Nike, from Small Beginnings to World Giant (I)耐克、小开
1.Nike is one of the most powerful marketing companies in the business world today, but it had very small beginning
s. The global giant company with revenues in 1996 of US $6.4 billion and profits of US $553 million started in the 1960s with the company's founders selling cheap Japanese sports shoes to American high school athletes at school track meetings, using a supply of shoes they kept in their car. One of Nike's founders, Philip Hampson Knight had been a top athlete when he was at the University of Oregon. He moved on to become a student at Stanford Business School, but retained his interest in sport. At Stanford he brought his enthusiasm for track sports to his studies, writing a paper on how to create a cheaper, better running shoe using Japanese labor, which was cheaper than American.
1.耐克是其中一个最强大的营销公司在商业世界,但却有非常小的开始。全球巨型公司,1996 年营业额为64亿美元,利润5.53亿美元开始于1960年代日本公司的创始人出售廉价运动鞋 来美国高中学校的径赛运动员会议,使用的鞋子供应他们保存在他们的汽车。耐克公司的创 始人之一,Philip Hampson 骑士被一个顶尖运动员当他是在俄勒冈大学。他搬到成为斯坦福 商学院的学生,但他保留了运动兴趣。他把他的热情斯坦福大学轨道运动到他的学业,写论文 就如何创造一个更好更便宜的跑鞋,使用日本劳动比美国还便宜。
Subsequently, Knight visited Japan and discovered a manufacturer who fitted the model of the ideal firm — Onituska Tiger Company, which made its own inexpensive, high-quality running shoes.
随后,骑士访问了日本,发现了一个厂家的模型拟合 Onituska 理想公司——老虎公司,这使它 自己的便宜,优质的跑步鞋
Back in the US, Knight got to thinking that he could actually put his knowledge into practice, and make money. He suggested to his old college track coach, Bill Bowerman, that they could work together using their skills and interests in sport and business, and capitalize on the cheaper cost of sports shoes from Japan. In 1964, they each contributed $500 to import Tiger shoes, which Knight began selling from his car at high-school track meets.
回到美国,骑士想起了,他会把知识转化为实践,和赚钱。他建议他的老教练,比尔鲍尔曼先生 大学跟踪,使他们能一起工作用他们的技能和兴趣在运动和业务 ,利用较低的成本运动鞋 ,来 自日本。在1964年,他们每个人都贡献了500美元,进口老虎鞋从他的车骑士开始出售在高中
Worried that the Japanese Company might find a more established distributor, Knight and Bowerman developed their own brand name, Nike, named after the Greek winged goddess of victory. They paid a local design student at Portland State University $35 to create the famous "Swoosh" logo, and Bowerman created the innovative pattern called the waffle-sole design, by using his wife's waffle iron to impose the pattern on the sole of the shoe. By 1972 Nike began designing its own shoes and was contracting production out to factories in Asia. With excellent timing and a fair share of good luck, the founders of Nike were perfectly placed to cash in on America's sports leisure boom during the 1970s, when millions of Americans began jogging and running as part of their personal campaigns to keep fit and healthy.
担心日本公司就可能找到更知名的经销商,骑士和鲍尔曼先生发展他们自己的品牌、耐克、 命名的胜利女神希腊翼。他们为此付出了局部设计波特兰州立大学的学生 35美元创造的著 名的“穿戴耐克的勾形商标标志,鲍尔曼先生创造的创新模式称为 waffle-sole 设计,用他妻子 的华夫格铁将模式对鞋的鞋底。在1972年开始设计自己的耐克鞋和处于收缩状态生产工厂 在亚洲。具有优良的时间和自己应得的好运,耐克公司的创始人都完美放置兑现了对美国的 体育休闲热潮,在1970年代,当数以计的美国人开始慢跑和运行他们的个人活动作为保持身 体健康、强壮。
To reinforce its dominant worldwide presence, Nike spent US $642 million in 1996 on advertising and promotion. But at the heart of its constant campaign is the star athlete, a principle that was put in place early in the huge American company's marketing plans.
