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语法填空易错及解析


全国一地区将要使用的新题型 由201312701原创

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1 In Greece, women had little freedom. Wealthy women hardly left their houses, but they______ (allow) to

attend weddings and some festivals.

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解析:因allow与they在逻辑上是动宾关 系,要用被动语态,用be allowed;由 had, left可知be是一般过去式;主语是复 数they,be的过去式是were,答案是 were allowed。 ? 点评:此题就涉及到动词的时态、语态和 主谓一致三条语法规则。
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2 The ______ why I was sad was that he didn't understand me.

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解析:因为why 引导的定语从句,前面 的先行词一定是reason。 ? 点评:此题看起来好像是考查填入恰当的 名词,但实际上是考查定语从句。
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3 Several changes have brought wild animals to the . Foremost, air and water quality in many cities have improved as a result of the 1970's pollution control efforts…

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解析:在冠词the后必定是名词,再根据 下句可确定要填cities。 ? 点评:本题若只根据设空句本身,而不阅 读并理解下文,是不可能填出正确答案的。 ? 但是若涉及到动词的时态、语态、非谓语 动词、词类转换等需要词形变化的空格. 要根据句子结构的前后提示做答。
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4 Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, _____(reach) a record US$ 57.65 a barrel on April 4.

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解析:reach及后面的内容是伴随着谓语 动词的发生而产生的自然结果,用现在分 词作状语,故填reaching。

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5 It would be ______ (believe) that such an honest fellow should have betrayed his friends!

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因为在系动词be后作表语,要用believe 的形容词形式believable;由句意“这样一 个老实人竟会出卖朋友,真难以置信!”可 知,还要在前面加上表示相反意义的前缀 un,答案为unbelievable。

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解答语法填空题的思路

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1) 根据语法知识进行填充 ? 每一个空格的设置都必定涉及到某一条或某 几条语法规则,不会单纯考查单词的拼写和词 组的用法。如:In Greece, women had little freedom. Wealthy women hardly left their houses, but they______ (allow) to attend weddings and some festivals. ? 因allow与they是动宾关系,要用被动语态, 用be allowed;由had, left可知be是一般过去 式;主语是复数they,be的过去式是were, 答案是were allowed。此题就涉及到动词的时 态、语态和主谓一致三条语法规则。
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2) 根据逻辑关系进行填充 ? 表示逻辑关系的有thus,therefore,so 等;表示转折关系或变换话题的有 however, but, by the way等。
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3) 根据语篇标志进行填充 ? 语篇是指比单个句子长的语言单位 (句群、段落、篇章等)。语篇间往往有 标明内在联系的词,我们称这些词为“语 篇标志词”。如表示结构层次的有first, second, third, finally等; “语篇标志词”对 迅速理清文章的脉络,弄清上下文关系很 有帮助。
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4) 根据固定词组进行填充 ? 熟练掌握一些常见的词组,如as a matter of, be proud of, by the way, come from, congratulate…on…, devote…to…, earn one’s living, keep one’s word, make up one’s mind等,对解题很有帮助。
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5) 根据句型搭配进行填,就是根据一些常 用的句型搭配,如so/such…that…, it is…(for sb.) to do sth., There is no doubt that…, there is no sense in doing sth.等 来解题。

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6) 根据词汇知识进行填充 ? 指根据某些词语在用法上的特殊搭配来解 题。如下列各类动词必须牢记:只能接动 词的-ing形式作宾语的动词,只能接to do 作宾语的动词,接to do作补语的动词, 接do作补语的动词,接doing或done作补 语的动词,对句式搭配要求较为特别的词 语,等等。
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7) 根据生活常识进行填充

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I crossed the street to avoid 1 (meet) him, but he saw me and came running towards me. It was no use 2 (pretend) that I had not seen him, so I waved to him. I never enjoy 3 (meet) Nigel Dykes. He never has anything 4 (do). No matter how busy you are, he always insists on 5 (come) with you.

