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高考英语语法专题复习讲义-主谓一致和倒装


个性化课外辅导专家

主谓一致

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一、考点聚焦

1、语法形式上的一致 主语为单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式;主语为复数形式,谓语动词也用复数形式。 The number of students in our school is 1,700. Mary and Kelly look alike.

2、意义上一致 (1)主语形式虽为单数,但意义为复数,谓语动词用复数。 The crowd were runing for their lives. 单数形式代表复数内容的词有 people、police、cattle 等。 (2)主语形式为复数,而意义上却是单数,谓语动词用单数。The news is very exciting. 形复意单的单词有 new、 works 工厂) means 和以 ics 结尾的学科名称 physics、 ( 、 poli-tics、 economics 等。 3、就近原则。即谓语动词的单复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。如果连词 or、either … or、neither … nor、not only … but also 等连接的并列主语,如果一个是单数,一个是复数, 谓语动词与靠近它的主语一致。 Either you or I am mad. 4、应注意的若干问题 (1)名词作主语。 ①某些集体名词如 family、team 等作主语时,如果作为一个整体看待,谓语用单数, 反之用复数。 My family is going out for a trip. The whole family are watching TV. 这类词常有 audience、 class club、 committee、 company、 crew、 crowd、 enemy、 government、 group、party、public、team 等。 Population 和“a group(crowd)of + 复数名词”也适用于这种情况,强调整体用单数,强 调各个部分用复数。 ②某些集体名词如 people、police、cattle、oxen 只当复数看待,谓语动词必须用复数。 ③单、复数同形的名词作主语时,谓语动词应根据意义决定单、复数。 A sheep is over there. Some sheep are over there. ④名词所有格之后的名词被省略,这种情况一般只指商店、工场、住宅等;作主语时, 动词一般用单数。My uncle’s is not for from here. 常见的省略名词有 the baker’s 、the barbar’s、the Zhang’s 等。 表示店铺的名词一般作集体名词看待,但用作主语时,谓语动词往往用复数。如: Richardson’s have a lot of old goods to sell. ⑤当名词词组中心词为表示度量、距离、金额、时间、书名等复数名词时,往往可以根 据意义一致的原则,把这些复数名词看作一个整体,谓语用单数。 Thirty years has passed. Five minutes is enough to finish the task. ⑥不定代词 each、every、no 所修饰的名词即使以 and 或逗号连接成多主语时,谓语动