In 1973, the newly formed company implemented its first, and most important marketing strategy, endorsing its first star athlete, running star Steve Prefontaine who in turn used and praised Nike footwear. In 1985 the man who would become one of Nike's biggest successes, Chicago Bulls rookie basketball player Michael Jordan endorsed his first line of "Air Jordan" shoes. The endorsements by star players, encouraging ordinary consumers to buy the sports gear of the stars and dream of being champions themselves, saw Nike selling close to US $1 billion worth of running, basketball, and tennis shoes in 1986, while creating their first sports clothes under the Nike label.
1973年,新成立的公司实施第一个,也是最重要的营销策略,支持其第一颗星,跑步明星史蒂夫 Prefontaine 运动员把赞赏和耐克鞋用。在1985年,人成为耐克最大的成功,芝加哥公牛队的
新秀的篮球运动员迈克尔· 乔丹认可他的第一行"空气约旦”鞋。代言的明星球员,鼓励普通消 费者购买体育用品的星星和梦想成为冠军自己 ,看到耐克销售接近了价值 10亿美元的运行 , 篮球,和一双网球鞋在创建于1986年,第一次在耐克运动服的标签。
Nike, from Small Beginnings to World Giant (II)
Then a challenger loomed on the horizon. Nike founder Phillip Hampson Knight had believed that it was enough to make high-quality, low-cost shoes and have leading athletes endorse them for the sales to roll in. But this was not sufficient when rival shoe manufacturer Reebok began to present shoes as a fashion symbol for the trendy people who exercised regularly at health gyms.
然后一个挑战者天边地平线上隐约出现。 耐克公司创始人 Hampson 骑士菲利浦认为已经做 出高质量、 低成本的鞋子,认可他们的杰出运动员销售蜂拥而至。 但这并不是当对手足够鞋 制造商开始呈现锐步鞋,作为一种时尚的符号经常运动的人在时尚健康体育场馆
People began to see Reebok shoes as "cool" and the trendy thing to wear, while Nike was left with the more rugged image associated with tough sports stars. As a result, in the year between 1986 and 1987, Nike's sales dropped 18 percent and profits sank by more than 40 percent. Knight had to look urgently for a way to prop up the Nike image
人们开始看到锐步鞋认为很“酷”,时下流行的事情,而穿耐克留下了更坚固的象徵性艰难的体 育明星。 结果,在1986年到1987年之间,耐克(鞋)的销售额下降了18%,利润下降了40%多。骑 士看起来迫切想要支撑的耐克的形象
He called in an unknown but imaginative advertising agency, Weiden & Kennedy, which was based in Portland, Oregon, the site of Knight's first university sports successes. To give Nike a new image, the agency created commercials and promotional ideas around Michael Jordan and the controversial black movie director Spike Lee. The commercials focused on Jordan as the man whose hard work and fancy shoes enabled him to fly.
他称在一个未知的,但却是富有想象力的广告代理公司,Weiden 和肯尼迪是建立在美国俄勒 冈州波特兰市,该网站的武士的第一所大学体育的成功。给耐克的一种新的图像,该机构创造 了广告和宣传思想在迈克尔乔丹和有争议的黑色电影导演斯派克· 李。广告集中在乔丹的人 的辛勤工作和华丽的鞋子,使他飞。
Associated inextricably with the new Nike image and campaigns was another essential factor in Weiden and Kennedy's strategy — Nike advertising campaigns became famous for never pitching the product or even mentioning Nike's name. They create a mood, an attitude, and then associate the product with that mood.
In the advertising world, this is called image transfer. As Weiden & Kennedy put it: "We don't set out to make ads. The ultimate goal is to make a connection." For example, an early Nike advertisement shows Michael Jordan and tennis champion John McEnroe playing sports with ordinary people. It was designed to suggest that the world's leading athletes — Nike also uses World No. 1 tennis player Pete Sampras and Chicago Bulls basketball star Dennis Rodman — prefer Nike.
