D. Speaking generally ③___ _ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. A. Compare B. When comparing C. Comparing D. When compared 考点四:非谓语动词的特殊结构

1.不定式的复合结构和否定结构
①It was foolish ______you to give up what you rightly owned. A. for B. of C. about D. from ②To fetch water before breakfast seemed to me a rule_____. A. to never break B. never to be broken C. never to have broken D. never to be breaking ③The patient was warned ______oily food after the operation. A. to eat not B. eating not C. not to eat D. not eating

5.作状语时的区别
①He hurried to the booking office only _____ that all the tickets has been sold out. A. to be told B. to tell C. told D. telling ②Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, ______ a record US $57.65 a barrel on April 4. A. have reached B. reaching C. to reach D. to be reaching ③The storm left ,_____a lot of damage to this area . A. caused B. to have caused C. to cause D. having caused ④―You can‘t catch me!‖ Janet shouted, _________ away. A. run B. running C. to run D. ran ⑤ to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead. A. Fail B. Failed? C. To fail D. Having failed ⑥ around the Water Cube, we were then taken to see the Bird‘s Nest for the 2008 Olympic Games. A. Having shown B. To be shown C. Having been shown D. To show ⑦_____ in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. A. Dressed B. To dress C. Dressing D. Having dressed ⑧______ into use in April 2000, the hotline was meant for residents reporting water and heating supply
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2.动词不定式的省略结构
①—What‘s the matter with Della? —Well, her parents wouldn‘t allow her to go to the party, but she still _ A. hopes to B. hopes so C. hopes not D. hopes for ②—Would you like to join me for a quick lunch before class? — , but I promised Nancy to go out with her. A. I‘d like to B.I like it C.I don‘t D.I will ③In my opinion, life in the twenty-first century is much easier than A. that used to be B. it is used to C. it was used to D. it used to be _.

.

3.不定式的几个特别句型
①It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows______ . A. it what to do with B. what to do it with C. what to do with it D. to do what with it

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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②I like getting up very early in summer. The morning air is so good . A. to be breathed B. to breathe C. breathing D. being breathed ③—Is Bob still performing? —I‘m afraid not. He is said________ the stage already as he has become an official. A. to have left B. to leave C. to have been left D. to be left ④The flu is believed _____ by viruses that like to reproduce in the cell inside the human nose and throat. A. causing B. being caused C. to be caused D. to have caused

④John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work ______, he gladly accepted it. A. finished B. finishing C. having finished D. was finished

高考真题
2009 年 1.(全国卷 I)The children all turned the famous actress as she entered the classroom. A. looked at B. to look at C. to looking at D. look at 2.(全国卷 I)Now that we‘ve discussed our problem, are people happy with the decisions ? A. taking B. take C. taken D. to take 3.(全国卷 II)They use computers to keep the traffic smoothly. A. being run B. run C. to run D. running 4.(北京卷)For breakfast he only drinks juice from fresh fruit ___ on his own farm. A. grown B. being grown C. to be grown D. to grow 5. 北京卷) of them try to use the power of the workstation ___ information in a more effective way. ( All A. presenting B. presented C. being presented D. to present 6.(北京卷)_______ twice, the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we changed our dog. A. Being bitten B. Bitten C. Having bitten D. To be bitten 7.(上海卷)A small plane crashed into a hillside five miles east of the city, _____all four people on board. A. killed B. killing C. kills D. to kill 8.(上海卷)With the government‘s aid, those _____ by the earthquake have moved to the new settlements. A. affect B. affecting C. affected D. were affected 9.(上海卷)Bill suggested _____ a meeting on what to do for the Shanghai Expo during the vacation. A. having held B. to hold C. holding D. hold 10.(上海卷)David threatened his neighbour to the police if the damages were not paid. A. to be reported B. reporting C. to report D. having reported 11.(天津卷)______ the project in time, the staff were working at weekends. A. Competing B. Having completed C. To have completed D. To complete 12.(天津卷)_____ by the advances in technology, many farmers have set up wind farms on their land. A. Being encouraged B. Encouraging C. Encouraged D. Having encouraged
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4.动名词的复合结构和否定结构
①_____the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. A. The president will attend B. The president to attend C. The president attended D. The president‘s attending ②— They are quiet, aren‘t they? —Yes. They are accustomed________ at meals. A. to talk B. to not talk C. to talking D. to not talking ③The news of _______ greatly made us surprised a lot as he was indeed very excellent. A. not his having elected B. not his being elected C. his not being elected D. his not having elected 注意:现在分词的否定式也是在其 前加 not。 _______the program, they have to stay there for another two weeks. A. Not completing B. Not completed C. Not having completed D. Having not completed

