History of UK
The Early Settlers (the prehistoric period)
1. The first known settler of Britain: the Iberians (伊比利亚人) from Mediterranean areas. They inhabited Great Britain d
uring the Stone (-4000BC) and Bronze Ages (4000BC—500BC).
2. At about 2000 BC the Beaker Folk 毕克人
arrived from the areas now known as Holland and Rhineland莱茵兰（位于德国） .
Stonehenge Nearly 5,000 years ago (3000BC), Stonehenge was built by the Iberians. Now it is still standing. The question “why” it is built is problematic.
3. The Celts 凯尔特人(Iron Age 700BC-54AD) began to arrive Britain about 700 BC. They came from territory that is now Germany and Netherlands. The Celts came to Britain in three main waves.
2. Three Celtic Tribes
? By the end of the Bronze Age, around 700 BC, Celtic people had arrived from northwestern Europe, now France, Belgium and southern Germany. ? Celts were tall in height, blonde in hair & blue eyes, and somewhat aggressive.
2. Three Celtic Tribes
? The Celtic tribes were ancestors of the Highland Scots, the Irish and the Welsh; ? Their languages, the Celtic language, are the basis of both Welsh and Gaelic.
2. Three Celtic Tribes
? They came to Britain in three main waves: 1. About 750 B.C, the first tribe came from Upper Rhineland of northwest Europe and settled on the island; ? They were the “Gaels”(盖尔人), whose language is still spoken in Scotland.
2. Three Celtic Tribes
2. About 400 B.C, the second group of the Celts called Britons/Brythons (布立吞人/不列颠 人) came. From the Britons came the English name for Britain.
3. About 150 B.C, the third group, Belgae (比 利其人) came from Gaul (高卢，在今法国，
The Roman Invasion& Occupation
? Between 55 B.C.and 54 B.C, Britain was invaded by the Roman general Julius Caesar twice but he failed. In 43A.D, the roman troops of 40,000 men led by the Emperor Claudius conquered Britain. They occupied England and Wales for nearly 400 years. Britain became a province of Rome called Britannia. ? The roman troops met strong resistance in Scotland. A stone fortification(防御工事) was built by the Romans along the England –Scotland boundary to prevent military raids( 攻击) from Scotland. It is the Hadrian’s Wall (哈德良长城) (122AD).
Influence of Roman Conquest
? marked the beginning of the written history ? built towns, temples, theaters and buildings; built roads and cultivated land; ? Built the first highways in Britain during the first to fourth centuries ? introduced a system of education and organized government. ? brought the new religion, Christianity, to Britain
. Latin was official language . made good use of Britain’s natural resources, mining lead, iron and tin and manufacturing pottery. They withdrew completely in 410AD Aftereffect: limited, no intermarriage happened, no impact on language and culture of ordinary Britons, only left their roads, a few place names and some Christian converts.
III. The Anglo-Saxon Britain (446-871) Three Teutonic日耳曼的 tribes: 1. Jutes: fished and farmed in Jutland (Southern Denmark) ,established the kingdom of Kent and gradually developed into some of today’s English people.
2. The Saxons: Time: from the end of the 5th century to the 6th century Origin: from Northern Germany Established kingdoms in Essex, Sussex, Wessex 3. The Angles: Time: half of the 6th century Origin: from Northern Germany Settled in East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria
4. The Anglo-Saxons Invasion (446-871)
?England was divided into seven small Kingdoms called “Heptarch” (七国时期); ?They were Kent, Essex, Sussex, Wessex, East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria.
5．Viking and Danish invasions (8th9th Century)
? Viking raiders were the Norwegians from Scandinavia and Danes from Denmark. They attacked various parts of England from the end of the 8th century; ? The Vikings and Danes became a serious problem to the Saxon kingdom of Wessex in the middle of 9th century, especially between 835 & 878, and they threatened to take possession of all England.
5．Viking and Danish invasions (8th9th Century)
King Alfred (849-899) ? The brave Alfred, the king of Wessex ( A.D.
871—899) began to fight against them;
King Alfred’s Contributions
? He defeated the Danes and reached a friendly agreement with them in 879. The Danes gained control of the north and east, while he ruled the rest. He also converted some leading Danes into Christians.
5． King Alfred’s Contributions
?He founded a strong fleet and is known as “the Father of the British Navy” and reorganized the Saxon army, making it more efficient. King Alfred’s Contributions further include: ?He protected the coasts and encouraged trade; He encouraged education and
established many schools;
King Alfred’s Contributions
?He introduced and formulated a legal system; ?He repaired the churches and monasteries; ?He took the lead to learn Latin, and did translations & writings, which have been called the beginning of prose literature in England. ?All this earns him the title “Alfred the Great” and He is often regarded as the first king of a united England.