新的耐克紧密相关的形象和运动是另一个重要因素 Weiden 和肯尼迪的策略-耐克的广告而 出名,因为没有投的产品或甚至也提到耐克的名字。 他们制造出一种心情,一种态度,然后把产 品和心情。在广告的世界,这就是所谓的影像传输。作为 Weiden 和肯尼迪的那样:“我们不着 手做广告。我们的最终目标是做一个连接。"例如,一个早期的耐克广告显示迈克尔乔丹和网 球冠军约翰 McEnroe 运动普通老百姓。这是旨在表明,世界领先的运动员,耐克也采用世界 第一的网球运动员桑普拉斯和芝加哥公牛队的篮球明星罗德曼-喜欢耐克。
The effect of Nike's well-financed and clearly focused marketing strategies has been that Nike has become the dominant brand in the global sports shoe field, with an overall 35 percent market share; and retailers generally say that Nike accounts for 70 percent of their total athletic footwear sales. To keep on top of the market, Nike puts out new models of shoes for every season: new baseball shoes in the spring, new tennis shoes in the summer, and new hiking shoes in the autumn. Year-round sellers, such as basketball and running shoes, are freshened up with design changes every three or four months. On average, Nike puts out more than one new shoe style every day. The result: in 1995 and 1996, Nike's sales and profits grew 71 percent and 80 percent respectively. Meanwhile, Nike's closest rival Reebok grew just nine percent in the same period.
耐克鲜的影响、 清晰聚焦的营销策略是耐克公司已成为主导的国际品牌的运动鞋的研究领域, 有一个总体的35%的市场份额,零售商大体上说,耐克占总量的70%的运动鞋的销售。保持顶 部的市场,指出了新模型的耐克鞋,每一个季节:新棒球鞋在春天,新网球鞋在夏天,和新徒步旅 行鞋在秋天。全年卖家,如篮球和跑鞋,用改变设计凉飕飕的每三到四个月。平均来说,耐克公 司提出了多个新鞋款的每一天。结果:在1995年和1996年,耐克(鞋)的销售额和利润分别上涨 了71%和80%。与此同时,耐克(鞋)的最主要对手锐步仅为百分之九,同一时期。
Fashion Fashion, in its broadest sense, is a particular style that is popular for a few months or years. We speak of fashions in automobiles, furniture, or interior design, as well as in music, literature, and art. But most commonly, fashion refers to a style of clothing that is worn at a given time but is expected to change.
时尚,从最宽泛的意义上看,是一个独特的艺术风格,受欢迎了几个月甚至几年之久。 我们所说 的流行时尚汽车、家具或室内设计,以及在音乐、文学和艺术。但最常见的是指,时尚风格的 衣服,穿在一个特定的时间,但也是期望变化。
Although fashion usually refers to dress, it does not mean the same thing as clothing. People have worn clothing since at least 20,000 BC, but people have only been concerned with fashion since the late Middle Ages (1300 —1500). Before then, people wore clothes that reflected the long-standing customs of their communities, and clothing styles changed extremely slowly. Fashion, however, causes styles to change rapidly for a variety of historical, psychological, and sociological reasons. A clothing style may be introduced as a fashion, but the style becomes a custom if it is handed down from generation to generation. A fashion that quickly comes and goes is called a fad.
尽管时装通常指的服装,这并不意味着一样的衣服。人穿的衣服至少始于公元前20000年,但 是人们已经仅被关心时尚自中世纪晚期(1300-1500)。 在此之前,人们穿著衣服,体现了他们长 期的风俗社区,衣服的款式变化的速度极慢。然而,使时尚风格迅速改变为多种历史的、心理 的、和社会学的原因。一个服装风格可被引入,作为一种时尚,但风格成为一个定制的如果是 一代一代地传下来。一种时尚,很快来了又去了被称为一个潮流。
True fashions began to appear in northern Europe and Italy when a system of social classes developed in the late Middle Ages. At this time, the people of Europe began to classify one another into groups based on such factors as wealth, ancestry, and occupation. The clothes people wore helped identify them as members of a particular social class. Before the late Middle Ages, only wealthy and powerful individuals concerned themselves with the style of their clothes. But when the class system developed, the general population began to compete for positions within society. Fashion was one means by which people competed with one another.
