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高中英语语法 ―― 非谓语动词讲解


高中英语语法
一、非谓语动词的概念

―― 非谓语动词

动词的基本用法是作谓语。当句中已经有了谓语动词了,要选或要填的动词就只能用非谓语形式了。 非谓语形式有三种:1、动词不定式:to do 2、动词的 ing : doing 3、 动词的过去分词:done 二、三种形式的含义(基本用法) 不定式:表示目的和将来;动词的 ing

:表示主动和进行;过去分词:表示被动和完成。 三、非谓语动词的时态和语态 一般式 不定式 ing 形式 主动 被动 主动 被动 to do to be done doing being done 完成式 to have done to have been done having done having been done 进行式 to be doing

过去分词 被动 done 四、非谓语动词的否定形式 在非谓语动词前加 not, never. 即 not / never to do, not / never doing 五、非谓语动词的复合结构 不定式的复合结构:for / of sb. to do sth. 动词 ing 形式的复合结构:宾格或所有格+doing (-ing 形式作主语时,用的所有格+doing) 六、非谓语动词的做题步骤 1、 判定是否用非谓语形式。方法:看看句子中是否已有了谓语动词了 2、 找非谓语动词的逻辑主语。方法:非谓语动词的逻辑主语一般是句子的主语。 3、 判断主被动关系。方法:非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的主动还是被动关系。 4、 判断时间关系。方法:分析句子,看看非谓语动词所表示的动作发生在谓语动作之前、之后还是 同时。之前常用 done; 之后常用 to do; 同时常用 doing. 学习非谓语形式时,建议把三种形式一起来比较学习,会更加有效一些。 一、非谓语动词作主语和表语的比较 1、不定式和动名词作主语和表语 a. 不定式表示一次性的、具体的动词。 动词 ing 常表示一般的、泛指的或习惯性的动作。如: ________ is a good form of exercise for both young and old. A. The walk B. Walking C. To walk D. Walk (分析) a good form 暗示泛指一般的行为,用动名词作主语,选 B b. 不定式作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,即用句型:It is + adj. / n. + (for / of sb. ) to do sth. It’s important for us to learn English well. It’s kind of you to help us. 注意:下面几个句型是用动名词: It’s no good / use doing sth. It’s useless doing sth. There is no need to do sth. 2、不定式、动名词、分词作表语的比较 1、 不定式、动名词作表语,.表示主语的内容。如: My job is teaching / to teach English. (teaching / to teach English 是 my job 的内容) Knowing who we are means knowing what we like to do. (主表语要用同一种形式) 2、 分词作表语 记住:一些表示情感、情绪的动词,常用分词形式作表语。现在分词表示主语的性质特征,用过去分词表
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示主语的状态。常用动词:surprise (使某人吃惊), surprising (令人吃惊), surprised (主语)感到吃惊)类 似动词有: excite (激动), astonish (惊奇), shock (震惊), scare (惊恐), disappoint (失望), move (感动) , 如:The movie is exciting. We are excited at the news. 3、 在 seem / appear (似乎,好像), prove / turn out (被证明是), remain (仍然是,尚待)等连系动词后, 可用不定式作表语。如: He seemed (to be ) very happy. Having a trip abroad is good for the old couple, but it remains ______ whether they will enjoy it. (to be seen) 二、不定式、动名词作宾语的比较 1、 只能接不定式的动词: 1) (想要)want, would like, would prefer, ask, demand, intend, desire, 2) (希望) wish, hope, expect, 3) (决定)agree, decide, manage, promise, choose, continue, plan, prepare, make up one’s mind, try one’s best, offer, apply, 4) happen, learn, fail, pretend, refuse, afford 2、只能接动名词的动词: suggest, advise(建议), finish, mind(介意),enjoy (喜欢),appreciate (鉴赏,感激),forbid 禁止),avoid (避 免), can’t help doing (忍不住), risk (冒险), feel like (想要), delay, put off (推迟) , give up (放弃), be busy (忙于),be worth (值得),practise (反复练习), 3、接不定式和接动名词意义不同的动词: remember to do 记得去做, remember doing 记得做过 forget to do 忘记去做, forget doing 忘记做过了 regret to do 遗憾去做, regret doing 后悔做过 try to do 设法去做, try doing 试着做 go on to do 接着做另一件事, go on doing 继续做同一件事 mean to do 打算做, mean doing 意味着做 stop to do 停下来去做, stop doing 停止做 cant help (to) do 不能帮助做, can’t help doing 忍不住做 如:In some parts of London, missing a bus means ____ for another hour. A. waiting B. to wait C. wait D. to be waiting 4、表示未实现的愿望的动词, 即表示本打算、想做,但事实上没做 这些动词 plan, intend, mean, want, hope, wish, expect , 用 had planned to do sth. / planned to have done 来 表示。