1. The Norman Conquest (1066)
?The French-speaking Normans under William of Normandy (William the Conqueror) invaded England from France;
?On October 14, 1066, during the important Battle of Hastings, William defeated King Harold and killed him. On Christmas Day, William was crowned king of England in Westminster Abbey, thus began the Norman Conquest of England，about four centuries of French rule.
After the death of Edward the Confessor
the Battle of Hastings
Duke of Normandy -William the Conqueror
He was formally crowned on Dec. 25, 1066 in Westminster Abbey, and became William I.
? Founded by Edward the Confessor during 1050-1065;All the coronations and ceremonies are held here since the Norman Conqueror William was crowned in the abbey ? Well known for its Poets’ Corner ? The traditional burial ground for the most famous poets, with Chaucer as its first occupant, also Spencer, Newton, Darwin, Churchill, etc
Influence of Norman Conquest
? Two Most Important Effects: – French became the official language and exerted enormous influence on Old English – The establishment of feudalism in England – England began to be unified under a French political system, much of which is still remained in today’s UK.
? Norman aristocracy.
duke,marquis 侯爵 , earl,伯爵 viscount,子爵 baron男爵
? A firmly established feudal system
Clergy, Nobility 贵族 , Third Estate平民阶级
? A closer connection with Roman Catholic Church
Norman bishops, Pope as overlord最高君主
? Coexistence of 3 languages: French, Latin and Old English ? Numerous contacts between England and France
The House of Norman
William I （1066-1087） William II Henry I （1087-1100） （1100-1135）
Henry II （1154-1189）
House of Plantagenet(11541485)
After William’s death, many wars were fought for the crown. Until 1154,Henry II (1154-1189) ascended the throne and began the rule of the House of Anjou, also known as the House of Plantagenet.
The House of Plantagenet
Henry II 1154-1189
Richard I 1189-1199
John 1199-1216 Henry III 1216-1272
Edward I 1272-1307 Edward II 1307-1327 Edward III 1327-1377
House of Plantagenet(1154-1485)
? After Henry II died, his son Richard I inherited the crown. (Lionheart. Richard (1189-99) is known as "Coeur de Lion", or Lionheart, because of his bravery in battle. ) Unfortunately, he was killed in France in 1199. Then his brother John became the third king. ? In total, there are 15 kings in this dynasty.
King Richard I the Lion-Heart
1189 - 1199
? The third and eldest surviving son of Henry II. He was in England for only ten months, spending the other time fighting in the Crusades. He spoke very little English. ? He is usually depicted as a brave, warrior 勇士 king, and was given the nickname 'LionHeart'.
The Crusades 十字军东征
? Were a series of wars in which armies from all over the Europe tried to snatch the Holy Land (Jerusalem in Palestine) during the 11-14 century; The real purpose was to get overseas land and trade, and to expand to the east. ? The most famous of the English crusaders was the king, Richard LionHeart.
Significant events during John’s ruling:
3. Magna Carta (The Great Charter of 1215)
? This feudal contract guaranteed the lords’ feudal rights; ? The Great Charter is traditionally regarded as the basis of English liberties; ? It was a statement of the relationship between the Crown and the lords； ? The spirit of Magna Charta was the limitation to the powers of the king.
Hundred Years’ War(1337-1453)
?. The causes of the war were partly territorial and partly economic; ?. This War was not one war, but a series of intermittent wars between France and England， which was started by England & fought entirely in France;
?. At last English was completely defeated and driven from France except the port of Calais.
The Hundred Years” War (1337-1453) P52.6
between France and England; the mysterious Joan of Arc ? The English were brilliantly successful till 1422. There was no formal treaty that ended it.
Hundred Years’ War
from 1337 to 1453
? It resulted from disputes between the ruling families of the two countries over territories in France. ? In 1453, the battle of Castillon ended English rule in France and marked the end of the Hundred Years’ War. ? English language finally took the place of French in all classes of society.
Joan of Arc 圣女贞德
? Joan of Arc, led the French armies to many victories against the English, before she was captured and charged for being a witch巫婆 and burnt alive.
Joan of Arc
? Born in 1431 ? A Peasant Girl who tended sheep ? 17 years old at the time and uneducated ? ill-treated by her family ? Strong religious convictions ? Saints spoke to her ? Led many French victories ? Trialed and burned in 1431 ? Canonized v. 正式宣布(死者)为 圣徒 in 1920
1.2.3 Hundred Years’ War (1337—1453)
Significance of the war ? promoted the concept of English nationalism. ? promoted the development of the textile industry ? raised the social position of the bourgeois class.
All these factors contribute to the decline of feudalism in England.