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答案: ? 1.meeting ? 2. pretending ? 3. meeting ? 4. to do ? 5. coming
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备考策略

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1) 不断记忆,积累词汇。 ? 2) 夯实基础,学好语法。 ? 3) 大声朗读,培养语感。 ? 4) 坚持不懈,多做练习。
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根据“课标”及考试大纲的要求,考生应掌握 24个语法项目,包括: ? 1、名词 (可数名词及其单复数;不可数名词; 专有名词;名词所有格); ? 2、代词(人称代词;物主代词;反身代词;指 示代词;不定代词;疑问代词); ? 3、数词(基数词;序数词); ? 4、介词和介词短语; ? 5、连词;
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6、形容词(比较级和最高级); ? 7、副词(比较级和最高级); ? 8、冠词(定冠词、不定冠词、零冠词); ? 9、动词(动词的基本形式;系动词;及物动词 和不及物动词;助动词;情态动词); ? 10、时态(一般现在时;一般过去时;一般将 来时;现在进行时;过去进行时;过去将来时; ? 将来进行时;现在完成时;过去完成时;现 在完成进行时);
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11、被动语态; ? 12、非谓语动词(动词不定式;动词的ing形式;动词的-ed形式); ? 13、构词法(合成法;派生法;转化法; 缩写和简写); ? 14、句子种类(陈述句;疑问句;祈使句; 感叹句); ? 15、句子成分(主语;谓语;表语;宾语; 定语;状语;补语);
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16、简单句的基本句型;(五种句型) ? 17、主谓一致; ? 18、并列复合句; ? 19、主从复合句(宾语从句;状语从句; 定语从句;主语从句;表语从句); ? 20、间接引语;
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21、省略; ? 22、倒装; ? 23、强调; ? 24、虚拟语气。
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要特别关注重点的语法项目:现在完成进 行时、将来进行时、强调、虚拟语气、动 词(时态、语态、非谓语形式)、词类转 换、连词、冠词、副词、从句等。

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1、考纲新增语法项目: ? 1现在完成进行时 ? 2将来进行时 ? 3强调 ? 4虚拟语气
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2.强调句型与状语从句的区别: ? ①It was at 9 o’clock __________he came back. ? ②It was 9 o’clock _________he came back.
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3、定语从句与同位语从句中关联词的区 别: ? 1The truth ________ he told me is very important. 2The truth ______he passed the exam is very important.(keys: 1which/that/X引导定语从句 2that引导同 位语从句 )
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4、在时间或条件状语从句中用一般现在 时代替一般将来时的用法。 ? 1Please tell him to call back when he _____________(come) back. ? 2I don’t know when he ________(come) back. (keys: 1comes 2will come )
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5、标点符号的指示作用 ? 1He sent me a letter,______ (invite) me to dinner.(注:“Inviting”现在分词表内容; “to invite” 作目的状语不能用逗号隔开)
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2The weather turned out to be very good,_______ was more than we could expected. ? 3The weather turned out to be very good;_______ was more than we could expected.
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注:2which引导非限制性定语从句; 3that用“分号”说明是并列分句,与定语从 句无关

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6、独立主格结构的作用 ? All the guests having arrived(=When all the guests had arrived), the meeting was declared open. ? Her tea finished(=After her tea was finished), she went on with her work.
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7、垂悬分词:有些已成为习惯用法的分词或 短语并不受逻辑主语的制约,具有介词或连词 的性质,表明说话者的态度或角度。eg: including, supposing(假设), owing to, considering(考虑到),concerning(关于), judging from/by, generally/strictly speaking, .… ? Eg: Everybody in my family likes the crosstalk, including ,me. ? Judging from what you say, he ought to succeed. ? They have done well considering (that) they have no experience.
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8、固定句型: ? It is the first time that sb.+现在完成时 ? It was the first time that+ 过去完成时
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9、注意感官动词、使役动词后面的宾语 补足语

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10.注意变成过去式、现在分词、过去分 词须双写最后字母的单词以及不规则动词 等,如:prefer; permit, cut…

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11.由as引导的定语从句与形式主语的区 别: ? 1__________ is known to all, the sun is bigger than the earth. ? 2__________ is known to all that the sun is bigger than the earth.
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12.the other表示_______________; ? the others表示______________; ? others表示_________________; ? other表示__________________。
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e.g. ? 1) She has two sons. One is a teacher, the other is an engineer. ? 2) Some went to the Great Wall, others visited the Miyun Reservior. ? 3) You have seen one of the photos of my sister. Now I’ll show you the others. ? 4) Have you any other novels?
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13.全系动词和半系动词: ? 1)全系动词: look/smell/taste/sound/feel ? 注意: ① 后面+adj. ② 不能用被动语态 ③ 不用进行时 ④ 不能直接否定表语,要 否定系动词。
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2)半系动词:wash/sell/write/… ? 注意: ① 后面+adv. ② 不能用被动语态 ③ 不用进行时 ④要否定半系动词。 ? Eg:The ice feels cold. The book sells well. The pen writes well.
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14.只能用引导定语从句的情况

