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2013高考英语书面表达讲义及训练(13)及参考范文:议论文写作


2013 高考英语书面表达讲义及训练 (13) 及 参考范文:议论文写作
重点诠释: 1. 议论文是以议论为主要表达方式的一种文体,它通过摆事实,讲道理的方式来辩明 是非曲折,从而表达出作者的观点。它常由论点,论据和论证三部分构成。 2. 在近几年的高考书面表达中, 其主要命题形式是以表格式和提纲式来呈现写作材料 的。 3. 它要求语言必须简练,准确,要尽可能避免使用口

语,多用书面语,可适当使用名 言警句;以议论为主,辅之以叙述,说明和描写等手法。 4. 写作时要围绕中心论点展开议论,即论据和论证要围绕论点展开。根据题目要求, 有时需要从正反两面来论述,可增强论证的力度。最后,可得出结论,照应开头,形成一个 有机的整体。 5. 写作时常以三段式的形式展开议论。 写作典例: 暑假即将来临,你班同学就假期计划进行讨论,提出了不同看法,请根据提示写一篇英 语短文,并谈谈你的看法。

优点 呆在家中 外出旅游 花费少,舒适方便 增长知识,开阔眼界。

缺点 不能亲自了解外界 花费多,旅途不便

注意:1。词数 120 左右(不含已写好部分) 2.短文必须包括表中所列要点,可根据内容分段表述; 3.可适当增加细节以使行文连贯; 4.参考词汇:眼界 horizon(view) 案例分析

这是一篇典型的议论文体的写作, 它以表格的形式提出了论点 (呆在家中的优点和缺点 以及外出旅游的优点和缺点)和论据,还以文字提示形式提出了话题(假期计划)及需要考 生自由发挥的部分(你的看法),自己的看法可选择上述中的任何一种,并就此发表个人的 见解。本文的重点是表格中两种方式的优,缺点,根据题目的特点,以三段式的形式来写作 比较好。 根据内容,尽管讨论已经发生,但它是就一般的暑假假期计划而进行的讨论,没有特定 的时间界定, 因而考生应以一般现在时和一般将来时为主。 相当一部分考生用一般过去时进 行论述,这会失掉较多的分数。从题目所给的开头可知应用第一人称来写。 范文: The summer holiday is coming. Our class have a discussion about what to do during the holiday. Some are in favor of staying at home. They think it's both convenient and comfortable. What's more, they can save money for other purposes. But they will lose the chance of getting to know the outside world. However, others prefer to go out for traveling since it can increase their knowledge and broaden the ir horizons. But they will spend more money and meet some difficulties while traveling. In my opinion, it would be much better to stay at home, for I can do what I like, such as reading books, watching TV, and helping my parents with the housework. 针对练习 1.2002 年普通高等学校招生全国英语统一考试书面表达试题 最近, 你校同学正在参加某英文报组织的一场讨论。 讨论的主题是: 公园要不要收门票? 请你根据下表提供的信息,给报社写一封信,客观地介绍讨论情况。

60%的同学认为 1、不应收门票

40%的同学认为 1、应收门票,但票价不宜高

2、公园是公众休闲的地方 2、支付园林工人工 资 3、如收票,需建大门、围墙,会影响城市 3、购新花木 形象

注意: 1、信的开头已为你写好。 2、词数:100 左右。 3、参考词汇:门票:entrance fee One possible version: Dear Editor, I'm wri ting to tell you about the discussion we've had about whether an entrance fee should be charged for parks. Opinions are divided on the question. 60% of the students are against the idea of entrance fees. They believed a public park should be free of charge. People need a place where the y can rest and enjoy themselves. Charging entrance fees will no doubt keep some people away. What is more, it will become necessary to build gates and walls, which will do harm to the appearance of a city. On the other hand, 40% think that fees should be charged because you need money to pay gardeners and other workers and to buy plants and young trees. They suggest, however, fees should be charged low. Yours truly, Li Hua 2. 当前不少文学作品被改编成电影。 有人选择看电影, 有人则喜欢读原著。 请你以 “Film or book, which do you prefer?”为题,按照下列要点写一篇英语短文: 1、 看电影:省时、有趣、易懂 2、 读原著:细节更多、语言优美 3、 我的看法及理由 注意:1、词数:100-120 文章题目和开头已给出(不计入词数)。 2、参考词汇:original work 或 book in the original (原著) Film or book, which do you prefer? Some of us think that it is better to see the film than to read the book in the original. One possible Version