1. The War of the Roses (1455-1485)
?The War of the Roses was waged
intermittently between the two branches of the Plantagenet Family (金雀花王朝), the House of Lancaster symbolized by the red rose, and that of York, symbolized by the white rose, from 1455 to 1485.
?Henry Tudor, Henry VII, descendant of Duke
of Lancaster won victory in 1485 and put the country under the rule of the Tudors (都铎王
1. The War of the Roses (1455-1485)
? From these Wars, English feudalism received its death blow. The great medieval nobility was much weakened; ? The king’s power became supreme, preparing for centralized government; ? But the interests of the majority of the common people were not deeply involved.
? He was handsome and wore fine clothes ? He loved games, horse-riding and hunting ? He spoke four languages, wrote poetry and played music ? He wanted a firm hold on the throne, so he wanted a son to succeed him
II. Transition to the Modern Age
a. Religious Reformation Causes: ?The privilege and wealth of the church were also resented; ?Henry VIII determined to divorce his wife but failed because of the opposition of the church. ?Purpose: ?1.to get rid of the English Church’s connection with Roman Catholic Church and the Pope; ?2.to make an independent Church of England.
Catherine of Aragon
? Married 1509 ? She was daughter to the king of Spain and ex-wife of Arthur, Henry's brother ? She had a daughter, Mary, but no sons ? She was too old for more children ? In 1533, Henry divorced her ? God does threaten childlessness if a man marries his brother’s widow
? Married 1533 ? She was young, pretty and witty ? She had one daughter, Elizabeth ? She was beheaded in 1536
? Married in 1536 (11 days after execution of Anne) ? She had a son, Edward, but died soon after (1537) ? Henry probably loved her best of all his wives
Anne of Cleves
? Married 1540 ? The marriage made a link between England and Germany ? Henry thought she was ugly ? Divorced 1540 – the same year!
? Married 1540 ? She was 20, Henry was 49 ? She was unfaithful ? Executed in 1542
? Married 1543 ? She liked family life and looked after Henry’s children ? She outlived Henry
The House of Tudor
Content: 1. Act of Supremacy (1534), established the king the status of “the only supreme head of the church of England”. Influence: ?Strengthened Henry VIII’s position; ?England was moving away from Catholicism towards Protestantism.
The English Reformation
Mary I ? repealed Act of Supremacy(1554) ? re-established unity with Rome ? executed 284 protestants and the Archbishop of Canterbury
? The Virgin Queen
? “I know I have the
body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England.”
Elizabeth I ?reinstated Act of Supremacy (1558) ?declared herself Supreme Governor of the Church of England Moderate Protestantism ?Thirty-Nine Articles and Acts of Uniformity, which described its church as both Catholic and Reformed ?A moderate Protestant appointed as Archbishop of Canterbury
Changes of the Church
Changes of the Church
The Virgin Queen
? She remained single throughout her life, and thus called “The Virgin Queen ” ? Her 45-year reign is considered one of the most glorious in English history. During this time, the arts flourished.
? Golden Age of English History ? England advanced in such areas as foreign trade, literature, and the arts. ? The age of exploration began: claiming new lands for England and introducing new materials and foods. ? The American State, Virginia, is named after Queen Elizabeth. ? East India Company
The Civil War (1642-1651)
also called the Puritan Revolution, as the King’s opponents were mainly Puritans Cause: conflict between Parliament and the King, and also as a conflict between the economic interests of the urban middle class and the traditional economic interests of the Crown. Two parties: Royalists / Cavaliers vs Parliamentarians / Roundheads Consequences
The Civil War led to the trial and execution of Charles I in 1649, the exile of his son, Charles II, and replacement of English monarchy with the Commonwealth of England; The English Civil Wars not only overthrew feudal system in England but also shook the foundation of feudal rule in Europe; It is generally regarded as the beginning of modern world history.
? The takeover was relatively smooth, with no bloodshed, nor any execution of the king. This was known as the Glorious Revolution. ? The beginning of the age of constitutional monarchy, of a monarchy with powers limited by Parliament.
Restoration and Glorious Revolution
Restoration: Charles II was invited to return from his exile in France as the King in 1661. In 1665, his brother James II succeeded the throne, but he was not accepted by the bourgeoisie. Glorious Revolution: ?William of Orange, James II’s Dutch nephew and husband of Mary, James II’s daughter, was invited to take the English throne for joint rule in 1688.
3. Bourgeois Revolution in the 17th Century
The Bill of Rights of 1689
? In 1689, William and Mary accepted the Bill of Rights to be crowned jointly. ? The bill excluded any Roman Catholic from the succession; ? Confirmed the principle of parliamentary supremacy; ? Guaranteed free speech within both the two Houses; ? Thus the age of constitutional monarchy began.
