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关系代词的用法 英语中的关系代词有 who,whom,whose,which,that 和 as。它们的用法如下: 1、who,whom 的用法 who

和 whom 指人,who 在定语从句中作主语;whom 在定语从句中作宾语,在限制性定语从句 中可省略。在口语中可用 who 代替 whom。 In the beginning, people who bought the tomato often got angry. 起初,买到西红柿 的人常常会生气。(作主语) The person (whom) you should write to is Mr. Ball. 你应该给他写信的人是波尔先生。 (whom 作宾语能省略) His mother, whom he loved dearly, died in 1818. 他很爱你的母亲,她于 1818 年去世了。 (whom 引导非限制性定语从句,作宾语但不能省略) 2、whose 的用法 whose 指人或物,在定语从句中作定语,指物时常可用 of which 取代。 I have a friend whose father is a mayor. 我有个朋友,他父亲是市长。 We lived in a house whose window faces south. 我们住在窗口朝南的房子里。 3、which 的用法 which 指物,在定语从句中作主语和宾语,作宾语时,在限制性定语从句中可省略。 Today, fruit trees which once grew only in China can now be found in many parts of the world. 今天,那些曾经只在中国生长的果树能够在世界上许多地方看到了。(作主语, 不能省略) They needed a plant which didn't need as much water as rice.他们需要一种不像水稻 那样需要水的作物。(作主语,不能省略) It is used to record the tickets (which) passengers buy.它用来记录乘客所购买的车 票。(作宾语,可以省略) He came late, which we all know. 我们都知道,他来晚了。(作宾语,在非限制性定语从 句中不省略) 4、that 的用法 that 多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语,指物时其用法和 which 大致相同, 但也有区别。 All the people that come from the country work much harder.所有来自农村的人工作都 更努力。(that 指人,在从句中作主语,不能省略) This is all (that) I can tell you. 这是我能告诉你的全部情况。(that 指物,在从句 中作宾语,常省略) This is the best play that was written by Jack. 这是杰克写的最好的一个剧本。(that 指物,在从句中作主语,不能省略) She is the only person(that) I can trust. 她是我唯一可以依赖的人。(that 指人,在 从句中作宾语,可以省略) 5、关系代词 that 和 which 的区别 (1)相同点 这两个关系代词引导定语从句时,都可以指物;在从句中都可作主语或宾语;作宾语时都可 省略。 The train that ( which ) has just left is for Shanghai.刚开的那列火车是去上海的。 (作主语)


The film that(which) we saw last night is wonderful.我们昨天晚上看的电影好极了。(作 宾语,可省略) (2)用 that,不用 which 的情况 ①当先行词是不定代词或被它们修饰时。 all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little 等不定代词时(something 之后 也可用 which)。 To get the job started, all that I need is your permission.要开始工作,我所需要的 是你的许可。 Is there anything that I can do for you?有什么要我做的事吗? He answered few questions that the teacher asked.他几乎没有回答老师的那些问题。 ②当先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰时。 This was one of the most interesting books that were sold in this book store.这是 这家书店售出的最有趣的书之一。 The first thing that should be done is to get some food.该做的第一件事是弄点吃的。 ③当先行词有 the very,the only,the same 等修饰时。 That’s the only thing that we can do now.目前我们只能这样了。 Those are the very words that he used.那就是他的原话。 ④当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时。 They were talking about the persons and things that they saw in the factory.他们 在谈论在工厂里看到的人和事。 They talked for about half an hour of things and persons that they remembered in the school. 他们聊起他们所能记得起的学校里的人和事来,聊了约半个钟头。 ⑤当关系代词在定语从句中作表语时。 China is not the country that it was.中国已经不是过去的中国了。 ⑥当要避免与疑问词 which 重复时。 Which is the car that was made in Beijing?哪辆车是北京制造的? ⑦当先行词为 the way, the time, the period 等时,关系代词常用 that,但通常被省略。 I don't like the way(that)you speak to her.我不喜欢你对她说话的方式。 (3)用 which,不用 that 的情况 ①引导非限制性定语从句。 Football, which is an interesting game, is played all over the world.全世界都踢足 球,它是一项有趣的运动。 Carol said the work would be done by October, which personally I doubt very much. 卡罗尔说这项工作将在十月前做,对此我个人表示怀疑。 Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, which ,of course, made the others unhappy. 桃乐茜总是吹嘘她在戏剧中的角色,这当然使别人不高兴。 ②直接放在介词后作宾语时。 Language is the most important tool without which people can't communicate with each other.语言是最重要的工具,没有它,人们便无法交流。 巧记 that 和 which 的区别: that,which 可互换,下列请况勿照办;that 情况比较多,不妨对你说一说;不定代词这路 货,全用 that 准没错;先行词前被限制,千万不要用 which; 要用 which 别着急,介词提前逗隔离。 6、关系代词 who 与 that 的区别