Some of us think that it is better to see the film than to read the book in the original. The reason is that it takes less time to understand the whole story. Besides, the film is usually more interesting, and it is easier to follow. Some others have just the opposite opinion. They think that they can get more detailed information from the original. Meanwhile, the language in the book is possibly more lively and beautiful. Personally, I agree with the second view. Actually I have more reasons for it. I think I can stay at home, reading quietly in a situation of my own, and what's more, I am able to better understand the author's ideas. In a word, to read the original work is better than to see the film based on it. 3.如今世界粮食短缺,价格飞涨,给部分地区造成社会动荡。假设在你校开展的研究 性学习中,你们小组以“World Food Crisis”为题进行研究,现在请你代表你们小组向全 体同学简要介绍你们的研究成果。主要内容如下: 造成的原因 1. 气候变化,造成粮食减产 2. 工业发展,城市化加速,耕地减少 3. 世 界能源价格上涨,使用粮食生产生物燃料 应对的措施 1. 注重环保, 改善生态 2. 严格保护耕地 3. 富国支持穷国, 促进世界和 谐 你如何做出自己的贡献 1.?? 2.?? 注意:1. 内容包括以上要点,但不要逐

句翻译 2. 字数 150 左右,文章开头已提供,不计入总词数 3. 参考词汇:城市化 urbanization 生物燃料 biofuels Hello, everyone, Now I'll tell you something about our research project The World Food Crisis on behalf of our group. As you know, food shortages have hit many countries in the world and even caused social unrest in some areas. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

【命题方向与写作提示】这是一篇提纲式的议论文写作素材,探讨国计民生的社会热点 话题:粮食价格上涨。写作时要注意避免逐句翻译,并适当增加细节以使行文连贯。 范文(One possib le version) Hello, everyone, Now I'll tell you something about our research project The World Food Crisis on behalf of our group. As you know, food shortages have hit many countries in the world and even caused social unrest in some areas. But who is responsible for the current world food crisis? First, annual world grains output has declined because of climate change. Then lots of farmland has been lost due to the rapid development of industry and urbanization. Besides, faced with the rising energy prices, people have turned to the production of biofuels, which has worsened the severe situation. Then what should we do to deal with the problem? On one hand, we should focus on the environmental protection and improve the ecology. On the other hand, strict measures should be taken to protect farmland. Of course, to build a harmonious world the developed countries should take their responsibilities to help the poor ones experiencing food shortage. As for me, I will call on the people around me to live thriftily. And for the moment, I think, we should study hard to develop science and help solve the food shortage in the future. 2007 高考英语作文范文 4. 最近,你校同学正在参加某英文报组织的一场讨论。讨论的主题是:公园要不要收 门票?请你根据下表所提供的信息,给报社写一封信,客观地介绍讨论情况。 60%的同学认为 1.不应该收门票 2.公园是公众休闲的地方 3.如收门票,需建大门、 围墙,会影响城市形象 40%的同学认为 1.应收门票,但票价不要太高 2.支付园林工人工资 3.购新花木 注意:1.信的开头已为你写好。 2.词数:100 左右。 3.参考词汇:门票---entrance fee Dear Editor.

