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lesson one for ME-terminology1

? Pre-Test 1 ? 1. The combining form hepato means _______________. ? a. stomach b. kidney c. liver d. lung ? 2. The combining form pnoea in dyspnoea or tachypnoea means _____________. ? a. eat b. sleep c. breath d. walk ? 3. The combining form for lung is ___________. ? a. pleuro b. pulmo c. bronchi c. throraco ? 4. The word pectoral refers to the ________. ? a. breast b. leg c. feet d. waist ? 5. The combining form for hard is _______. ? a. jejuno b. caeco c. sclero d. tracheo

? 6. Cervical spondylosis is a disease that affects the middle-aged and elderly. Which ? part of the body is being affected? ? a. neck ? b. uterus ? c. legs ? d. arms

? 7. Chronic cholecystitis is characterized by repeated attacks of severe, sharp pain. ? Where does the pain come from? ? a. ovary ? b. lower back ? c. knee ? d. bladder

? 8. Malignant nephrosclerosis is a condition associated with severe high blood pressure. This is a serious condition of the ? a. kidneys ? b. heart ? c. arteries ? d. neck

? 9. Blood clots in the hepatic artery generally do not require surgery to correct the problem even though an obstruction can cause injury. Where is this artery located? ? a. intestine ? b. heart ? c. leg ? d. liver

? ? ? ? ? (a) -ectomy (b) –phasia (c) –logy (d) -plasty (e) -plegia 1. study of 2. surgical repair 3. condition of paralysis 4. removal of 5. condition of speech

There are three basic parts to medical terms: a word root (usually the middle of the word and its central meaning), a prefix (comes at the beginning and usually identifies some subdivision or part of the central meaning), and a suffix (comes at the end and modifies the central meaning as to what or who is interacting with it or what is happening to it).

? therm = heat ? hypothermia (less heat), thermometer (measuring heat) ? myocarditis ? (prefix) (root) (suffix) ? myo = muscle card = heart itis = inflammation

? ? ? ? ? ?

Prefix change: myocarditis = muscle layer of heart inflamed pericarditis = outer layer of heart inflamed endocarditis = inner layer of heart inflamed Suffix change: cardiologist = a physician specializing in the heart ? Cardiomyopathy = damage to heart muscle layer ? Cardiomegaly = enlargement of the heart

How Does Medical Terminology Work?
Most medical terms can be broken down into one or more word parts. (1) roots, (2) prefixes, (3) suffixes, and (4) linking or combining vowels.

? Pericarditis can be divided into three parts: peri - card - itis. "peri" translates to "surrounding", "card" translates to "heart", and "itis" translates to "inflammation". Hence, pericarditis is an inflammation of the area surrounding the heart, or an inflammation of the outer layer of the heart, anatomically known as the pericardium.

? An example of this would be the prefix "brady", which means "slow". If "brady" is added to the root "card", the term "bradycard" - which roughly means "slow heart" - is created. Then, if the suffix "ia" - which means "abnormal state" - is added to "bradycard", the medical term "bradycardia" is formed. The translation of bradycardia (brady - card - ia) is slow - heart abnormal state, or the abnormal state of a slow heart rate.

? As was discussed above, a medical term must have at least one root, but does not have to have a prefix and/or a suffix. An example of this is the term "sternocleidomastoid", which is a muscle that has attachments at the sternum, the clavicle, and the mastoid. The term sternocleidomastoid can be divided into three parts (three roots, in this case): stern - o - cleid - o - mastoid. Notice that there are vowels between the three roots.

? These are "linking or combining vowels", which serve to make a term easier to pronounce. The vowel used most of the time is "o", but other vowels such as "i" and "a" are also used. Combining vowels are often used between roots and suffixes or roots and other roots, but they are NOT used between prefixes and roots.

Section 1 Prefix
? 一、表示“无、抗、非”的前缀 无可以进一步理解为离

? ? ? ?

