Periods 4-5 Grammar and usage 整体设计 教材分析 This period will focus on grammar and usage: the attributive clause. At the beginning of this period, the teacher should give the students some time to
go over what they learned in the last period. The grammar item in this unit deals with attributive clauses. Students are first expected to learn about what an attributive clause is and the functions of relative pronouns and relative adverbs used to introduce attributive clauses. The teacher should first introduce what the attributive is, what can be used as an attributive, the teacher had better present some sentences containing the attributive clauses by asking the students to do some exercises. Get the students to find all the sentences containing the attributive clauses in the two passages. After finding them, the teacher can ask the students to analyze them and understand the functions of the relative pronouns in those sentences. After that the teacher should give the students clear explanations about the usage of the grammar. Afte r mastering the rules of the attributive clause, the students should be given more exercises to consolidate what they have learnt. The teacher should arrang e some activities carefully and creatively. First let them do some simple exercises. For example, combine the two sentences using the attributive clause. Then ask them to make some sentences using the attributive clause. 三维目标 1. To give a brief introduction to attributive clauses. 2. To make the students get familiar with attributive clauses and get them to know some more usages of relative pronouns. 重点难点 The basic usage of the relative pronouns and learn to use them in different situations. 教学方法 1. Disc ussion in pairs or in groups. 2. Task-based in-class activities. 3. Explanations of some rules of the attributive clause. 教具准备 A multimedia room. 课前准备 1. Ask the students to think about how to describe thing or a person. That is to say, if we want to modify them, what will we use? The teacher can ask the students to list some examples. 2. Ask the students to go over the sentence structures and to tell the different functions of each word in the sentence. 教学过程 →Step 1 Lead-in The students will learn that an attributive clause is used to modify a noun and is usually put af ter the noun. They will also learn the different functions of relative pronouns or relative adverbs used in attributive clauses. Ask the students to recall what can be used to modify a noun in English. Write the following phrases on the blackboard:
a happy moment blue sky a girl student? bus station a monkey in the tree? the article about your experience in th e UK Point out a noun, an adjective or the prepositional phrases can be used to modify a noun. Summarize the rule of the order in these examples. We put adjectives or nouns before nouns to modify them while we put prepositional phrases after nouns to modify them. An example on the blackboard Adjective: the green team Prepositional phrase: the team in green Attributive clause: the team who are wearing green. Point out that the last sentence is an attributive clause. That means a sentence is used to modify a noun. The nouns t hey modify are called antecedents. Write the following words on the blackboard. Attributive clause? antecedent →Step 2 Introduction to attributive clauses Give some examples of attributive clauses on the blackboard. 1. The girl who/that is standing next to our teacher is her daughter. 2. The girl whom/who/that my mother is talking to is my classmate. 3. The girl whose name is Rose sits next to me. 4. I can?t find the book which/that is borrowed from you. 5. I can?t find the book which/that you lent to me. 6. I can?t find the book whose cover/the cover of which is red. Ask the students to find out antecedents, relative pronouns and functions of the relative pronoun and fill in the form below.
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Example 1 2 3 4 5 6
Antecedent the girl the girl the girl the book the book the book
Attributive clause who/that is standing next to our teacher (whom/who/that)my mother is talking to whose name is Rose which/that is borrowed from you (which/that) you lent to me whose cover/the cov er of which
Function of the relative pronoun subject object possessive subject object possessive
Tell the students that the noun or the antecedent usually refers to a person/people or a thing/things, for example a story, a cake, books and so on. We use which/that as a relative pronoun to refer to things, while we use who/whom/that as a relative pronoun to refer to people. Which/that is used as the subject or object in the attributive clause. Who/that is used as the subject in the attributive clause and whom/who/that is used as the object in the attribute clause. And they will know when which, that, whom, who can be left out if it refers to an object in the attributive clause. →Step 3 Practice Show the following sentences on the blackboard. 1. I don?t know the man. The man wrote the article. 2. The paintings are being displayed in the assembly hall. David donated the paintings to the school. 3. She has a brother. I can?t remember his name. 4. You made a cake yesterday. It was delicious. 5. The river flows to the sea. The banks of the river are covered with trees.
6. Do you know the girl? The headmaster is talking to her. Ask the student to combine the two sentences together using attributive clauses. Sample answers. 1. I don?t know the man who/that wrote the article. 2. The paintings (which/that) David donated to the school is being displayed in the assembly
hall. 3. She has a brother whose name I can?t remember. 4. The cake (which/that) you made yesterday was delicious. 5. The river whose banks/the banks of which are covered with trees flows to the sea. 6. Do you know the girl (who/whom/that) the headmaster is talking to? Note 1: Sometimes the antecedent can be a pronoun, such as ?someone so mebody, everybody, no one, nobody, something, anything, everythin g, nothing, all, those?, etc. Here are some examples: 1. Everyone who/that knows him thinks highly of him. 2. Nobody that/who has been there will forget the beauty of the place. 3. All that must be done has been done. 4. I want to find someone who/that can speak Japanese. Note 2: If the antecedent is an infinitive pronoun, ?all, few, little, much, something, nothing, anything?, etc. , the best relative pronoun is that. Examples: 1. All that we have to do is to practice speaking English. 2. Some parents ar e willing to do anything that their children ask them to. Note 3: If the antecedent is modified by ?all, any, every, each, few, little, no, some? etc. , the best relative pronoun is that. Examples: I?ve eaten all the food that was given to me. Note 4: If the antecedent is modified by ?the only, the very, just?, it is better to use that as the relative pronoun. He is the very man that helped the girl out of the water. Note 5: If the antecedent is modified by ?the first, the second, the last or the best? etc. , you?d better use ?that? as the relative pronoun. The first English book that I read was “The Prince and the Pauper” by Mark Twin. Note 6: If the antecedents refer to people and things, it is better to use ?that? as the relative pronoun. He talked about the teachers and schools that he had visited. Exercises: 1. All_____________ is needed is a supply of oil. (that) 2. Finally, the thief handed everything_____________ he had stolen to the police. (that) 3. This is the most interesting film_____________ I have ever seen. (that)
→Step 4 Consolidation 1. Read the article from a UK school newspaper on page 9. Underline the attributive clauses the students can find in the article. 2. Point out the relative pronoun in each sentence and the functions of them in the attributive clauses. →Step 5 Homework 1. Do Part C1 on page 88. 2. Preview the relative pronouns. 3. Do some exercises about the attributive clause. 板书设计
精彩片断 Practice: The students are asked to combine the two sentence s into one. If they are divided into groups to compete, it will arouse their interest. They will be very interested in getting high grades in the competition for their groups. G1 G2 G3 G4
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