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名词性从句(1)


名词性从句

名词性从句的种类 We now know that you don’t like him. That is why you don’t like him. That you don’t like him makes him heartbroken. The fact that you don’t like him makes him heart

broken.

a womanly man

基础回顾1

主语从句 名 词 性 从 句 宾语从句 表语从句

作主语 作宾语 作表语

(Subject Clause) (Object Clause)

(Predicative Clause)

同位语从句 作同位语
(Appositive Clause)

基础回顾2
名词性从句的连接词: 1) 连词:that, whether, if 2) 连接代词:what, who, which, whose, whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever 3) 连接副词:where, when, why, how, wherever, whenever

一、主语从句
在主句中起主语作用的从句称为主语从句。 1.that引导的主语从句 (1)that 置于句首的主语从句 That he will come to the conference has excited every one of us. 从属连词that在主语从句中不做任何成分,也 没有含义,只起连接从句的作用。 (2)形式主语it替代主语从句。 常见的it替代主语从句的句式主要有如下几种:

用it 作形式主语的结构
(1) It is + 名词 + 从句 It is a pity that you didn’t attend the lecture yesterday (2) It is + 形容词 + 从句 It is likely that there will be a snowstorm tomorrow. (3) It + 不及物动词 + 从句 It seems that you object to the plan. It happened that… 碰巧… It appears that… 似乎… (4) It +be+ 过去分词 + 从句 It is reported that the professor has already carried out this experiment. 据报道…

注意:①.在“It is necessary/important/strange/natural+th at 从句”的结构中,从句常用”should+v”, 其中should可以省略。 It is important and necessary that one (should) master the skills of operating computers so as to meet the need of a job.

②在“It +be +suggested/advised/ordered/requested/ insisted/required+that从句”结构中, that从句应用“should+v”,should可以 省略。 It was ordered that they (should) start the project the next month.

2.if/whether 引导的主语从句 Whether the work can be completed on time is doubtful. It is doubtful whether the work can be completed on time . 注意: 在主语从句中,if不能引导主语从句。

3.wh-类连接词引导主语从句 连接代词(who,whom,whose,what,whoever, Whomever,whomever,whatever等) 连接副词(when,where,how,why,whenever, Wherever,however等) Whose watch was lost is unknown. Which car you will choose to buy makes no difference. Whoever breaks the law should be published. When we shall hold our sports meeting is not decided.

二、宾语从句 在句子中起宾语作用的从句称为宾语从句。宾语从句分为动 词后的宾语从句,介词后的宾语从句,形容词后的宾语从 句。

eg. ①I don’t understand why we can use this word here. ②We are talking about whether we admit students into our club. ③I’m sure that they will make it in spite of the terrible weather. 1.动词suggest(建议), advise,order,command,insist(坚持要求), demand,require,request等后接含虚拟语气的宾 语从句。Should+v,should可以省略。

The doctor suggests he ____ (stay) at home. His pale face suggests that he___(be) ill. He insisted that we ___ (accept) these gifts. She insisted that he ____ (be) wrong. 2.I think it necessary that we take plenty of hot water every day. I have made it a rule that I keep diaries every day. 动词find ,feel,think ,consider,make,believe等后 有宾语补足语时,则需要用It做形式宾语而将that 宾语从句后置。

3.有些动词(组)带宾语从句时习惯上需要 在宾语从句前加It。如: hate,like,dislike,appreciate,see to,owe to, depend on,take…for granted. ①I hate it when they talk with their mouths full of food. ②You may depend on it that they will support you. ③I take it for granted that he will succeed. ④I’d appreciate it if you can help me .

4.当一个动词带有两个或两个以上并列的that从句 做宾语时,第一个that可以省略,第二个,第三 个that不可以省略。 The teacher said (that) the French language was the most beautiful tongue in the world and that we must keep it among us and never forget it . 5.If 和 whether 在宾语从句中的用法区别 (1)介词后不用if引导宾语从句 I am not interested in whether they believe me. (2)与or not 连用时只能使用whether or not I wonder whether or not we should make this point clear.

(3)在动词不定式前用whether 而不用if I am just wondering whether to stay for another hour or just start off right away.

三、表语从句
在句中做表语的从句称为表语从句。 The question is how we can do the work better. It sounds as if you are from the south of the United States. 表语从句中需要注意的问题 (1)Reason做主语时的表语从句 主语为名词reason时,表语从句中的连接词要用 that而不用why The reason for such a serious accident is that the driver was too careless and drank too much.

(2)表语从句中的虚拟语气 若主句的主语是 advice,suggestion,order,request, requirement等,表语从句中要用虚拟语气。 My suggestion is that we (should) have a discussion.

四、同位语从句
在复合句中充当同位语的名词性从句称为同 位语从句。它一般跟在某些名词之后,用 以解释说明该名词的具体内容。 I heard the news that our team had won. I have no idea when they will be back and settle down. 1.可以跟同位语从句的名词通常有 news,idea,fact,promise,question,doubt, thought,hope,message,suggestion,word, Possibility等

1.在某些名词如demand,wish,suggestion 等后面的同位语从句要用虚拟语气。 There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team. 2.Whether可引导同位语从句,但if不可以引 导同位语从句。 The question whether we should call in a specialist was answered by the family doctor.

