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阅读理解-猜测词意


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Comprehension of Words
Dealing with new words or phrases in reading comprehension

猜测词义 读懂文章

1. Teaching background 教学背景

阅 读 理 解

1. 主旨大意 题 型 及 解 题 技 巧 2. 细节理解 3. 猜测词义 4.推理判断 5. 篇章结构 6. 观点态度

Question Form 1.The word “…” refers to/ means/could best be replaced by _________. 2.The underlined word/sentence means _________. 3.Find in the passage a word closest in meaning to the underlined word “…”.

2.

Approach introduction 方法介绍

? 方法一: Using word formation
(构词法)

Guessing the meaning

unbelievable prefix
(前缀) (词根)

unbelieve -able

word root

suffix(后缀)

With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can provide the nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence.(2003NMET)

unconditional:

无条件的, 绝对的 adj.

condition
情况,条件 n.

conditional
有条件的 adj.

nonjudgmental:没有判断力的

judgmental adj.
judgment
判断 n.

judge

判断 v.

? 方法二: ? Using context clues
(利用上下文线索)

技巧 1

同义词、近义词

作者可能会用一个近义词或者同义词去解释另一 个更难的词,以便使他的文字意思更清楚,近义词往 往出现在同一句或者同一段落中。

Doctors believe that smoking is detrimental to people's health. They also regard drinking as harmful. 有害的 adj.

同义词、近义词
At the beginning they did not have enough capital to start a 同义词常见信词: business, nor were they able to or, namely, borrow the amount of money they that is, i.e., that is to needed from the bank. say,
等。 资金 n.

技巧 2

反义词

unlike; but however, while, instead, on the other hand...
With the help of words like:

eg. Unlike his brother, who is truly a Unlike handsome man, John is quite homely. handsome “homely” means “ ugly ”.

Rather than liking the movie, as I expected them to, all my friends abhorred it. 厌恶,憎恨 agree yes If you agree, write “yes”; if you dissent, write “no”. no 不赞成;不同意

In the past the world seemed to run in an orderly way. Now, however, everything seems to be in a state of turmoil.

一片混乱

技巧 3

定义、解释或举例

通过定义,定语从句/同位语/词或词组 (is; was; mean; that is; that’s to say; or; namely ; in other words ; to put it another way; i.e , such as ; like; especially; for instance; for example )来确定词义

1.When writing an article, we 常见的信号词: often use simile, such as “brave such as, as a lion” and “quick like for example, lightning”. for instance 等。
【修辞】明喻 “simile” means“___________”.

2. Social mobility is the movement from one class or level of living to another.
社会流动性

3. He is a resolute man, once he sets up a goal, he will not give it up easily.
坚决的

技巧 4

因果关系

With the help of conjunctions like: because, as,since,for,so, thus,as a result,therefore, so that, etc.

--- since you are my superior(上 级), it would be presumptuous of me to tell you what to do . (2005年上海卷) A.full of respect B.too confident and rude C.lacking in experience D.too shy and quiet

技巧 5

标点符号(冒号;破折号;括号)
1.You can take any of the periodicals: The World of English, Foreign Language Teaching in Schools, or English Learning. A.dictionaries B. story-books

C. magazines

D. newspapers

2. The other questioned the veracity —— the truthfulness of these reports.
真实性

技巧 6

经验和常识

In spite of the fact the fishermen were wearing sou’westers, the storm was so heavy that they were wet through. a kind of raincoat

? The heat of sun warms some ocean water. The surface of the water evaporates, forming a cloud of warm, wet air that moves upward. ? “evaporates” means turns into vapour “______________”
蒸发

3.

Summary 小结

?Using word formation 1.同义词、近义词

?Using

2.反义词 3.定义、解释或举例 4.因果关系

context(上下文)
clues(线索)

5.标点符号
6.经验和常识

4.

Practice练习

? Read the following passages and see if you understand the words or phrases that may be new to you: ? Passage 1. ? We can not feel speed. But our sense let us know that we are moving. We see things moving past and feel that we are being shaken. ? We can feel acceleration, an increase in speed. But we notice it for only a short time. For example we feel it during the takeoff run of an airplane. ? 1. Acceleration is the name for _______. A. any kind of movement B. the movement of a plane ? C. a steady speed D. an increase in speed

? Passage 2. ? A tornado can do a lot of damage. The wind of a tornado rushes at great speed around a funnel-shaped cloud. It travels in a path a few hundred feet wide and about twenty-five miles long. As the wind circles, the funnel spirals higher and higher. ? 2. A tornado is a _______. ? A. rainstorm B. dust storm
? C. great circle wind D. huge funnel of water

? Passage 3. ? STOCKHOLM—A Swede and two Americans won the 2000 Nobel Prize for medicine on Oct. 9 for studies on how messages move around the nervous system. The discovery makes it possible to develop drugs against Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Arvid Carlson of Sweden and Paul Greengard and Eric Kandel of the United States share the first prize of the millennium, worth nearly US$ 1 million, for their discoveries, Sweden’s Karlinska Institute said. ? 3. What does the underlined word “schizophrenia” probably mean? ? A. a kind of illness B. a new discovery ? C. a name of a subject D. a new drug

? Passage 4. ? New York: when the first jet struck 1 World Trade Center at 8:48 am on Tuesday, the people in 2 World Trade Center with a view of the instant damage across the divide had the clearest sense of what they, too, must do: get out fast…. Among the uncertainty about what was the best thing to do, formal announcements inside the south tower instructed people to stay put, telling them that the building was in good condition and the threat was limited to the other tower. ? 4. The underlined words “stay put” means______. ? A. to keep silent B. to leave at once ? C. to stay in the building ? D. to put everything back and then leave

? Passage 5. ? All the athletes try to be at the closing ceremony. They have forgotten all their fears and worries. It does not matter whether they have done well or not. All the teams walk round the stadium together. Everybody in the village clears up and gets ready to leave. Everyone is hunting for local products. People exchange track suits, hats, running vest and so on. There is a last chance to take photographs and get addresses of new friends. Then each team starts its journey home. ? 5. The underline phrase “clears up” in the paragraph means______. ? A. packs up B. goes away ? C. makes clear D. does the cleaning

5.

Assignment 作业

? 1. The computer also counts the loads and gives a signal by phone when the box is full. And a special piece of equipment breaks up the nonrecyclables. ( 不可回收资源 ) ? 2. Helping laid-off workers and unemployed people find jobs is crucial (关系重大的)and pressing task facing the Chinese Government, President Jiang Zemin stressed yesterday, he urged better service to create work for the unemployed. ( 下岗 ) ? 3. Are you a man or a mouse? When people ask this question they want to know if you think you are a brave person or a coward. ( ) 胆小鬼

? 4. Most women in China ---educated and illiterated, urban and rural, the young and old-----work to earn an income in addition to maintaining their roles as housewives and mothers. ( 文盲的 ) ? 5. Jane was talking with others while Tom remained reticent all the time. ( ) 沉默寡言的 ? 6. The farmer is the most important person in the movie. He is the hero. ( 男主角 ) ? 7. They surrendered, that is, threw out their weapons and walked out with their hands above their heads. ( 投降 )

? 8. Japan has a problem many other countries would envy—its workforce works too hard. Curing Japanese workers of disease “workaholism” is proving a difficult job, partly because many of them like work better than anything else, experts say. ( 醉心工作 ) ? 9. The harbor is protected by a jetty—a wall built out into the water. (防波堤,) 码头 ? 10. Crime is a very serious problem in Britain. One sort of crime which particularly worries people is juvenile crimes—crimes committed by young people. ( )

青少年犯罪


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