Would like / love 只用 would like to have done 如:I would love _____ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish the report. A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone 5、要接动名词的几个句型 prevent / stop / keep sb. / sth from doing …(阻止…做) spend / waste time / money in doing sth. 在…花费或浪费时间或钱 how about / what about doing …怎么样? have some difficulty / trouble / problems in doing 在做… 有困难 have a hard / good time in doing 做… 很艰难或做…很愉快 There is no sense / point in doing 做…没意义 6、含介词 to 的短语 look forward to 盼望,devote…to 致力于、献身于,be / get used to 习惯于, lead to 导致,get down to 着手做,pay attention to 注意,refer to 谈到,所指,参考,equal to 等于,能胜任,belong to 属于 如:Mr Reed made up his mind to devote all he had to ___ some school for poor children. A. set up B. setting up C. have set up D. having set up
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7、介词 but (除了)后接不定式: 如:have no choice but to do sth. 没有别的选择 只好做… 但当 but 前有形为动词 do 时,but 后的不定式省 to. 如: Sandy could do nothing but ____ to his teacher that he was wrong. A. admit B. admitted C. admitting D. to admit 8.permit / allow (允许),advise (建议),forbid (禁止),有两种用法:一是后接动名词,二是后接“sb. + to do sth” 9、need, want, require 意为“需要”,主语是物时,用句型: need, want, require + doing (用动词 ing 主动形式表被动意义) + to be done 三、不定式、现在分词、过去分词作宾语补足语的比较 1、不定式作宾语补足语,如:ask sb to do sth (sb 作宾语,to do sth 作宾补,宾语+宾补=复合宾语) 类似动词有: invite, tell, want, encourage, advise, order, require, force, beg, cause, allow, permit, forbid (禁止) , warn(警告), remind, teach, call on (号召),depend on (指望),would like / love (想要),prefer, wish, expect, (hope 不带复合宾语) 注:help sb (to) do sth. 2、使役动词后接不带 to 的不定式 let / make / have sb do sth. 但使役动词的被动语态常用:be made to do sth. 注:get sb to do sth. 也译成“让某人做… Though he had often made his little sister ____, today he was made ____ by his little sister. A. cry, to cry B. crying, crying C. cry, cry D. to cry, cry 3、感官动词后作宾补的非谓语形式 感官动词:feel, see, hear, watch, notice 句型:感官动词+sb + do / doing / done (分别表示全过程、正在发生、被动完成) 1) They knew her very well. They had seen her ___ up from childhood. A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow 2) The missing boy was last seen ____ near the river. A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play 4、with 的复合结构:with +宾+宾补。作宾补的词可以是:形容词、副词(in, out),介词短语,非谓 语形式)。With 的复合结构的宾补中的非谓语形式 to do 表示将来,doing 表示主动和进行,done 表示 被动和完成。 The murderer was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back. A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied 5、have 句型:have sb do sth, have sb/ sth doing, have sb /sth done have sth done 表示两种意义:请别人做,而不是主语做;意外事故引起的。 如:He didn’t keep on asking me the time any longer as he had had his watch ______. A. to repair B. repaired C. repairing D. repair 6、 find + 宾语 + 宾补(doing / done), keep +宾+doing, catch sb + doing (撞见某人在做),smell sb +doing (察觉到某人在做) He looked around and caught a man ____ his hand into the pocket of a passager. A. put B. to be putting C. to put D. putting 7、 表示 “认为” 的 think, believe, consider, judge 等, 常用句型: think sb (to be )+ adj. / n. , be considered to have done sth. 被认为已做了某事 8、make oneself understood / heard / known , 即用了过去分词作作宾补 9、句型 It is said / reported / thought / known that…. 可变成:sb / sth be said / reported to have done sth. 如:Robert is said ___ abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied in.
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A. to have studied