5.独立主格结构与 with 复合结构
①The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent ________at the end of last March. A. has been launched B. having been launched C. being launched D. to be launched ②The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons _______ for the day. A. finishing B. finished C. had finished D. were finished ③—Come on, please give me some ideas about the project. —Sorry. With so much work _______ my mind, I almost break down. A. filled B. filling C. to fill D. being filled

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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13.(重庆卷)Michael‘s new house is like a huge palace, with his old one. A. comparing B. compares C. to compare D. compared 14.(重庆卷)With the world changing fast, we have something new with all by ourselves every day. A. deal B. dealt C. to deal D. dealing 15.(安徽卷)The play next month aims mainly to reflect the local culture. A. produced B. being produced C. to be produced D. having been produced 16.(福建卷) not to miss the flight at 15:20, the manager set out for the airport in a hurry. A. Reminding B. Reminded C. To remind D. Having reminded 17.(福建卷)In April, 2009, President Hu inspected the warships in Qingdao, the 60th anniversary of the founding of the PLA Navy. A. marking B. marked C. having marked D. being marked 18.(湖南卷)When he the door, he found his keys were nowhere. A. would open B. opened C. had opened D. was to open 19.(湖南卷)At the age of 29, Dave was a worker, in a small apartment near Boston and ______ what to do about his future. A. living; wondering B. lived; wondering C. lived; wondered D. living; wondered 20.(湖南卷)Nowadays people sometimes separate their waste to make it easier for it . A. reusing B. reused C. reuses D. to be reused 21. 江苏卷) ( Schools across China are expected to hire 50,000 college graduates this year as short-term teachers, almost three times the number hired last year, reduce unemployment pressures. A. help B. to have helped C. to help D. having helped 22.(江西卷)_________ the right kind of training , these teenage soccer players may one day grew the international stars. A. Giving B. Having given C. To give D. Given 23.(江西卷)The government plans to bring in new laws _____ parents to take more responsibility for the education of their children. A. forced B. forcing C. to be forced D. having forced 24.(辽宁卷)When we visited my old family home, memory came ______ back A. flooding B. to flood C. flood. D. flooded 25.(辽宁卷) , you need to give all you have and try your best. A. Being a winner B. To buy a winner C. Be a winner D. Having been a winner 26.(宁夏卷)Now that we‘ve discussed out problem, are people happy with the decisions ?
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A. taking B. take C. taken D. to take 27.(山东卷)We are invited to a party ______in our club next Friday. A. to be held B. held C. being held D. holding 28.(陕西卷)I still remember to the Famen Temple and what I saw there. A. to take B. to be taken C. taking D. being taken 29.(四川卷)He told us whether _________ a picnic was still under discussion A. to have B. having C. have D. had 30.(四川卷)Ladies and gentlemen, please remain __________ until the plane has come to a complete stop. A. seated B. seating C. to seat D. seat 31.(四川卷)________ many times, he finally understood it. A. Told B. Telling C. Having told D. Having been told 32.(浙江卷)There is a great deal of evidence that music activities engage different parts of the brain. A. indicate B. indicating C. to indicate D. to be indicating 33.(浙江卷) and short of breath, Andy and Ruby were the first to reach the top of Mount Tai. A. To be tried B. Tired C. Tiring D. Being tired 2010 年 1.(全国 I 卷)Mrs. White showed her student some old maps _________from the library. A. to borrow B. to be borrowed C. borrowed D. borrowing 2.(全国 I 卷)With Father‘s Day around the corner, I have taken some money out of the bank______ presents for my dad. A. buy B. to buy C. buying D. to have bought 3.(全国卷 II)Though ______ to see us, the professor gave us a warm welcome。 A. surprise B was surprised C. surprised D. being surprised 4.(安徽卷)He had wonderful childhood, _____with his mother to all corners of the word. A. travel B. to travel C. traveled D. traveling