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A young man,while traveling through a desert, csme across a spring of clear water.____31____water was sweet.He filled his leather container so that he could bring some back to an elder ____32____ had been his teacher .After a four-day journey, the young man____33___.(present) the water to the old man. His teacher took a deep drink, smiled____34____(warm), and thanked his student very much for the sweet water.The young man went home____35_____a happy heart.
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After the student left, the teacher let __36___student taste the water. He spit it out, __37___(say) it was awful. Apparently, it was no longer fresh because of the old leather container. He asked his teacher,” Sir, the water was awful. Why did you pretend to like ___38____?” ? The teacher replied,” You tasted the water. I tasted the gift. The water was simply the container for an act of kindness and love. Nothing could be ___39___ (sweet).”
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We understand this lesson best ____40___ we receive gifts of love from children. Whether it is a cheap pipe on a diamond necklace, the proper response is appreciation. We love the idea within the gift rather than the thing.

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答案: ? 31-35The/who/presented/warmly/with ? 36-40another/saying/it/sweeter/when
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On Wednesday morning at eleven o'clock, I was walking down Main Street. I had just parked ? my car. Suddenly I heard two shots! I thought they 31 (come) from the bank. I ran toward the bank. I saw a man 32 (come) out. He was short and fat 33 a big moustacheMore 34 (importance),he had a bag of money and a gun in his hands! 35 I could do anything, he ran up the street 36 disappeared behind a bus.
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That afternoon I went to the movies. 37 happened? I saw the thief again at the foot of the stairs! I telephoned the police from a telephone next to the rest rooms. The police arrived in 38 than five minutes. They arrested the thief just as he 39 (buy) a chocolate bar from the candy machine! What an exciting day! And best of all, the bank gave me 40 $ 100 reward!

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31.had come 32.coming 33.with 34.importantly 35.Before 36.and 37.what 38.1ess 39.Was buying 40.a

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31.had come,考查动词的过去完成时态, 表枪声在我想/认为之前发生: ? 32.coming,考查动词短语see somebody doing sth.的结构: ? 33.with,介词,"有,具有": ? 34.importantly,more importantly,表“更 重要的是”: ? 35.Before,时间状语从句,表“在……之 前”:
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36.and,and连接ran up...和disappeared两 个动作,表并列关系: ? 37.What,What happened?是固定句型, 表惊讶: ? 38. 1ess,1ess than 5 minutes表“不到五 分钟”。 ? 39.was buying,过去进行时态,表当时正 在买巧克力时,警察逮捕了他: ? 40.a,表一份奖品:
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Once Smith, a traveler, was wet and cold because he had been riding in the rain. At last he reached a country inn 31 was so crowded with people that he could not get the fire there. 32 he called out to the innkeeper. " 33 (take) some fish to my horse] "The innkeeper answered," But 34 horse doesn't eat fish ! "Smith then said, "Never mind, do 35 I tell you."
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The crowd of people, 36 (hear) this strange order, ran out to see the horse eat fish. The traveler, now having the whole room to 37 , sat down beside the fire 38 warmed himself. 39 the innkeeper came back with the crowd of people , he said,"Your horse wouldn't eat fish! "The traveler answered," Put it on the table, and when I 40 (dry)my clothes, I will eat it myself."
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31.which,关系代词引导限制性定语从 句: ? 32.So,通过上下逻辑,此处表因果关 系: ? 33.Take,此处是祈使的语气: ? 34.a,不定冠词表一类。 ? 35.as,as引导的宾语从句,表“正如 /按照……的那样”巧克力时,警察逮捕 了他:
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36.heating 37.whole 38.and 39.When 40.myself