1.a-, an-without or absence of abacteria(无菌的) asymmetrical(不对称的) anemia(贫血) anesthesia(无感觉,麻醉) anaerobe(厌氧菌) anaplasia(发育不全)

? 1. 无 abacteria 无菌的, anemia 贫血(无血之意)。 Abiosis 无生命 ? 2. 否定 asymmetrical 不对称的,asynergy 不协调,共济 失调 ? 3. 离开 aspiration 吸引(即吸除之意) ? 4. An-在元音前用ananesthesia 无感觉,麻醉,analgesia 无痛法,痛 觉消失,

? 2.ab-去,离开,除 from; away from ? abnormal(不正常的) abjunction(分隔)
? abarticular(关节外的) abentric(肠外的)

ablactation 断奶 Abneural 神经外的

? 3.ant-, anti-对抗,解除,取消,抑制against ? antagonistic(对抗的) antacid(制酸剂) ? antibody(抗体) antigen(抗原) ? antitoxin(抗毒素) ? antipyretic(解热的,解热剂)
Antispasmin 镇痉素(制剂名) Antibiotic

? 4.de--向下,减少,降低,除去,否定,离开, 解除,脱去等from; down from; lack of ? decrease(减少) descend(下降) ? deviate(背离) decompose(分解) ? deficiency(不足,缺乏) deformity(畸形, 变形—非正常形态) degeneration(退行性变)
deactivation deallergize

? 5.dis--否定,分开,相反等to undo; free from
? disability(丧失劳动能力)discomfort(不舒服) ? dislocation(脱位) discharge(放电,排出物)
Disconnect Disequilibrium

? 6.il-, im-, in-, ir? inactive(无活性的)
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

insoluble(不溶解的) impossible (不可能的)imbalance(不平衡) immature(不成熟的) impotency(不能勃起,阳痿) ——(in的变形,用于b、p、m之前) ill-health(健康不佳) ill-nourished(营养不良的) ——(in的变形,用于l之前) irregular(不规则的) irreversible(不可逆的) irrespirable(不能呼吸的) irrhythmia(心律失常) ——(in的变形,用于r之前) inacidity 无酸,inaction 无作用

? 7.non? nonhemolytic(非溶血性的) nonspecific(非特异性的)
nonsurgical 非手术的,非外科的

nonimmune 非免疫性的

? 8.un? unknown(未知的) unconsciousness(无意识)
uncomfortable 不舒适的

? 二、表示数量的前缀 ? 基数词 1.uni单,一 2.bi-, di二 3.tri三 4.quadra-, quadri-, tetra-, tetro5.penta-, pentro五 6.hex-, hexa 六 7.hept-, hepta 七 8.octa-, octo八 9.nona九 10.deca十

? II Number ? 1.uni- 单,一 unilateral (单侧的) unit (单位) ? 2.bi-, di- 二 dioxygen (二氧,分子氧) biweekly (每周二次的) ? 3.tri- 三 triangle (三角形) triple (三倍数,三个 一组) ? 4.quadra-, quadri四 quadrant (象限) quadrangle (四角形) ? 5.penta-, pentro- 五 pentagon (五角形) Penta (五角大楼) ? 6.hex- 六 hexapod (昆虫,六足节肢动物) ? 7.hept-, hepta- 七 heptachord (七弦琴) ? 8.octa-, octo- 八 octopod (八足类动物) octopus (章鱼) ? 9.nona- 九 nonagenarian (九十多岁的人 ? 10.deca- 十 decade (十年) decameter (十米)

? 11. cent(i)- 百,百分之一 century (世纪) centennial (百年纪念)centimeter (厘米) centenarian (百岁老人) centiliter ? 12. kilo- 千 kilogram(千克, 公斤) kilometer(千米, 公里) ? 13. milli- 千分之一, 毫 millimeter (毫米) milligram (毫克)

? 2, bi-、di-、diplo-、amb-、amphi-、 ampho、二、双

diplobacillus 双杆菌, diplicocus 双球菌, diploid 二倍体, diplopia 复视, diplostreptococcus 双链球菌。