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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5.(北京卷) at my classmates' faces, I read the same excitement in their eyes. A. Looking B. Look C. To look D. Looked 6.(北京卷)I‘m calling to enquire about the position in yesterday‘s China Daily. A. advertised B. to be advertise d C. advertising D. having advertised 7.(福建卷)Lots of rescue workers were working around the clock , supplies to Yushu, Oinghai province after the earthquake. A. sending B. to send C. having sent D. to have sent 8.(福建卷)In April, thousands of holidaymakers remained abroad due to the volcanic ash cloud. A. sticking B. stuck C. to be stuck D. to have stuck 9.(湖南卷)Listen! Do you hear someone __________for help? A. calling B. call C. to call D. called 10.(湖南卷)Dina, _______ for months to find a job as a waitress, finally took a position at a local advertising agency. A. struggling B. struggled C. having struggled D . to struggle 11.(湖南卷)So far nobody has claimed the money ___________________in the library. A. discovered B. to be discovered C. discovering D. having discovered 12.(江苏卷)The retired man donated most of his savings to the school damaged by the earthquake in Yushu, ________ the students to return to their classrooms. A. enabling B. having enabled C. to enable D. to have enabled 13.(江西卷)The lady walked around the shops, an eye out for bargains. A. keep B. kept C. keeping D. to keep 14.(江西卷)There were many talented actors out there just waiting . A. to discover B. to be discovered C. discovered D .being discovered 15.(辽宁卷)We were astonished _______ the temple still in its original condition. A. finding B. to find C. find D. to be found 16.(辽宁卷)Alexander tried to get his work _______in the medical circles . A. to recognize B. recognizing C. recognize D. recognized 17.(山东卷)I have a lot of readings _____ before the end of this term.
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A. completing B. to complete C. completed D. being completed 18.(山东卷)The living room is clean and tidy, with a dining table already ______ for a meal to be cooked. A. laid B. laying C. to lay D. being laid 19.(陕西卷)_______ _from the top of the tower, the south foot of the mountain is a sea of trees. A. Seen B. Seeing C. Have seen D. To see 20.(陕西卷)His first book next month is based on a true story. A. published B. to be published C. to publish D. being published 21.(四川卷)In many people‘s opinion,that company,though relatively small,is pleasant . A. to deal with B. dealing with C. to be dealt with D. dealt with 22.(四川卷)A great number of students said they were forced to practise the piano. A. to question B. to be questioned C. questioned D. questioning 23.(四川卷)The lawyer listened with full attention, to miss any point. A. not trying B. trying not C. to try not D. not to try 24.(天津卷)I rained heavily in the south, _______ serious flooding in several provinces. A. caused B. having caused C. causing D. to cause 25.(重庆卷)The news shocked the public, to great concern about students‘ safety at school. A. having led B. led C. leading D. to lead 26.(重庆卷)Many buildings in the city need repairing, but the one first is the library. A. repaired B. being repaired C. repairing D. to be repaired 27.(浙江卷)The experiment shows that proper amounts of exercise, if __ regularly, can improve our health. A. being carried out B. carrying out C. carried out D. to carry out 28.(浙江卷)The traffic rule says young children under the age of four and __ less than 40 pounds must be in a child safety seat. A. being weighed B. to weigh C. weighed D. weighing 29.(上海卷)I had great difficulty the suitable food on the menu in that restaurant. A. find B. found C. to find D. finding 30.(上海卷)Lucy has a great sense of humour and always keeps her colleagues_______ with her stories. A. amused B. amusing