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词仍用单数形式。如: Each boy and each girl in my class has a dictionary. ⑦如果主语有 more than on e … 或 many a … 构成,尽管从意义上 看是复数内容,但它的谓语动词用单数形式。 More than one student has seen the play. Many a boy has bought that kind of toy. 但是, “more + 复数名词 + than one”结构之后,谓语用复数。 ⑧一些由两个部分构成的名词表示衣物或工具作主语时,谓语通常用复数形式。如 glasses、clothes、trousers、shoes、compasses、chopsticks、scissors 等。 但如果主语用 a kind of、a pair of、a series of 等加名词构成时,谓语动词一般用单数形 式。 A pair of shoes was on the desk. ⑨this kind of book = a book of this kind(这种书),其谓语动词;短语 this kind of men = men of this kind = these kind of men(口语) (这一类人)但 this kind of men 的谓语用单数, of this kind 和 these kind of men , men 的谓语用复数,all kinds of 后跟复数名词,谓语用复数形式。如: This kind of men is dangerous. Men of theis kind/sort are dangerous. ⑩复数形式的单、复数同形名词作主语时,按意义一致的原则,用作单数意义时,谓语 用单数,反之,谓语用复数。这类名词有 means、works、species(种类)、Chinese、Japanese 等。当它们的前面有 a、such a、this、that 修饰时,谓语用单数;有 all、such、these、those 修饰时,谓语用复数。 11如果名词词组中心词是 all、most、half、rest 等词语,所指是复数意义,谓语动词用 ○ 复数形式,反之用单数。 All of my students work hard. All of the oil is gone. 12在主谓倒装的句子中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。如: ○ Between the two windows hangs an oil painting. (2)由连接词连接的名词作主语。 ①用 and 或 both … and 连接并列主语,谓语动词通常用复数形式。但如果并列主语指 的是同一个人,同一事物或同一概念时,谓语动词用单数形式,这时 and 后面的名词没有冠 词。 Truth and honesty is the best policy. To love and to be loved is the great happiness. Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit. A knife and fork is on the table. ②当主语后面跟有 as well as、 much as、 less than、 as no along with、 with、 like、 rather than、 together with、but、except、besides、including、in addition to 等引导的词组时,采取“就远 原则” 。 ③以 or、 either … or、 neigher … nor、 only … but also 等连接的词作主语时, not 采取 “就 近原则” 。 (3)代词作主语。
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①名词型物主代词连接的动词,既可以用单数,也可以用复数,这取决于它所代替的是 单数还是复数。 Ours (Our Party) is a great Party. Your shoes are white, mine (= my shoes) are black. ②such、the same 起指示代词作用时,应根据其所指的内容来决定单、复数。 Such is our plan. Such are his last words. ③关系代词 who、that、which 等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先 行词的数一致。 ④疑问词 who、what、which 作主语时,谓语动词可根据说话人所要表达的意思决定单、 复数。 Who lives next door? It is Xiao Liu. Who lives next door? It is Wang and Li. ⑤不定代词 any、either、neither、none、all、some、more 等作主语时,要注意下列情 况: (A)单独作主语时,视其在文中的意义,动词可用单数或复数形式。Now all has been changed. All are present.(B)其后接 of 时,若 of 的宾语为不可数名词,动词用单数形式; 若 of 的宾语为复数名词或代词时,动词可以是单数,也可以是复数;在正式文体中,单数 形式的动词更常用。Do (es) any of you know about the accident? None of us has (have) seen the film. (4)分数、量词作主语。 ① “分数或百分数 + 名词” 构成的短语以及由 lot of, lots of, plenty of, a large quantity “a of, a heap of, heaps of, half of + 名词”构 成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词要与短语中 of 后面 的名词的数保持一致, 这是因为短语中后面的名词是中心词, 而短语中前面的量词是修饰语。 如: Lots of damage was caused by flood. A number of students have gone to the countryside. A large quantity of people is needed here. Quantities of food (nuts) were still on the table. ②a great deal of、a large amount of 修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用 单数;large amounts of 修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数。 ③表示数量的 one and a half 后,名词要用复数形式,但是其短语作主语时,谓语动词 用单数形式。 One and a half apples is left on the table. ④half of、(a)part of 修饰可数名词单数及不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数,修饰可数名 词复数时,谓语动词用复数。 (5)名词化的形容词作主语。 如果主语由 “the + 形容词 (或分词) 结构担任时, ” 谓语通常用复数。 这类词有 the rich、 the poor、the brave、the injured、the living、the wounded 等。如表抽象的也可以用单数,如 the unknown、the beautiful 等。 (6)从句作主语。 ①由 what 引导的主语从句,谓语动词通常用单数,但所指的具体内容是复数意义时, 谓语动词一般用复数形式。 What we need is more money. What we need are more people/teachers.
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②在 “one of + 复数名词 + who/that/which” 引导的从句结构中, 关系代词 who/that/which 的先行词是靠近它的复数名词而不是 one, 因此从句中的谓语动词也应该是复数形式。 one 如 前有 the only 则用单数形式。 This is one of the most interesting stories that have been told by my father. She was the only one of the girls who was late for class today. (7)不定式、名动词(短语)作主语用单数形式;There be 句型中 be 的单 复数取决于 be 后的第一个词的数。 There is a book, two pens on the desk. There are two pens, a book on the desk. 补充: 、倒装句的要点复习 (1)在以 there、here、now、then、such 引导的,引起人们注意的招呼句要倒装。 There goes the bell. Here comes the bus. (2)表示动态的状语,置于句首时,句子要倒装。 Off went the horse. In came the boss. From the speak er comes the doctor’s voice. (3)表示地点的词语置于句首或强调地点概念时。 South of the town lie two steel factories. Between the t wo buildings stands a tall tree. 注意:句子的主语为人称代词时,句子不倒装。 Here it is. Away they went. (4)否定词 never、seldom、hardly、scarcely、barely、rarely、little、not、nowhere、 by no means、at no time、neither、nor 等放在句首时,句子常倒装。如: By no means shall we give up. Never have I been to the USA. Seldom does she get up late in the morning. (5)在 not only … but also … no sooner … than …、hardly … when …、scarcely … when …、not until …、so … that …、such … that …句型中,主句倒装,从句不倒装,但要 注意:neither … nor … 连接的句子前后两个分句都要倒装。 Not only is she smart but also she is beautiful. Such great progress did he make that he was praised. So heavy is the box that I can’t carry it. Neither has he a pencil, nor has he a pen. (6)Only + 状语或状语从句 +其他(only 在句首时要倒装) 。 Only then did I realize the importance of learning English. (7)so 、neither、nor 放在句首时,表示前面的情况也适用于另一个人或物时,用部分 倒装。 (8)表语或状语或动词原形 + as/though + 主语 + 其他时,句子要倒装。 (在让步状 语从句中) (9)虚拟语气中用倒装代替 if。 Were I you, I would go there at once. Had you come yesterday, you could have helped us. (10)在一些表示祝愿的句子中。 Long live China!