? III Amount ? 1.mono- 单monotone (单调) monoxide (一氧化物) ? 2.multi-, pluri-, poly- 多multiform (多形的) multicolor (五彩缤纷的)polyangular (多角的)multiple (多的) plural (复数) ? 3.hemi-, semi- 半semicoma (半昏迷) hemisphere (半 球) ? 4.holo-, pan- 全部,完全holism (整体论) PanAmerican (泛美的)panacea (万能药) ? 5. megalo-, macro- 大,巨大megalocardia (心肥大) macro-economics (宏观经济学) ? 6.hyper-, over- 过多,超过hypertension (高血压) overaction (作用过度) ? 7.hypo-, micro-, oligo-, sub- 少,小,不足hypoactivity (活动低下)subacute (亚急性) oliguria (尿少) microscope (显微镜)

? 四、表示方位的前缀

? 707


Motor area

0.5cms posterior to the midpoint of the anterior-posterior line defines the upper limit of the motor area. The lower limit intersects the eyebrow-occiput line at the anterior border of the natural hairline on the temple. The upper 1/5 represents the lower limbs and trunk, the middle 2/5 represents the upper limbs and the lower 2/5 the face. Contralateral motor disturbance of the appropriate area. ? Sensory area This is a line parallel to the motor area and 1.5cms behind it. The sensory input to the lower limbs and trunk is represented on the upper 1/5, the middle 2/5 represents the upper limbs, and the lower 2/5 represents the face. Contralateral sensory disturbances of the appropriate area, pain and vertigo. ? Foot motor-sensory area Parallel to and 1cm lateral to the anterior-posterior line. The line is 3cms long and starts 1 cm posterior to the line representing the sensory area. Motor and sensory disturbances of the lower limbs and genito-urinary system

碎石钳 淀粉分解 硬脂酸盐 钠尿 血钾过高 乳糖尿 葡萄糖生成作用

? 五、表示异、同、均匀的前缀 ? 1.co-, col-, com-, con-, cor- 表示共同、相互、连接、 加强 ? co-用于任何字母前,col-用于l前,com-用于b,m,p前, ? con-用于c,d,f,g,j,n,q,s,t,v前,cor-用于r前 ? coenzyme(辅酶) ? combination(化合) communicable(传染的) compatible(可配的) ? concentrate(集中) condensation(浓缩) confluence(融合) ? congenerous(协同的) conjugation(结合) connection(连合) ? correlation(相互关系)

? 2.homeo-, homo-, iso- 表示相同的、均匀的、类 似的 ? homeostatic(内环境稳定的) homeotype (同型) ? homology(同种性) homograft(同种 移植物) ? iso-antigen(同种抗原) isodose(等量)

? 3.allo-, heter-, hetero-, mis-, para- 表示 不同的、异的、错的、旁的 ? allotopic(异位的) allotransplant(异种移植)
? heteresthesia(感觉差异) heterocomplement(异种补体) ? miscarriage(流产) misdiagnosis(误诊) ? paracentric(旁中央的)paracyctitis(膀胱周炎)

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

六、表示优良程度的前缀 1.normo- 正常、标准 normothermia(温度正常) normogram(正常图) 2.neo新 neonate(新生儿) neoplasm(新生物) 3.dy(i)s-, mal- 不良、困难、障碍 disadaptation(调节不良) dysfunction(功能障碍) malnutrition(营养不良) malignancy(恶性)

? 七、表示经过、通过、滤过的前缀 ? 1.dia? dialysis(透析) diarrhea(腹泻) diaphoreses(出汗) ? 2.per? percussion(叩诊) perfusion(灌注) permeable(渗透性) ? 3.trans? transposition(移位) transfusion(输血) transudate(漏出液)

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

八、表示颜色的前缀 Colour Grey/glauc(o) glaucoma Red erythr(o) erythrocyte Black melan(o) melanin White leuc(o), leuk(o) leukomyelitis Blue cyan(o) cyanosis Yellow (xantho) xanthoderma [z?nθ?'d?:m?] Green chlor(o) chloroma

diapedesis[.dai?pi‘di:sis] n. 血球渗出 短颌 牙齿矫正医师 关节强直,僵硬 脊柱后側突

Section 2 General suffix 普通后缀
? 一、名词性后缀 ? 1.-age 表示行为、状态、全体的抽象名词后缀 ? shortage(不足,缺少) curettage(刮除) lavage (灌洗法) ? 2.-cy 抽象名词 ? accuracy(精确) infancy(婴儿期) ? 3.-ence, -ance 表示性质、动作 ? influence(影响) occurrence(发生) significance (意义) ? 4.-ency, -ancy 抽象名词 ? deficiency(不足) frequency(频率) ? emergency(急救) pregnancy(妊娠)