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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C. to amuse D. to be amused 31.(上海卷) the city centre, we saw a stone statue of about 10 metres in height. A. Approaching B. Approached C. To approach D. To be approached 32.(上海卷)Thai is the only way we can imagine the overuse of water in students' bathrooms. A. reducing B. to reduce C. reduced D. reduce 2011 年 1.(新课标卷)The next thing he saw was smoke ______ from behind the house. A. rose B. rising C. to rise D. risen 2.(大纲卷)The island, ______ to the mainland by a bridge, is easy to go to. A. joining B. to join C. joined D. having joined 3.(大纲卷)Sarah pretended to be cheerful, ______nothing about the argument. A. says B.said C. to say D. saying 4.(北京卷)It‘s important for the figures _________ regularly. A. to be updated B. to have been updated C . to update D. to have updated 5.(北京卷)33. Sit down, Emma. You will only make yourself more tired, ________ on your feet. A. to keep B. keeping C. having kept D. to have kept 6.(上海卷)It‘s no use ____________ without taking action. A. complain B. complaining C. being complained D. to be complained 7.(上海卷)The rare fish, _____ from the cooking pot, has been returned to the sea. A. saved B. saving C. to be saved D. having saved 8.(上海卷)At one point I made up my mind to talk to Uncle Sam. Then I changed my mind, ____ that he could do nothing to help. A. to realize B. realized C. realizing D. being realized 9.(上海卷)Today we have chat rooms, text messaging, emailing… but we seem _____ the art of communicating face-to-face. A. losing B. to be losing C. to be lost D. having lost 10.(山东卷)Look over there—there‘s a very long, winding path______ up to the house. A. leading B. leads C. led D. to lead 11.(江西卷)On receiving a phone call from his wife _____ she had a fall, Mr Gordon immediately rushed home from office. A. says B. said C. saying D. to say 12. (江苏卷) Recently a survey _____ prices of the same goods in two different supermarkets has caused
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heated debate among citizens. A. compared B. comparing C. compares D. being compared 13.(安徽卷)Tom asked the candy makers if they could make the chocolate easier _____ into small pieces. A. break B. breaking C. broken D. to break 14.(浙江卷)Even the best writers sometimes find themselves ______ for words. A. lose B. lost C. to lose D. having lost 15.(浙江卷) Bats are surprisingly long-lived creatures, some _________a life span of around 20 years. A. having B had C. have D. to have 16.(浙江卷)If they win the final tonight, the team are going to tour around the city ______ by their enthusiastic supporters. A. being cheered B. be cheered C. to be cheered D. were cheered 17.(福建卷)Tsinghua University, ____ in 1911,is home to a great number of outstanding figures. A. found B. founding C. founded D. to be founded 18.(福建卷)The difference in thickness and weight from the earlier version makes the iPad 2 more comfortable _______. A. held B. holding C. be held D. to hold 19.(四川卷)Lydia doesn‘t feel like_____ abroad. Her parents are old. A. study B. studying C. studied D. to study 20.(四川卷)Simon made a big bamboo box _______ the little sick bird till it could fly. A. keep B. kept C. keeping D. to keep 21.(四川卷)_________ an important role in a new movie, Andy has a chance to become famous. A. Offer B. Offering C. Offered D. To offer 22.(辽宁卷)______ around the fire, the tourists danced with the local people. A. Gather B. To gather C. Gathering D. To be gathering 23.(天津卷)Passengers are permitted _____ only one piece of hand luggage onto the plane. A. to carry B. carrying C. to be carried D. being carried 24.(天津卷)______ into English, the sentence was found to have an entirely different word order.