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二、精典名题导解

选择填空 1.—Each of the students, working hard at his or her lessons, _________to go to university. —So do I .(上海 1998) A.hope B.hopes C.hoping D.hoped 解析: 答案为 B。 本题考查主谓一致中的意义一致原则, 不定代词 either、 neither、 each、 one、the other、another 以及所有的复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词应根据意义一致的原 则采用单数形式,排除 A。选项 C 是非谓语动词的一种,不能单独作谓语,亦应排除。根 据答语中的时态又可排除选项 D。 2.The number of people invited _________ fifty, but a number of them __________ absent for different reasons.(NMET 1996) A.were; was B.was; was C.was; were D.were; were 解析:答案为 C。本题考查 the number of 和 a number of 的区别。 “the number of + 复 数名词/代词”结构中的中心词是 number,“a number of + 复数名词/代词”结构中的中心词 是 of 后的复数名词或代词,故谓语动词分别用单、复数。解题关键在于仔细区分哪个是真 正的主语。 3.—David has made great progress recently. —_______, and __________.(上海 1997) A.So he has; so you have B.So he has; so have you C.So has he; so have you D.So has he; so you have 解析:答案为 B。 本题考查倒装知识。 “So + 主语 + 助动词”表“确实如此”“So + , 助动词 + 主语”表“也一样。 ” 4.—I wou ld never ever come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible! — . A. Nor am I B. Neither would I C. Same with me D. So do I 解析:答案为 B。本题主要考倒装,以 so/nor/neither 开头的倒装句子,在时态、语态、 助动词、情态动词等谓语形式上,要尽可 能与上文一致,故选 B,排除 A、D。如说“It’s the same with me”也可,但不能省略“the” 。 5.The teacher, with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, visiting a museum when the earthquake struck. A. was B. were C. had been D. would be 解析: 答案为 A。 本题考查主谓一致及时态知识, 句子的主语是 the teacher, 后面跟 with 结构表补充说明,谓语应该与最前面的主语,即 the teacher 一致,应用单数,又因事情发生 在地震的时候,因此应该 用过去进行时。 6. snacks and drinks, but they also brought cards for entertainment when they had a picnic in forest. A. Not only they brought B. Not only did they bring C. Not only brought they D. Not only they did bring 解析:答案为 B。此题考查倒装句的用法 not only…but 等有否定意义的连词及副词位 于句首,句子使用部分倒装,故选 B。

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精品讲义--主谓一致
1. One-third of the country ______ covered with trees and the majority of the citizens ______ black people. (2011· 湖南卷 26) A. is; are B. is; is C. are; are D. are; is

【解析】选 A。分数及百分比后接名词的谓语动词由名词的单复数来决定。名词为单数谓语 动词就用单数;名词为复数,谓语动词则用复数。a/the majority of(大多数)后接复数谓语动 词用复数。 2. The factory used 65 percent of the raw mat erials, the rest of which ______ saved for other purposes. (2011· 安徽卷 27) A. is B. are C. was D. were