B. to study

C. to be studying

D. to have been studying

四、不定式、现在分词、过去分词作状语的比较 1、不定式作目的、原因、结果状语 1)作目的状语:有三种形式,可互换:to do, in order to do, so as to do (不用于句首) 2) 原因:不定式常放在表示情绪反应的形容词后。 如: happy, sorry, glad, sad, surpried, disappointed. 不 定式不放在句首。 如:I am sorry to hear that your father is ill. 3) 结果:常用 only to do…来表示末曾预料到或令人不快的情况,其动作发生在谓语动作之后。另外 固定结构:too… to do, enough to do, so / such… as to do 中,不定式也作结果状语。 4)在形容词后作状语,只用不定式 如: a. The book is easy to read. (=It is easy to read the book.) b. We find the lake safe to swim in. (注意尾介词) 2、现在分词、过去分词可作时间、条件、让步、方式、原因、结果状语,就不作目的状语。注:表示 时间、条件或让步的分词,有时可带上连词(if, unless, when, while, once(一旦) though, although) 1)_____ time, he’ll make a first-class tennis player. A. Having given B. To give C. Giving 1)I won’t attend his wedding _____ . A. unless invited B. if invited D. Given

C. unless inviting

五、三种非谓语形式作定语定语的比较 1、不定式作定语 常表示“用…要做”和“修饰 the +序数词”。常用句型: have / there be… / with +宾语+ to do 分析:以 I have homework to do. 为例:不定式作定语有两种关系: 1) 主谓关系:I do homework 2) 动宾关系:to do 与 homework 构成动宾关系 注意:以 Jack, do you have some clothes _______? A. to wash B. to be washed 为例: 分析:(1)动宾关系:wash clothes 成立;(2)主谓关系:You wash clothes 成立吗?根据句意,显然不 是。这里的洗衣服是说话做,而不是句子的主语 you. 所以只能用不定式的被动式,选 B。 如:1)He gave me a book to read. 2)There are five pairs ____, but I’m at a loss which to choose. A. to be chosen B. to choose from C. to choose D. for choosing (根据语境,可知是“有五双可供选择,即从 5 中选 1,而不是选 5) 3)There are always people to ____ if you feel like a chat. A. talk to B. talk C. speak about D. speak (to talk 要与 people 构成动宾关系,要用短语 talk to / with sb) 2、分词作定语:单个的分词作定语,放在被修饰的名词前,而分词短语常放在后面。 (1)They made efforts to bring stolen cultural relics back to China. (过去分词表被动和完成) (2) I want to write about people addicted to drugs. 比较: a sleeping boy (= a boy who is sleeping); a swimming pool (= a pool for swimming) falling leaves (leaves that are falling); fallen leaves (leaves that have fallen down) a developing country (发展中国家);a developed country (发达国家) 3、to be done, being done, done 作定语的区别 这三个都表示被动,就是时间不同。To be done 表将来,being done 表同时进行,done 表完成。注 意:having been done 也表完成被动,但不用作定语。
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七、七个特殊句式 1) Why not do sth?=Why don’t you do sth? 2) had better (not) do sth. 最好做 3) would rather (not) do sth. 宁愿做 4) woud do… rather than do… = would rather do… than do…= prefer to do …. rather than do…= prefer doing… to doing… 宁愿做…. 而不愿做 八、疑问词+不定式 结构 1) what / which to do (what / which 作 do 的逻辑宾语,what 意为“什么”,which “表示选择” 2) when / where / how to do sth. 3) whether to do sth. (不用 if) 4) why (not) do sth. (why 后省去 to) “疑问词+不定式”在句中作主语或宾语 如: A reporter must know how to ask the right questions and how to get people to talk about the topic. (作宾语) 九、特殊的独立结构 有些非谓语形式已成为固定用语,用来表示说话人对说话内容所特的态度。 1) 现在分词的独立结构 judging from / by…(从…判断), generally speaking(一般来说), strictly speaking(严格来说) 2) 不定式的独立结构 to tell you the truth(说实话), to make things worse(插入成分,相当于,what's worse, . 更糟糕的是), to begin / start with(以…开始) 动词原形: Believe it or not (信不信由你) 作连词的分词 considering(考虑到, 就…而言) , providing / provided …假如, supposing 假如 这 些词用来表示条件的连词,后接 that 从句。

3) 4)

十、不定式、动名词作主语时,谓语动词用第三人称单数。

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