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直接引语与间接引语语法复习


Grammar

复习 (把下列直接引语改为间接引语) 1.He said: “I’ve left my pen in my room.”→ He told me that he had left his book in his room. 2.She said: “He will be busy.”→

She said that he

would be busy.

3.She said to Tom, “Can you help me?”→ She asked Tom if/whether he could help her.

复习规律
1. 陈述句的间接引语—连接词用that, 在

口语中可省略。引述动词用said, told,等。
例如: → He told me that he had left his book in his room.

He said: “I’ve left my book in my room.”

2.疑问句的间接引语。一般疑问句后连接
词用if或whether,而引述选择疑问句时

只能用whether,引述动词用asked,没
有间接引语的可以加一个间接宾语me, him等。 例如: She said to Tom, “Can you help me?” → She asked Tom if /whether he could help her.

3. 特殊疑问句用原句中的疑问词作连接 词,改为陈述语序。例如:
The teacher asked, “how did you repair it?”
→ The

teacher asked me how I had repaired it.

4.如何变时态:

直接引语
一般现在时 一般将来时 现在进行时 一般过去时 现在完成时 过去完成时

间接引语
一般过去时 过去将来时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去完成时 过去完成时

如: 1) She said. “I have lost a pen.” →She said she had lost a pen. 2) She said. “We hope so.” →She said they hoped so. →She said he would go to see his friend.

3) She said. “He will go to see his friend.”

但要注意在以下几种情况下。在 直接引语变为间接引语时,时态 一般不变化。

(1)直接引语是客观真理。 “The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth”, the teacher told me. → The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth .

(2)直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、
某日作状语,变为间接引语时, 时态不

变。
Xiao Wang said. “I was born on April 2l, 1980.” →Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980.

(3)直接引语中被引述的部分是反复出 现的,习惯性的动作或说话时情况仍然 存在的,变间接引语时,时态保持不变。 The boy said to us, “ I usually get up The boy told us he usually gets up → at six every day.” at six every day.

(4). 若直接引语中含有when, since, while等引导的表示过去的时间状语从 句,变间接引语时,从句时态不变。如: She said, “I went there when I was six years old.” → She said she had gone there when she was six years old.

(5). 若直接引语的谓语中含有would, should, might, must, used to, ought to, had better等动词时。如: She said, “We should help each other.” → She said we should help each other.

5.如何变状语:

直接引语变间接引语,状语变化有其内
在规律,时间状语由“现在”改为“原 来”例: now变为then, yesterday变为 the day before, today变为that day。 地点状语, 尤其表示方向性的, 或用指示 代词修饰的状语, 由“此”改为“彼”

(例: this 改为that), 如: He said, "These books are mine." →He said those books were his.

指示代词、时间状语、地点状语的变 化: this→ that; these→ those ; now→ then; yesterday→ the day before; today→ that day; tomorrow→ the next day; next week (month, year)→ the next week (month, year); ago→ before; here→ there.

祈使句的直接引语和间接引语 祈使句的间接引语——采用 “动词+宾语+不定式”结构。 told/asked/ordered sb. (not) to do

sth.

如果祈使句是表示请求,间接引语的 动词常用ask,如果是表示命令,间接 引语的动词常用tell, order, command 等。

例如:

1.The teacher said to the students,
“Don’t waste your time.” →

The teacher told the students not
to waste their time.

2.The mother said, “Tom, get up
early, please.”→

The mother asked Tom to get up early.

直接引语如果是以“Let’s”开头的祈
使句,变为间接引语时,通常用 “suggest +动句词(或从句)。” 例如: He said, "Let’s go to the film." →He suggested going to the film.

或He suggested that they should go to
see the film.

练一练 1.“Please close the window,” he said to me.

→He ______ me _____ the window.
A. said to; to close

B. told to; closing
C. asked ; to close

D. said to; please close

2. He said, “Don’t do that again.” He _____ me _______ that again. A. said to me; not to do B. said to me; don’t do

C. told me; don’t do
D. told me; not to do

3.“Don’t put it on my hat.”his wife said to him.

His wife told him ___put it on ___hat.
A. don’t, his

B. don’t, her
C. not to, his

D. not to, her

4. Rose asked Tom, “Did you see my

purse?”
Rose asked Tom ___.

A. whether that he had seen her purse
B. whether he had seen her purse

C. that whether he had seen her purse
D. that if he has seen her purse

5.He asked me ________ with me.
A. what the matter is B. what the mater was C. what’s the matter D. what was the matter

解析:如果直接引语是“What’s the matter?” “What’s wrong?” “What’s the trouble?”, 变间接引

语时语序不变.

6. He asked , “Are you a Party member

or a League member?”
→He asked me ______.

A. am I a Party member or a League
member

B. was I a Party member or a League
member

C. if I was a Party member or a League member D. whether was I a Party member

or a League member
解析: 选择疑问句要变成whether或if

引导的宾语从句

7. “You’ve already got well, haven’t you?” she asked. →She asked ________. A. if I have already got well, hadn’t you B. whether I had already got well C. have I already got well D. had I already got well.

解析: 反意疑问句要 变成whether或 if引导 的宾语从句 .

8. He asked ________ for the computer.
A. did I pay how much B. I paid how much C. how much did I pay D. how much I paid

9.The boy said, “May I go along with

you?”
The boy asked me ___. A. if I might go along with you B. if he might go along with you C. if he might go along with me D. if he might go along with the boy

10.He said, “Mother, the boy is very
naughty.”

→He ____ very naughty.
A. said his mother that the boy was B. said to his mother that the boy is C. told his mother that the boy was D. spoke to his mother that the boy was

练一练 1. He said, “My sister was here for three days.” He said that____ sister ___ _____ his had been ____ for there ___ three days. 2. She said ,”I’ll go there tomorrow.” She said that ___ would go there she _____ ___________. the next day

3. She said, “Did you see him last night?” She _____ me __________________ asked if/whether I has seen him _______________. the night before 4. “When did you go to bed last night?” Father said to Peter. Father asked Peter ______________ _____ when he went to ____ the night ______. bed before


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