Industrial Revolution（1760-1830） What is the Revolution? background of the Industrial
Which industry began the Industrial Revolution first? What are the representative inventions in the Industrial Revolution? What are the achievements of the Industrial Revolution in transportation?
? The Industrial Revolution can be defined as the application of powerdriven machinery to manufacturing. ? What are the influences of the Industrial Revolution? ? Dramatically increased the productivity ? Promoted the process of urbanization ? The change of social class: the capitalist and the working class
The British Empire When was the first British Empire formed? Where were the colonies of the first British Empire distributed? When was the second British Empire formed?
When did the second British Empire disintegrate and when was the Commonwealth of Nations formed? 1931, the Commonwealth of Nations was founded.
The second British Empire (1837-1931)
The Victoria Age: an age of national development and great prosperity. . More colorful and convenient life:
Electricity, telegraph, telephone, electric light, electric trams
. Transportation: bicycle/ London had the first electric underground railway in 1891 . Victoria: the grandmother of Europe (9 children and 40 grandchildren)
The Formation of the Second British Empire
Queen Victoria Memorial
Queen Victoria (1819—1901)
The Formation of the Empire
1.She encouraged further industrialization. 2.The British government adopted New Imperialism. 3. The British government sent the British fleet anywhere in the world. At end of the 19 century,British Empire included a quarter of the global population and nearly a quarter of world’s landmass.
1,Canda ,Australia ,New Zealand (dominion英联邦自 治领域) 2, India (―brightest jewel‖ on the English Crown) 3,Hong Kong (Opium War, Treaty of Nanking) 4,Burma,SriLanka,Singapore,Malaya,Brunei, small states in the West Indies and Asia. 5,took control of Suez Canal and conquered Egypt.
6,the Gold Coast, Niger, Sudan, Kenya,Uganda,Zambia,Upper Nigeria
.British Commonwealth is a loosely organized community of former British Colonies, showing that they share common values and goals, and a common history with Britain.1/3 of the world’s population belongs to the Commonwealth. .It was founded in 1931, until 1990, there were 53 members. .In 1949 the word ―British‖ was dropped from the title of the Commonwealth. . Almost all members (except Madagascar and Algeria) of the Commonwealth were once ruled by Britain
as part of the Britain Empire.
? Britain and World War I -----1914—1918
1. before the war: two military camps Central Powers in 1882 the Allies in 1907 2. during the war: The British navy played a very important role in the ultimate triumph of the Allies.
3. the end of the war: a. lost about 2,700,000 casualties, b. 70% of her merchant ships c. became a debtor nation d. London was replaced by New York as the world’s leading banking center. e. At the Peace Conference at Versailles, Britain got most of what he wanted.
? Britain between the Two Wars
George V---Edward VIII(1936)---George VI the most important maritime and industrial power in Europe the largest navy and air force in the world the third largest army the industry was aging under the Depression, strikes and labor unrest, colonial ties became weakened
Reasons for WWII
? Japan was unsatisfied with the Washington treaty. ? Italy was angry about Britain and France. ? The unfair Versailles treaty arouse the German’s strong emotion of revenge. ? The Great Depression
? World War II broke ROOT CAUSE out because of the imbalance in political and economic development. And 1929 - 1933, the economic crisis hit Germany seriously. To overcome the crisis and distract people's attention, Germany launched the Second World War.
Axis vs Allies
? Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan ? Allies: America, UK, China, Soviet Union
1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945
Germany Invades Poland blitz Japan attacks Pearl Harbor Stalingrad Battle Italy surrenders Allied forces landed on Normandy Atomic Bombing of Japan
? Britain and World War II -------1939—1945
1.There are many countries which had a great loss in the second world war , The Britain was one of the biggest victims. 2. result: fewer casualties than the first world war and great economic losses
? Greatest British leader of the 20th century ? Courage, decisiveness, political experience, vitality
? I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat. You ask, what is our policy? I will say: It is to wage war, … You ask, What is our aim? I can answer in one word: Victory – victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival … and I say, Come, then, let us go forward together with our united strength.
We shall fight on the
beaches, we shall fight
on the landing grounds,
we shall fight in the
fields and in the streets,
we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender!
? The postwar Britain
1. Domestic—high taxation result: a great increase in the standard of living of the working classes 2. Foreign policy—close link with the US result: Britain ceased to be a great power and numerous colonies were granted independence and Commonwealth status.
With the Commonwealth: Gradually reduced its involvement in the Commonwealth Circle.
With the Western Europe: an isolationist policy after the WWII; Joined EU in 1973
With the United States: cooperated closely with the United States
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