? 5.-er,-ian,-or, -list 表示··· ··· 人、···者的人称名词 ··· ? beginner(初学者,创始人) carrier(携带者) ? physician(医师,内科医师) technician(技术员) ? operator(手术者) inhibitor(抑制物) ? specialist(专家) biologist(生物学家) ? 6.-ics, -logy 学科 ? pediatrics(儿科学) andriatrics(男科学) obstetrics (产科学) ? histology(组织学) embryology(胚胎学) morphology(形态学)

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

7.-ication, -ization 动词转化而来的抽象名词,表示·· 化 ·· · calcification(钙化) classification(分类) immunization(免疫法) hospitalization(住院) 8.-ing,-ion 动词转化而来的动名词 nursing(护理) bleeding(出血) vomiting(呕吐) division(分开) distortion(扭曲,变形) 9.-ism 表示制度、主义、现象的抽象名词 mechanism(机理、机制) socialism(社会主义) 10.-ment 表示动作、行为或具体事物 development(发育) fragment(片段) ligament(韧带)

? 11.-ness 加在形容词后构成抽象名词 ? tenderness(触痛) dampness(潮湿) ? 12.-ry 表示集合名词 ? laboratory(实验室) chemistry(化学) ? 13.–ship 表示状态 ? relationship(关系) friendship(友谊)

? 14.-th 形容词转变而来的名词 ? length(长度) width(宽度) depth(深度) ? 15.-ty 表示性质 ? speciality(专业) mortality(死亡) morbidity(发病率) ? 16.-ure 表示行为的后果 ? failure(衰竭) puncture(穿刺) rupture(破裂)

? 二、形容词性后缀 ? 1. –able, -ible 表示可能的,可以的 ? acceptable(易接受的) available (可用的,可得到的) ? visible(可见的) inaudible(听不 见的)

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

2.–al,-ar, -ary, -ory, -ous 表示有···的属性,···性质的 ··· ··· spinal(脊髓的) vertebral(脊椎的) cervical(颈的) muscular(肌肉的) circular(环形的) regular(规则的) ordinary(平常的) anniversary(周年的) voluntary(自愿的) sensory(感觉的) accessory(附属的) circulatory(循环的) dangerous(危险的) vigorous(有力的) previous(以前的) 3.-ant, -ent, -ive 从动词派生而来的形容词 significant(有意义的) resistant(抵抗的) infant(婴儿的) convenient(便利的) frequent(频繁的) efficient(有效的) congestive(充血的) reproductive(生殖的) contractive(收缩的)

? 4.-ed, -ful, -ic 名词转化而来的形容词 ? coded(加密码的) colored(加颜色的) limited (有限的) ? useful(有用的) successful(成功的) plentiful (丰富的) ? aerobic(需氧的) icteruc(黄疸的) hemolytic (溶血的) ? 5.-ish 表示略带··· ··的颜色 ? reddish(微红的) yellowish(微黄的) purplish (微紫的) ? 6.-less 表示没有··· ··的 ? lifeless(无生命的) hopeless(绝望的) fruitness (无效的)

? ? ? ?

二、动词性后缀 1.-ate 用于外来词构成动词 deviate vibrate anticipate 2. –en 形容词转化而来的动词,表示变、加、 使··· ··· ? soften(使·· ·软化) strengthen(加强) loosen (放松,解开) ? 3.-ize 形容词或者名词转化而来的动词,表 示···化 ··· ? neutralize(中和) depolarize(去极化) standardize(标准化)

? 三、副词性后缀 ? 1.-ly 由形容词转化而来的副词,表 示··· ··地 ? widely(广泛地) exclusively(专有的) scarcely(仅仅) ? 2.-ward(s) 表示方向的副词 ? backwards(向后) upwards(向上) inwards(向内)


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