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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A. Translating B. Translated C. To translate D. Having translated 25.(陕西卷)Claire had luggage _______ an hour before her plane left. A. check B. checking C. to check D. checked 26.(陕西卷)More highways have been built in China, ___________it much easier for people to travel form one place to another. A. making B. made C. to make D. having made 27.(重庆卷)More TV programs, according to government to officials, will be produced _______people‘s concern over food safety. A. to raise B. raising C. to have raised D. having raised 28.(重庆卷)Michael put up a picture of Yao Ming beside the bed to keep himself ________ of his own dreams. A. reminding B. to remind C. reminded D. remind 29.(湖南卷)The ability _____an idea is as important as the idea itself. A. expressing B. expressed C. to express D. to be expressed 30. 湖南卷) ( The players ______from the whole country are expected to bring us honor in this summer game . A. selecting B. to select C. selected D. having selected 31.(湖南卷)Do you wake up every morning __________ energetic and ready to start a new day? A. feel B. to feel C. feeling D. felt 2012 年 1.(2012 全国卷 I)28. The party will be held in the garden, weather _______. A. permitting B. to permit C. permitted D. permit 2.(2012 全国卷 I)32. Film has a much shorter history, especially when _______ such art forms as music and painting. A. having compared to B. comparing to C. compare to D. compared to 3.(2012 全国卷 II)10. Tony lent me the money, ___ that I‘d do as much for him. A. hoping B. to hope C. hoped D. having hoped 4.(2012 全国卷 II)15. The old man sat in front of the television every evening, happy ___ anything that happened to be on. A. to watch B. watching
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C. watched D. to have watched 5.(2012 北京卷)23. One learns a language by making mistakes and ______ them. A. corrects B. correct C. to correct D. correcting 6.(2012 北京卷)27. _______ with care, one tin will last for six weeks. A. Use B. Using C. Used D. To use 7.(2012 北京卷)32. Birds‘ singing is sometimes a warning to other birds ________ away. A. to stay B. staying C. stayed D. stay 8.(2012 上海卷)27. As Jack left his membership card at home, he wasn't allowed into the sports club. A. going B. to go C. go D. gone 9.(2012 上海卷)33. When Peter speaks in public, he always has trouble________ the right things to say. A. thinking of B. to think of C. thought of D. think of 10.(2012 上海卷)36. The club, __ 25 years ago, is holding a party for past and present members. A. founded B. founding C. being founded D. to be founded 11.(2012 上海卷) 39. "Genius" is a complicated concept, __ many different factors. A. involved B. involving C. to involve D. being involved 12.(2012 天津卷)11. He got up late and hurried to his office, _________the breakfast untouched. A. left B. to leave C. leaving D. having left 13.(2012 江苏卷) 31. ________ an important decision more on emotion than on reason, you will regret it sooner or later. A. Based B. Basing C. Base D. To base 14.(2012 安徽卷)24. I remembered ________ the door before I left the office, but forgot to turn off the lights. A. locking B. to lock C. having locked D. to have locked 15.(2012 安徽卷)30. When ________ for his views about his teaching job, Philip said he found it very interesting and rewarding. A. asking B. asked C. having asked D. to be asked 16.(2012 湖南卷) 21. We‘ve had a good start, but next, more work needs ________ to achieve the final success. A. being done B. do C. to be done D. to do 17.(2012 湖南卷)23. Time, ________ correctly, is money in the bank. A. to use B. used C. using D. use 18.(2012 湖南卷)31. The lecture, ________ at 7:00 pm last night, was followed by an observation of the moon with telescopes.