(1)当先行词是 he、people、those 等时,引导词常用 who。 He who does not reach the Great Wall is not a true man. 不到长城非好汉。 Those who are for me, put up your hands. 同意我的人请举手。 I'll never forget the people who have helped me. 我将永远不会忘记那些帮助过我的人。 (2)当引导词作定语从句的表语时常用 that。 She isn't the little girl that she used to be. 她再也不是过去的那个小姑娘了。 He is the man that I asked for help yesterday.他就是我昨天求助的人。 7、as 的用法 (1)as 引导限制性定语从句通常构成 such...as 或 the same...as 固定搭配,as 在从句中 可作主语、表语或宾语。 I should like to use the same tool as you used yesterday.我想用你昨天使用的那种 工具。(作宾语) Many of the sports were the same as they are now.过去的许多运动项目同现在的一样。 (作表语) Don’t read such books as are not worth reading. Read such books as you can understand. 不要读那些不值得读的书,只去读那些你能读懂的书就可以了。 He lent me as much money as he had.她把所有的钱借给了我。 Repeat this as often as is necessary.根据需要反复这样做。(作主语) (2)such?that?与 such?as “such?that?” “如此??以致??” 表示 的意思, 用来引导一个结果状语从句; “such? 而 as?”表“像??这样的??”的意思,用来引导定语从句,as 在从句中充当主、宾或表语 等。 He is such an honest man that we respect him.他是一个如此诚实的人以至于我们都尊敬 他。 He is such an honest man as we respect.他像我煤泥烘干机们所尊敬的这种诚实的人。 (3)the same?that?与 the same as “the same?that?”表同一人或物,而“the same?as?”表同种类的东西。试比较下列 两个句子: This is the same book that I lost.这就是我丢失那本书。(指同一本书) This is the same book as I lost.这本书跟我丢失那本书一模一样。(并不是原来的那一 本) (4)as 引导非限制性定语从句 as 作关系代词,还可用来引导非限制性定语从句,可以用来代替一个句子或单词,as 引导的 句子可放在句首、句末或句中。 The moon, as is known to everybody, travels round the earth once every month. As is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. The moon travels round the earth once every month, as is known to everybody.众所 周知,月球一月绕地球一周土工格栅。 8、but 的用法 but 既可指人,又可指物,常在定语从句中充当主语。but 本身含“否定”的意思,其作用 相当于“that/which/who?not”。它前面的主句必须有“否定”的词(如 no, not, little, few, hardly 等)。but 引导的肯定定语从句和否定的主句连用,通过双重否定达到强烈肯定 的效果。


There is no mother but loves her own children.(=There is no mother that/who doesn’ t love her children.)没有不爱自己子女的母亲。 There were few people but were hurt.(= There were few people who/that were not hurt.) 几乎没有人不受伤。 9、than 的用法 than 既可指人,又可指物,可作关系代词来引导定语从句,than 前通常有比较级的词。 Don’t give children more money than is needed.给孩子们的钱不要超过所需。 He has got more than he asked for.他所得到的比他所要求的还要多。 Fewer friends than we had expected came to our evening party.来参加晚会的朋友比我 们预料的还要少。 关系副词 英语中的关系副词有 where,when,why 等。 1、when 的用法 when 指时间,修饰表时间的先行词,在定语从何中作时间状语。 July and August are the months when the weather is hot. 七八月是天气很热的月份。 He came last night when I was out. 他昨晚来时,我出去了。 Do you remember one afternoon ten years ago when I came to your house and borrowed a necklace of yours?你还记得十年前的一个下午,我到你家借项链的事吗? 2、where 的用法 where 指地点,修饰表地点的先行词,在定语从句中作地点状语。 After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town where he grew up as a child.在巴黎住了五十年后,他回到他童年时生活的小城镇。 I can still remember the sitting-room where my mother and I used to sit in the evening. 我还记得那间我妈妈和我晚上常坐在一起的起居室。 She will go home where she can rest. 她要回家了,在家里她可以休息。 One morning, an elephant was led down the road where they stood. 一天上午,有人赶 着一头象沿着他们站立的那条路走过来。 注意:先行词为表示时间、地点的名词时,关系词不一定都用 when 或 where。如果关系词在 定语从句中作主语或宾语,就要用关系代词 whch 或 that。 This is the factory that/which we visited last year.这是我们去年参观的那家工厂。 I won't forget the time that we spent in the countryside.我永远不会忘记我在农村度 过的那段时光。 3、why 的用法 why 指原因,修饰名词 reason,在定语从句中作原因状语。 This is the reason why he did so. 这就是他这样做了的理由。 Do you know the reason why he left early?你知道香椿苗他为什么早走吗? 巧记定语从句的用法 主句型,从句型,两种句子要完整。从句紧靠先行词,系词引导要弄清。定人用 who 或 whom, 定物 which 当先用。 关系代词有 that, 定人定物有本领。 定时间要用 when, 定地点 where 行。 关系代(副)词作成分,唯作宾语可以省。 “介词+关系代词”用法 1、介词+which 在定语从句中分别作时间、地点和原因状语 介词+which 在关系分句中分别作时间,地点和原因状语,代替相应的关系副词 when,where 和 why。


I still remember the day on which (=when)I first came to school.我仍然记得初来学 校的那一天。 The factory in which (=where) I work is a large one.我工作的工厂是一个大厂子。 This is the reason for which(=why)he was put in prison.这就是他为什么被关起来的原 因。 In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m., by which time many people have gone home. 在办公室里,我好像知道五点半从有时间,在此前很多人都已回家 了。 注意:关系代词 that 在定语从句中作介词的宾语时,介词不能放在它的前面,只能放在从句 中有关动词的后面。 The village that she lives in is 100 metres away. 她住在 100 米远的土工布村庄里。 2、介词+which(指物)/whom(指人)在定语从句中作地点状语 介词+which(指物)/whom(指人)在关系分句中作地点状语,表示存在关系,关系分句主谓常须 倒置。



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