I'm writing to tell you about the discussion we have had about whether an entrance fee should be charged for parks. Dear editor, I'm writing to tell you about the discussion we have had about whether an entrance fee should be charged for parks. 60% of us schoolmates think that an entrance fee do not meet peoples expectations, for a park is considered to be a place where the public can have a good time when they are not busy either at home or at work. If an entrance fee must be paid by the visitors for a park, it will be necessary to build a gate and surrounding walls. In the end a city will take on a bad look. 40% of us schoolmates think that an entrance fee can be accepted, but it must not be too expensive. The money from ticket selling can be used for paying the gardeners in the park and buying some other kinds of flowers and trees. With regard to myself, I think an entrance fee is useful, for it can be used to protect a park. Do we share the same opinion, dear editor? Yours truly, 5.诚实有益(It Pays to Be Honest) 1.当前社会上存在许多不诚实的现象。 2.诚实利人利己,做人应该诚实。 这是一篇论说文,从题目看,应从正面论证诚实的益处。第一段,举例说明在社会上存 在的诸多不诚实现象,给社会和个人都造成了极大的伤害。第二段,从正面说明诚实既利人 又利己,通过举例说明做人应该诚实。 参考范文: As society and economy develop, dishonesty is no longer a stranger to us. Manufacturers and businessmen may promise more than their products can guarantee so as to make more profit. Doctors and nurses may lie to their patients for their patients' benefit. Students may cheat on exams for better scores. As a matter of fact, dishonesty has become so widespread that wherever you are you find cases of dishonesty.

However, it is honesty that brings benefit both to yourself and to others. By being honest, manufacturers and businessmen build up mutual trust between themselves and customers, which in the long run generates more profit. By telling patients the truth about their conditions so that they can make their own decisions, doctors and nurses enhance their own credibility and honor their profession. By giving honest answers to questions, not only can students themselves learn about their own strengths and weaknesses, but they help their teachers evaluate th e quality of their instruction as well. Therefore, it pays to be honest and everybody must learn to be honest. 6. My Opinion on Cheating in Examinations(我对考试作弊的看法) 整理 目前,学校存在少数学生考试作弊现象。某英文杂志社拟对此现象向中学生征文,标题 是“My Opinion on Cheating in Examinations”。请根据下列提示用英语写一篇征文稿。 内容要点如下:

考试偏多、偏难 主要原因 不用功、懒惰 取悦父母、老师 作弊不对,违反校规 个人看法 要诚实,努力学习 ??(其他看法) 挥; 2.短文标题与开头已为你写好,不计入总词数; 3.词数:100 左右。 4.参考词汇:作弊 cheat(v.) My Opinion on Cheating in Examinations It is known to us all that some students cheat in examinations at school. My Opinion on Cheating in Examinations It is known to us all that some students cheat in examinations at school. As students, we often take examinations at school, but sometimes we have too many examinations whichare too difficult for us. On the other hand, some of us are lazy and don't work hard at our lessons. So when taking examinations, some stude nts sometimes cheat in order to get better results to please their parents and teachers. In my opinion, it is wrong to cheat in examinations because it break the rules of schools. We students should be honest and try to get good results by studying 注意:1.短文必须包括所有内容要点,可适当发

hard instead of cheating in examinations. What's more, we should improve ou r study methods and get well prepared for examinations. (121 words) 我对考试作弊的看法 大家都知道一些学生考试作弊。 作为学生我们经常参加各种考试。 有时有些考试对我们 来说太难了。另一方面,我们中有些人学习不用功,所以当他们参加考试时,他们为拿高分 去取悦父母和老师有时就会作弊。 依我看,作弊不对,违反校规。我们学生应当诚实,用努力学习采取得好成绩,而不是 依靠作弊。还有我们要改进学习方法,为考试做好充足准备。 7.The Most Important Thing in the World / money is everything Directions: A)Title:The Most Important Thing in t he World B)提示:有人认为,世界上最重要的东西是“钱”。许多人不同意这个看法。 请就这个问题谈谈你的意见。 C)Time limit:30minutes D)Word limit:150~200words E)Your composition must be written clearly on the Composition Sheet. The Most Important Thing in the World In my opinion,the most important thing in the world is TIME. However long one may live,his life consists of a certain number of years,and a year has only12months, a month30days and one day24hours.Once you waste one hour,you can not get it back no matter how much you would pay for it. Even though you are the richest person in the world,you can not afford to waste your time,because it means that you are wasting your life.Even though you are the most powerful person in the world,one hour has60minutes for you just as for everyone else who struggles at the bottom of the society. Some people think that the most important thing in the world is money.In their opinion,if you have enough money,you will have everything you want.I would like to ask them a simple question:Can you buy time? The only thing with which we can win more time is efficiency.If you work with high efficiency,you can do more in a certain period of time than other people.