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Mr. Smith lived in a small village. He grew vegetables. Years ago he found work in a bigcity and moved 31 with his family. 32 the first Saturday in their new home, Mr. Smith took his new car out of the garage and 33 (wash) it. A man came at the moment. 34 he saw Mr. Smith's new car, he stopped and looked at it 35 a few minutes. Then Mr. Smith turned and saw him.
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The man said, "That's a nice car. Is 36 yours?" "Sometimes," Smith answered 37 a smile. "Sometimes?" The man said." 38 do you mean?" "Well," answered Smith slowly, "When there's a party in town, it is my daughter's,. Mary. When there's a football game, it's my son's, John. 39 I wash it, and it looks really nice and clean, it's my wife's. And when it needs gas, it's 40 "

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31.there.“那里”(in a big city),指 示副词, ? 32.On,具体的某一天用介词on. ? 33.washed,and连接took his new car 和washed it,表并列关系: ? 34.When。考查When引导的时间状语 从句: ? 35.for,由a few minutes可知,应填 for表一段时间:
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36.it,代词,代替a nice car. ? 37.with,with a smile意为“带着微 笑”: ? 38.What,“What do you mean? 意 为“你什么意思?” ? 39.After,从上下逻辑可知“在我洗车 之后”: ? 40.mine,考查I的名词性物主代词 mine.
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Welcome to our company, everybody. This time our company has 11 college students 31 (work)in 5 departments .I am Luisa ,Director in charge of the student practice. ? Let me say something to you all .Starting work can be exciting on one hand , and can also 32 (worry) on the other. No matter 33 your future job is, you will have to work with others。 Learning to get on well with others must come first, 34 (include) all people in the company and ? our customers.
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And second, this morning right 35 my introduction, spend some time reading the introduction of the company and get to know the people in your office and find out what our company is like .This afternoon you can walk around our workshops and know 36 about the products. 37 one is allowed to leave the company before 5:30. By the way, lunchtime comes at 11:50 and it's free of charge.
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Remember this: "Learning is so important 38 it will change your future life . "Our company can answer your real learning 39 you can make up your mind to go through with it. This is what I like to say to you at the moment. If you still have 40 questions, please come to ? my office .Thank you.
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31.working,现在分词短语working in 5 departments作后置定语,修饰11 college students: 32.be worrying,“令人担忧的/令人焦虑 的”,由also可知,and连接be exciting和be worrying,表并列关系: 33.what ,从前后关系可知“无论你将来的 工作是什么;”,所以此处no matter what是最 佳答案: 34.including,介词,“包括”: 35.after.表“我的介绍之后,今天上午的其 他安排.

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36.more,从前文可知此处表更进一步 了解产 ? 37.No, No one is allowed to leave...表任何人不允许离开…… ? 38.that,考查so...that…的结构: ? 39. if,表假设关系: ? 40.any,表”任何……“
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Dear everyone, ? Can I really be so far away and still feel at home? ? It has been less than a month 31 I started at the Frances King School and I already feel that I belong to London. 32 many of the students here, I am living with a local family, 33 ertainly helps me to practice my English away from class.
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The school believes that 34 (learn) should continue outside classes and 35 students should have the chance to experience British culture. Last week we all went to see a musical(歌舞剧) 36 this weekend we are going to visit Stratford for the day. We have also been promised a weekend inParis next spring!

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Of course, I'm working hard'as well as having 37 . With class sizes of less than fifteen there is 38 chance of being able to avoid the teachers. As well as learning English we are also taught how to study by 39 (we). That should make 40 easier when I get to university. For such a friendly place, the Frances King School is very large. Students come from all over the world to learn here, from Europe and South America as well as China. We're all finding it a great place to learn.
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31.since,考查固定句型“It i5/has been十一段时间since从句”的结构,”自 从……以来有多久了”: 32.Like,介词,“像……那样”— 33.which,which引导的非限制性定语从 句— 34.1earning, learn+ing作动名词使用,作 主语: 35.that,由and连接的两个宾语从句,其 中引导第二个宾语从句的tha(不能省掉:
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36.ond,last week 和thi5 weekend表并列 关系,用and连接。 ? 37.fun,have fun,表“过得愉快”: ? 38.no,There is no chance of doing sth.表“没有做某事的机会”: ? 39.ourselves,study by oneself表“自 学”. ? 40.it,指示代词,指代前文的“…we are also taught how to study by ourselves”这件 事:
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