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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A. starting B. being started C. to start D. to be started 19.(2012 福建卷)28.China recently tightened its waters controls near the Huangyan Island to prevent Chinese fishing boats from ______in the South China Sea. A. attacking B. having attacked C. being attacked D. having been attacked 20.(2012 福建卷)34.Pressed from his parents,and _____that he has wasted too much time, the boy is determined to stop playing video games. A. realizing B. realized C. to realize D. being realized 21.(2012 陕西卷)15.________ in a long queue, we waited for the store to open to buy a New iPad. A. Standing B. To stand C.Stood D. Stand 22.(2012 陕西卷)22. If he takes on this work, he will have no choice but ______ an even greater challenge. A. meets B. meeting C. meet D. to meet 23.(2012 山东卷)26. George returned after the war, only _______ that his wife had left him. A. to be told B. telling C. being told D. told 24.(2012 山东卷)35. After completing and signing it, please return the form to us in the envelope ________. A. providing B. provided C. having provided D. provide 25.(2012 重庆卷)23. ________ to work overtime that evening, I missed a wonderful film. A. Having been asked B. To ask C. Having asked D. To be asked 26.(2012 重庆卷)28. We‘re having a meeting in half an hour. The decision ________ at the meeting will influence the future of our company. A. to be made B. being made C. made D. having been made 27.(2012 四川卷)6. Tom took a taxi to the airport, only ________ his plane high up in the sky. A. finding B. to find C. being found D. to have found 28.(2012 四川卷) 8. I looked up and noticed a snake ________ its way up the tree to catch its breakfast. A. to wind B. wind C. winding D. wound 29.(2012 四川卷)12. Before driving into the city, you are required to get your car________. A. washed B. wash C. washing D. to wash 30.(2012 江西卷)33.Having finished her project, she was invited by the school______ to the new students. A.speaking B.having spoken C.to speak D.to have spoken 31.(2012 江西卷)35.John has really got the job because he showed me the official letter ______ him it. A.offered B.offering C.to offer D.to be offered 32.(2012 浙江卷)3.No matter how bright a talker you are, there are times when it's better _____ silent. A. remain B. be remaining C. having remained D. to remain
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33.(2012 浙江卷)11. "It's a such nice place," Mother said as she sat at the table________ for customs. A. to be reserved B. Living reserved C. reserving D. reserved 34.(2012 辽宁卷)25. The old couple often take a walk after supper in the park with their pet dog ________them. A. to follow B. following C. followed D. follows 35.(2012 辽宁卷)26. Rod loves________ clocks. However, he never manages to put them together again. A. taking apart B. giving away C. making up D. turning off 36.(2012 辽宁卷)29. This machine is very easy________. Anybody can learn to use it in a few minutes. A. operating B. to be operating C. operated D. to operate

高考模拟题精选 1.—What do you do yesterday afternoon?? —I went to the bookstore,___ some books and visited my uncle. A. to buy B. bought C. Buy D. buying? 2.________ a pleasant, small conversation with someone you don‘t know, and people will feel relaxed and enjoy your company. A. Starting B. To start C. Start D. Having started 3.Shella forgot all about the dog and the TV set, ________ in the new magazine that had come in the mail. A. deeply lost B. deeply losing C. was deeply lost D. and deeply lost 4. Can you imagine what difficulty people had this year ________against the severe natural disasters? A. fighting B. to fight C. fought D. fight 5.With everything she needed ,she went out of the shop. A. bought B. to buy C. buying D. buy 6.In common practice, an Englishman starts a conversation ________ with ―What a good day!‖and ________ it with phrases like ―See you.‖ or ―Bye.‖ A. beginning; ending B. begins; ending C. beginning; ends D. begins; ends 7.—What are you going to do this evening? —We are considering and it is considered a good idea. A. going swimming;to be B. to go swimming;being