注: 1. 同位语从句多见用that 引导 2. 在have no idea 之后常用wh-引导同位语 从句. I have no idea where he has gone. I have no idea when he did it. I have no idea what he did.

考点之一:考查名词性从句中that与what的区别

考例1: _______ we can't get seems better than _______ we have. A. What; what B. What; that C. That; that D. That; what 2._____made the school proud was more than 90% of the students had been admitted to key universities. A.What…whether B.What…that C.That…what D.That…because 分析: 在名词性从句中that与what的区别是:that在名词 性从句中不作句子成分,只起连接作用;而what在名词性 从句中不仅起连接作用,而且作句子成分。

考点之二:考查名词性从句中的it作形式主语或形式宾语 考例1: _______ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. A. There B. This C. That D. It 分析:在这种名词性从句中为了保持句子的平衡,往往 用先行词it作形式主语或形式宾语,而把真正的主语或宾 语放到后面,尤其是that引导的主语从句往往用先行词it 作形式主语.此句也可以改写为:That English is being accepted as an international language is a fact. 考例2: I hate _______ when people talk with their mouths full. A. it B. that C. this D. them 分析:此题考查的是用先行词it作形式宾语,而把真正 的宾语从句放到后面.其他几个词均不能作形式宾语.

考点之三:时态问题
1. He said that he will go to the station.
would

2. Our physics teacher once told us that light travels __________ ( travel ) faster than sound.
went (go) abroad last year and 3. Tom says that Mary ____ has been _________ (be) there for nearly 5 months.

总结 归纳:

a.主句的动词用过去时,从句谓语动词用过去的某种时态 b.主句的动词用过去时,从句表示客观事实,格言,谚 语等 ,从句谓语动词用一般现在时 c.主句的动词用一般现在时,从句谓语可根据需要选 用各种时态

考点之四:考查名词性从句的语序 考例:1.The photographs will show you _______ A. what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like 2.You can’t imagine ____ when they received these nice Christmas presents. A. how they were excited B. how excited they were C. how excited were they D. they were how excited

总结归纳:
陈述 语序,从句的引导 名词性从句在句中要用____ 词必须始终置于从句之首 ________

考点之五:考查名词性从句中的whether, if以及that的区 别 考例1: _______ we'll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. A. If B. Whether C. That D. What 考例2: What the doctors really doubt is _______ my mother will recover from the serious disease soon. A. when B. how C. whether D. why
考例3: It worried her a bit _______ her hair was turning gray. A. while B. that C. if D. for

考点之六:考查名词性从句中的疑问词+ever引导的名词 性从句及其与no matter+疑问词引导的从句的区别 考例 1:It is generally considered unwise to give a child _______ he or she wants. A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever 考例 2: Sarah hopes to become a friend of ______ shares her interests. A. anyone B.whomever C.whoeverD.no matter who 分析:本题句子的意思是:萨拉希望跟自己有共同爱好 的人交朋友.疑问词+ever引导的名词性从句与no matter+ 疑问词引导的从句的区别是:前者既可以引导名词性从句 也可以引导让步状语从句;后者只能引导让步状语从句.首 先排除D.而选A. anyone则应在其后加who.从句中需要的 是主语,所以whomever也不行.

考点之七:考查名词性从句的虚拟语气问题 考例1:It is necessary that a college student ______ at least a foreign language. A.masters B.should master C.mastered D.will master 2. It is ordered that he _____ the examination? A. takes B. has to take C. must take D.take (1) 在主语从句中谓语动词用虚拟语气"(should) +do",常 用的句型有:I. It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.) that... II. It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that...如: It is strange that she (should) think so.

3.We suggested that the meeting ___________ A.should put off B.be put off C. was put off D.putting off (2) 表示建议、请求、命令、要求、坚持等及物动词后面 的宾语从句中要用虚拟语气,常用的这类动词有suggest, propose, insist, desire, demand, request, order, command等。 4. The order given by the commander was that they _____ until the commander allowed they to. A. stopped B. didn’t stop C. stop D. not stop (3) 主语是suggestion, proposal, request, decision等 表示"建议、请求、要求、决定等"意思的词时,表语从句 中谓语动词要用虚拟语气"(should) +do"。如:

5.His suggestion that you _____ once more sounds reasonable. A. try B. tries C. must try D. can try

(4) 表示"建议、请求、命令、要求、决定等"意思 的名词后面的同位语从句中谓语动词要用虚拟语 气"(should)+do"。如:

Wish后宾语从句的虚拟语气
knew a. I wish I ______(know) the answer now had passed b. I wish he __________(pass) the exam yesterday.
C. I

would fly (fly) to the moon in a few years. wish I ________
对现在虚拟时,that从句中谓语用过去时 对过去虚拟时,用had+过去分词 总结 归纳: 对将来虚拟时,用would (might等)+动词原形


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