8.2005 年高考(江西卷) 人们对于学生网上交友持不同意见。 请你用英语写一篇关于学生网上交友的短文, 介绍 人们的不同观点,并表达自己的看法。

赞成的理由 1.广交朋友 2.可自由表达思想 3.利于外语学习

反对的理由 1.浪费时间 2.影响学习 3.可能上当受骗

你的看法



留意:1.文章必须包括表中的全部内容。 2.词数为 100 左右。 3.参考词汇: 网络朋友 on-line friend(s),上当受骗 to be cheated 开头:Should students make friends on line ? 展开:Some people say yes. The internet helps make many friends. Chatting on line, students can more freely express their feelings and opinions, and even get help with their foreign language studies. 展开:Others, however, think students should not. They say making friends on line is a waste of time, which should be spent more meaningfully on study. Besides, some students get cheated on line. 结尾:It is my opinion that students should place their study, health and safety before other things. As for friendship, we can readily find it in our classmates and other people around us. 9.我国正提倡建设“节约型社会”,下图为某校两个学期用水、用电、用纸的情况。请对 其进行简要分析,以“How to build an economized society”为题,写一篇作文,谈谈自 己的想法。 项目学期 用电 用水 用纸 上学期 80 万元 62 万元 11 万元 下学期 95 万元 73 万元 12.7 万元 文章须包括以下要点: 节电:及时关闭电灯、电脑等用电设备

节水:随手关闭水龙头;废水再利用 节纸:纸张再利用 补充:自己日常生活所感所为 留意: 1.词数:100~120 词,短文标题、开头已给出,但不计入总词数。 2.内容可适当发挥,留意行文贯通。 How to build an economized society (东北三校) Our government is aiming to build an economized society.It is everybody's duty to work hard to achieve this goal including us students. To build an economized society, we must keep the following points in our minds. Firstly, make sure that the lights and the electric fans are turned off when there is no one in the room. Set the room temperature at above 26℃. Remember to turn off the computer when you are not using it. Secondly, try to form the habit of turning off the tap after it is used. Use basins when washing faces or vegetables. Thus the water can be used again to clean toilets or water flowers. Thirdly, it will be good enough to use a basket instead of plastic bags when you go to the market. As we know, a basket can be used many more times. In a word, we should try our best to build an economized society . 10.可持续发展已成为全球共识,如何实行可持续发展是摆在世人面前的重大问题。请 就下面表格所提供的内容进行陈述并谈谈你的看法。(江苏省 2008 年高考全真模拟试卷)

1. 自然资源日趋减少 2. 环境问题依然严重 目前的状况 3. 人的环保观念淡薄 4. 贫富差距越来越大 1. 制定了相关的法律法规 2. 投入了大量的资金改善环境 已采取的措施 3. 对民众进行教育 4. 加强了国际间相互合作

你的看法

??

留意: 1.不要逐条翻译。 1. 可适当发挥 2. 词数:150 左右 3. 文章的开头 部分以给出 4. 参 考词汇:差距 gap 相关法律 relevant laws One possible version: The idea of sustainable development has been accepted by the world. How to keep sustainable development is a big problem facing our planet. The present situation is worrying. First, natural resources are becoming less than before. Second, as some peo ple are not aware of the importance of the environmental protection, the problems with it remain extremely serious to some degree. The gap between the rich and the poor has the tendency to become wider and wider. To our great joy, many countries have taken action. On one hand, they have made relevant laws and regulations and put large amounts of money to the environmental protection. One the other hand, popularized education as well as international cooperation is being carried out. As for myself, I should take the responsibility to devote myself to sustainable development, our future and the lives of our children and our grandchildren will be in danger. ******************************************************结束


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