【解析】选 D。the rest of +n.后的谓语动词单复数由名词单复数而定。此句中 which 指代 raw materials(原材料)。根据前后句的时态一致性可知要用一般过去时。进行含义。 考点 1.代词作主语 Nothing but stamps and envelopes ______ for sale. A. are B. is C. are left D. remain 【解析】选 B。nothing 作主语表单数概念,谓语动词用单数。but 后的名词不影响谓语动词 的单复数。 主谓一致的原则:形式一致;内容一致;就近一致。 1. 由 each, either, neither, one, the other, another, anyone, anybody, anything, everyone, everybody, everything, someone, somebody, something, nobody, no one, nothing 等指代单数名 词的不定代词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 2.主语是 who, what, which, all, more, most, some, any, none, the rest 等时,谓语动词的形式 须依据具体情况而定。 3. such, the same 起指示代词作用时,应根据其所指定的内容来决定单复数。 考点 2.名词作主语 Apples of this kind ______ well. A. sells B. sell C. is sold D. are sold 【解析】选 B。n. + of this kind 后的谓语动词由名词单复数来定。sell well 畅销,用主动表 被动。 1. 主语是 board, family, class, team, group, crowd, audience, company, crew, committee, enemy, government, p arty 等名词,如果作为整体,谓语动词用单数形式;如果作为其中一个一个的 成员,谓语动词用复数形式。 2. 主语是时间、距离、价格、度量衡单位等名词或短语,不论它们是单数还是复数,谓语 动词一般用单数形式。 3. 主语是 news, politics, physics, plastics, mathematics 等名词时,谓语动词常用单数形式。 4. 主语若是书名、剧名、报纸杂志名称或国家、单位名称时,即使名词是复数形式,谓语 动词也只能用 单数形式。 5. 主语是 clothes, compasses, goods, glasses, trousers, scissors, shoes, gloves 等名词时, 谓语动 词常用复数形式。 6. 主语是 kind of, type of, pair of, amount of, quantity of+名词时, 谓语动词的形式须依照 kind, type, amount, pair, quantity 的数而确定。 7. 主语是 the number of +名词复数时, 谓语动词用单数形式。 但主语是 a number of +名词复
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数时,谓语动词却用复数形式。 8. population 作主语时,谓语一般用单数;但其前有(百)分数时,谓语一般用复数。 9. 主语是 means, works(工厂), sheep, fish, Japanese, Chinese 等名词时, 谓语动词的形式须依 照它们在句中的意义来确定。 考点 3.两个或两个以上的名词连在一起作主语 No bird and no beast ______ on the lonely island. A. are seen B. is seen C. see D. sees 【解析】选 B。 no A and no B 后谓语动词用单数。 1. 用 and 连接并列主语, 谓语动词通常用复数形式。 如: To play football and to go swimming are useful for character-training. 但是如果并列主语指的是同一个人,同一事物或同一概念 时,如 bread and butter; soda and water; coffee and water; aim and end; salt and water 等,谓 语动词用单数形式。 如 When and where to go for the onsalary holiday hasn't been decided yet. 2. the+n1+and+n2 指同一个人,如 the writer and painter, 谓语动词用单数形式。 3. and 所连接的两个名词前分别有 every, each, no, many a 等修饰时,谓语动词用单数形式。 4. 主语是连接词 or, either…or…, neither…nor…, whether…or…, not… but…, not only…but also…等连接的名词或代词时,谓语动词的形式须与最接近的名词或代词保持一致。 5. 主语是“A+ with / as well as / along with / together with / like / rather than / except / but / including / plus / besides / in addition to+B”结构时,谓语须与 A 保持一致。 6. more than one+名词单数;a+名词单数+or two 等 作句子的主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。 考点 4. “the+形容词或分词”作主语 The wounded ______ been carried to hospital already. A. is B. are C. has D. have 【解析】选 D。“the+分词”指人作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数形式。 1. “the+形容词或分词”指人作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数形式。 2. “the+形容词或分词”指抽象概念作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式。 考点 5.句子 、短语作主语 Most of what has been said about the Smiths______also true of the Johnsons. A. are B. is C. being D. to be 【解析】选 B。 1. 主语是不定式或动名词时,谓语动词常用单数形式。 2. 主语是从句时, 谓语动词一般用单数形式, 但在“主语+系动词+表语”结构中, 如果是 what 从句作主语,其谓语的单复数取决于后面的表语。 3. 在强调句型“It +be +被 强调部分+ that/who …”中, be 总是用单数形式;that/who 后的谓 语动词的形式必须跟被强调的主语保持一致。 4. 定语从句中谓语动词的形式必须跟先行词保持一致。 Barbara is the only one of the athletes who ______ a winner of the 100metre race in our town since 1998. A. is B. are C. have been D. has been 【解析】选 D。 当 one 之前有 the 或 the only/very/just 时,定语从句则是修饰 the (only/very/just) one 的,谓语动词用单数。此题中后有时间状语 since 1998,故用现在完成 时。
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温馨提示:在“one of +名词复数+定语从句”结构中,定语从句的谓语动词一般用复数形式, 但当 one 前面有 the (o nly)修饰时,定语从句的谓语动词一般是用单数形式。 5. 当 There / Here be 后有几个主语时, be 与邻近的主语保持一致。