真正的时尚开始出现在欧洲北部和意大利当一个系统的社会阶级在中世纪晚期发展。 就在这 个时候,欧洲人开始互相群体分类基础上的财富,祖先等因素和职业。人们所穿的衣服帮助识 别他们某个特定的社会阶层的成员。在中世纪晚期,只有富强的个人有关自己风格的衣服。 但当阶级体制的发展,一般民众开始争夺立场,在社会。时尚是一个竞争手段,与另一个人。
People follow fashion for many reasons. Often, people imitate the style of a person or group with whom they identify. In the past, most fashions originated in the upper classes and trickled down to the lower ones. Ordinary people sometimes hoped to raise their social position by following the fashions of privileged people.
In a way, this still happens. But today, such celebrities as singers and athletes, rather than aristocrats, set fashions.
人们追随时尚的原因有许多种。人们常常模仿风格的一个人或一群人一起识别。在过去,大 多数时装起源于上层阶级和较低的滴下来。 普通的人有时会希望提高他们的社会地位的流行 遵循特权的人。从某种意义上说,这种仍能发生。但今天,这样的一些名人歌手和运动员,而不 是贵族,集时装。
Fashion involves more than simply imitating another person's style. It is a form of nonverbal communication that provides a way for people to express their identities and values. For example, in the 1960's, many young people rejected adult values by rejecting mature styles of clothing. Large numbers of young people adopted an international youth style that included miniskirts and mod jackets. These fashions probably appealed to young people because, at first, many adults disapproved of them. Eventually, adults began copying them.
时尚牵涉到的不仅仅是简单地模仿另一个人的风格。它是一种非语言交流,为人们提供了一 种方式来表达他们的身份和价值观。例如 ,在1960年代,许多年轻人拒绝了成人的价值观,拒 绝成熟风格的衣服。大量的年轻人收养了一个国际青年风格,包括迷你裙、国防部夹克。这 些时装可能上诉对年轻人来说,因为,首先,许多成年人不同意他们。最后,成人开始复制。
Another reason people follow fashion is to make them more attractive. When the standard of beauty changes, fashion changes with it. For example, when physical fitness became a popular standard of good looks in the 1980's, people began to wear exercise and athletic clothing more often.
人们追随时尚的另一个原因是让他们更有吸引力。 当标准的美人儿的变化,时尚改变了。 例 如,当身体健康成为一个受欢迎的容貌标准在1980年代,人们开始穿运动和运动服装更多
A clothing style may become fashionable over time with many different groups. For example, people began wearing blue jeans in the 1850's when Levi Strauss & Co. sold tough cotton work pants to gold miners in California. At that time, jeans functioned as ordinary work clothes. In the 1940's and 1950's, American teen-agers adopted blue jeans as a comfortable, casual youth fashion. Young people during the 1960's wore blue jeans as a symbol of rebellious political and social beliefs. By the 1970's, people no longer considered jeans rebellious, and expensive designer jeans had become fashionable.
一个服装风格时尚在过去一段时间内可能会成为许多不同的组。例如,人们开始穿牛仔裤在 1850年代当利瓦伊· 斯特劳斯和有限工作艰苦的棉花卖裤子黄金矿工在加州。在那个时候 , 牛仔裤起到普通的工作服。在1940年代和1950年代,美国青少年采用蓝色牛仔裤作为一个舒 适、轻便的青春时尚。年轻人在1960年的穿着蓝色牛仔裤作为一种符号悖逆的政治和社会
The Industrial Revolution that occurred during the 1700's and 1800's caused rapid changes in the development of fashion. The invention of mechanical looms, chemical dyes, artificial fabrics, and methods of mass production made fashions affordable to many more people. In addition, new means of mass communication spread European and American fashions throughout the rest of the world. The Industrial Revolution caused people throughout the world to dress more and more alike.、
工业革命,发生在1700年代和1800年代的飞速变化发展引起的时尚。机械的发明织机、化工 染料、人工面料,时尚了大规模生产方式使承担更多的人。此外,大众传媒传播的新途径,在欧 洲和美国时尚世界的其余部分。工业革命引起人们在世界各地服装越来越相像。
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