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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C. going swimming;being D. to go swimming;to be 8.—How is he getting along with his swimming? — he‘s only been learning for a week, he‘s doing really well. A. Considered B. Being considered C. To consider D. Considering 9.Almost everyone, teenagers in particular, enjoyed using text messaging, and they began to create a new language for messages ________―texting‖. A. to call B. calling C. called D. having called 10.All passengers ________ injured in the accident were sent to the nearby hospital in no time. A. to find B. being found C. to be found D. found 11.The early warning of floods,________over the radio and on TV, spread quickly through the area. A. having broadcast B. broadcasting C. broadcast D. to be broadcast 12.Carbon dioxide ________ from burning fuels is the most common of the socalled greenhouse gases. A. producing B. having been produced C. to be produced D. produced 13.In his victory speech, ________ before a huge crowd of his supporters, Obama declared that change has come to America. A. ha ving delivered B. to be delivered C. delivering D. delivered 14.The win in the 100meter butterfly gives the American swimmer Michael Phelps eight gold medals in Beijing, ________ the record set by American legend Mark Spitz at the 1972 Munich Games. A. breaking B. broken C. to break D. being broken 15.—He didn‘t feel a bit nervous when ________. —No. He‘d had a lot of time ________ for it after all. A. interviewing; to prepare B. interviewed; to prepare C. interviewing; preparing D. being interviewed; preparing 16.The psychological consultation centers have seen a sharp rise in the number of students looking for help, most ________ they were confused and depressed. A. said B. to say C. say D. saying 17.The boy is looking forward to________ if his mother is coming. A. see B. seeing C. seen D. saw 18.While shopping, people sometimes can‘t help into buying something they don‘t really need. A. to persuade B. persuading C. being persuaded D. be persuaded 19.—Have you seen Mr. Li today?
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—No, he is said Wuhan on business. A. to go to B. to have been to C. to have gone to D. to has 20.The foreigner explained again and again but he still couldn‘t make himself . A. understand B. understood C. be understood D. understanding 21.It rained for two weeks on end,completely our holiday. A. ruined B. to ruin C. ruining D . ruins 22.Madame Michel found herself in an _______ position, and therefore she felt rather _______. A. embarrassing; embarrassed B. embarrassed; embarrassed C. embarrassing; embarrassing D. embarrassed; embarrassing 23.I expected ________many students in the classroom,but in fact no one was in it. A. to have B. there was C. there to have D. there to be 24.Quite a few people ________ that disaster was sure to strike if a mirror was broken. A. were used to believe B. were used to believing C. used to believe D. used to believing 25.All along the way to the tourist destination, he would sometimes slow down the car________ sure if we were going the right way. A. making B. to make C. made D. to be making 26.When I came there, I found him ________at the back of the hall with his eyes ________on a book. A. seating; fixing B. seated; fixed C. seating; fixed D. seated; fixing 27._______ Sunday, rather than _______ at home, I preferred _______. A. It being; stay; to travel B. Being; to stay; to travel C. shavings been; stay; travel D. It was; to stay; travelling 28. in a heavy traffic jam is quite an unpleasant experience. A. Caught B. Having caught C. Being caught D. To catch 29.A powerful earthquake struck Haiti‘s capital,________tens of thousands homeless and buried in ruins. A. left B. to leave C. being left D. leaving 30.When the minister came to the snow-stricken area, he was happy to see the disaster victims well________. A. take care of B. took care of C. taken care of D. taking care of

非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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31.A few days after the interview I received a letter ________my admission to the university. A. offering B. offered C. having offered D. to be offered 32.Cao Cao‘s tomb is reported ________in Anyang, which attracts nationwide attention. A. being found B. to be found C. having been found D. to have been found 33.After suffering a heart attack, Michael Jackson was pronounced dead, ________a tragic end to the world‘s most popular entertainer. A. marking B. to mark C. marked D. having marked 34.You can hardly imagine the efforts I have made ________the goal. A. to achieve B. of achieving C. to of achieving D. to have achieved 35.—Be careful!Don‘t forget you are on a ladder. —But you are holding it for me, nothing________. A. worry about B. to worry about C. is worried about D. worrying about

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非谓语动词(Non-predicate Verbs) 2013 年 4 月 20 日

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1—5 CABCD 6—10 AADCC 1-5 BCABC 6-10 DAADD 16-20 DBBBC 21-25 CDABB
1-5 BCCAC 6-10 DBBBC

11-15 BCCAC 26-30 BABAB
11-15 CDABB

非谓语动词经典易混易错 30 题答案 KEY: 1.①C②A2.①A②C3.①B②A4.①C②A 5.①B②D6.①B②B7.①A②C③A 8.①A②B 9.①B②A 10.①C②B③D 11.①C②A 12.①D②A 13.①B②C14.①B②C15.①A②B 16.①A②C 17.①B②A18.①A②D③C 19.①C②A 20.①A②B③C 21.①A②D22.①A②D 23.①B②C 24.①A②B25.①A②C③D 26.①C②D 27.①B②C 28.①B②C 29.①A②B 30.①A②C 2012 年:1-5:ADAAD 11-15:BCBBB 21-25:ADABA 6-10:CABAA 16-20:CBACA 26-30:ABCAC 31-36: BDDBA D

独立主格练习题 33


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