2012 届高考英语语法专题复习讲义荟萃主谓一致
1. I who ________ your English teacher will do my best to help you with your study. A.am B.is C.are D.be 2. Either the Greek or t he Australian ________ the boxing competition. A.have won B.has won C.are won D.is won 3. As the saying goes, “No news ________ good news.” A.are B.is C.has D.be 4. Paper money ________ for over a thousand years. A.have been used B.has been used C.are used D.is using

8. The singer and dancer ________ come to the party tonight. A.is to B.are to C.are going to D.was to 9. The population of China ________ larger than that of any other country in the world. A.are B.is C.have D.has 10. The atmosphere is as much a part of the earth as ________ its soil and wate r of its lakes,rivers and oceans. A.has B.do C.is D.are 11. He was very angry,because everyone except him________ i nvited to the party. A.were B.was C.is D.are 12. Either you or one of your students ________ to attend the meeting that is due tomorrow. A.are B.is C.have D.be

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个性化课外辅导专家

17. A nice gift,with many flowers ________ to me by my students on Teachers’ Day. A.is sent B.has sent C.has been sent D.was sent 18. I hoped that somebody ________ going to offer me a lift home. A.is B.are C.were D.was 19. I have finished a large part of the novel written by Dickens,the rest o f which _____ ___ very difficult. A.is B.are C.was D.were 20. The United States ________ founded in 1776. A.were B.are C.is D.was

参考答案 1. A 定语从句的谓语动词与先行词保持人称和数的一致。先行词是 I,因此定语从句的谓 语动词用 am。 2. B 并列主语用 either…or, neither…nor, not…but, 或 not only…but also 连接时, 谓语动词的 单复数由邻近主语决定,在此句中由 the Australian 决定。the Australian 指某个人,因此谓 语用单数。 3. B 句意为“正如谚语所说,‘没有消息,就是好消息’”,因 news 为不可数名词,表示单数 意义,所以答案为 B。 4. B money 为不可数名词,因此谓语用单数,又由“for…years”可知用完成式,所以选 B。 5. B 第一个 all 指人,谓语动词用复数;第二个 all 指事情,谓语动词用单数。 6. A 集体名词, people, police 作主语时, 如 谓语动词用复数; 但有些集体名词, furniture, 如 jewelry 等作主语时 ,谓语用单数。 7. B 当 quantities 修饰名词作主语时谓语动词用复数。句意: 大量的新鲜水果和蔬菜从我 国船运到全世界。 8. A the singer and dancer 指一个人所兼的两个称谓,因此谓语动词用单数。 9. B 当 population 单独作主语时谓语动词用单数;若前面有具体数词修饰时谓语动词用复 数。如:Eight y percent of the population of this country are farmers.这个国家百分之八十的人 口是农民。 1 0. D 此处 soil and water 是主语,故用 are。 11. B 句意:他很生气,因为除他以外的所有人都被邀请参加那次聚会。当主语后面带有 except 等词时,谓语动词与主语一致,everyone 作主语时谓语动词用单数。
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个性化课外辅导专家
12. B 考查就近原则,真正的主语是 one of your students,故用 is。 13. A 当数词+表示重量等的名词作主语时谓语动词用单数。 14. C 分数或百分数 作主语时,谓语动词必须与分数或百分数后面的名词或代词保持人称 和数的一致。 15. B the number of+复数名词,其主语是 number,故谓语动词用单数,意为“……的数量”。 16. D all, most, half, the rest 作主语时,谓语动词的数由它们代表的名词决定,若代表可数 名词,谓语用复数;否则用单数。 17. D 当主语后面带有 with 等词语时谓语动词与主语在人称和数上一致,句子的主语是 a nice gift,故谓语动词用单数。由句中的时间状语可知应用一般过去时 ,故答案为 D。 18. D somebody 为单数,因此谓语用单数。 19. A the rest 指代不可数名词或单数可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 20. D States 虽然是复数形式,然而 the United States 指一个国家,因此谓语用单数。

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