Unit 1: 1. put forward: 提出（计划、建议等）；将…提前；把钟表拨快 e.g. He put forward a good plan for this project. 他为这项工程提出了一个好的方案。 The match has been put forward to 1:30. 比赛已经提前到一点半举行。 Put the cl
ock forward by ten minutes. 把钟表拨快十分钟。 【词语联想】 ? put away: 收起来；贮存，储蓄 ? put down: 放下；写下，记下 ? put off: 推迟；延期 ? put on: 穿上；增加；上演（戏剧）e.g. put on weight: 增加了体重 put on a new play: 上演新戏剧 ? put up: 张贴；撑开（帐篷）e.g. put up a poster put up a tent: 搭起帐篷 2. conclude: v. 作结论，断定（conclusion: n. 结论） e.g. The jury concluded that he was guilty. 陪审团认定他有罪。 【习惯用语】★ draw a conclusion 作出结论 3. defeat vt.打败, 击败, 战胜； 使(希望, 计划等)失败, 挫败; 阻挠, 使无效 e.g. He finally conceded defeat. 他最终承认了失败。 ◆ 区别: defeat, conquer, overcome ? defeat 指“赢得胜利”, 尤其指“军事上的胜利”,e.g. defeat the enemy 打败敌人。 ? conquer指“征服”、”战胜”,特别指“获得对人、物或感情的控制”,e.g. conquer nature ? overcome指“战胜”、“压倒”、“克服”尤指“感情”而言, e.g. overcome difficulties 4. attend: v. 1) to be present at; go to (meeting, conference, lecture...) 出席；参加 e.g. He decided to attend the meeting himself. 他决定亲自赴会。 2) to look after, care for, serve 照顾；看护。 e.g. Which doctor is attending to (on) you? 哪位医生护理你？ 3）to go with 伴随 e.g. The work was attended with much difficulty. 这项工作带来许多困难。 5. expose...to... e.g. Don't expose your skin to the sun for too long. They had to be exposed to the enemy's gunfire. 6. blame sb. for sth. 因为某事责备某人 e.g. He blamed the boy for his mistake. ★ be to blame: 应受责备，应负责任 Who is to blame for the mistake？这个错误应归咎于谁？ 7. in addition: 除此之外，另外, 意思相当于 besides, what's more e.g. I paid 100 Yuan in addition. In addition to English, he has to study a second language. ◆ 区别: in addition to, except, besides,beside ? in addition to：除…之外，还有…，表示递进关系。 e.g. The company provided the workers with free lunch in addition to paid holidays. 这家公司为员工们提供带薪 假期，还有免费午餐。 ? except: 除…之外，表示在整体中排除， e.g. Everyone except me got an invitation. 除了我以外, 所有人都收到了请柬. ? besides 表示“除了……以外，还有……”，与in addition to 同义，
e.g. Besides Mr Wang, we also went to see the film.王先生也去了。 We all agreed besides him.我们都同意, 他也同意。 ? beside : 在…旁边。表示方位。 e.g. Lily sits beside me in class. 莉莉在班上做我旁边。 同义句转换 1）He speaks French as well as English. e.g. He speaks French in addition to/besides English. 2) Apart from the salary, it’s not a bad job. e.g. In addition to/Except the salary, it’s not a bad job. 8. announce: 公布；宣告 e.g. He announced his decision. 他宣布了他的决定。 9. absorb v. 1) 吸收 A sponge absorbs water. 海绵吸水。 2）专心于 ★ be absorbed in sth: 专心的，全神贯注的 The little girl was absorbed in reading a tale. 这个小姑娘正在全神贯注的阅读一篇故事。 10. challenge n.挑战; 挑战书; 邀请比赛; 要求决斗 vt. 向...挑战, 要求, 怀疑 ; vi. 挑战, 对(证据等)表示异议 e.g. meet the serious challenge 面对严峻挑战 Unit 2: 1. consist of ＝ be made up of 由……组成 (没有进行时） e.g. The UK consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ＝Great Britain and Northern Ireland make up the UK. 2. 区别: ? separate ... from (把联合在一起或靠近的人或物分离出来） ? divide...into 把…分开 （把整体分为若干部分） e.g. The teacher divided the class into two groups. The Taiwan Strait separates Taiwan from Fujian. 3. debate about sth. e.g. They debate about the proposal for three days. debate /argue/ quarrel 4. clarify: vt./vi. (cause sth. to )become clear or easier to understand 澄清；阐明;清楚；明了 e.g. I hope what I say will clarify the situation. Can you clarify the question? 5. be linked to = be connected to /be joined to 连接 【习惯用语】★ link A to B 将A和B连接起来 6. refer to 1)提及，指的是…… e.g. When he said “some students”, do you think he was referring to us? 2) 参考；查阅；询问
e.g. If you don't understand a word you may refer to your dictionaries. Please refer to the last page of the book for answers. 3) 关系到；关乎 e.g. What I have to say refers to all of you. This rule refers to everyone. reference: n. 参考 e.g. reference books 参考书 7. to one's surprise (prep) “to one's + 名词” 表 “令某人……” 常见的名词有 “delight, disappointment, enjoyment, astonishment 等 e.g. I discovered, to my horror, that the goods were entirely unfit for sale. To John's great relief they reached the house at last. 8. ... found themselves united peacefully “find +宾语＋宾补( adj; adv; v-ing; pp; 介词短语；不定式）” e.g. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found smoking in the kitchen. You'll find him easy to get along with. They found themselves trapped by the bush fire. When I woke up, I found myself in hospital. I called on him yesterday, but I found him out. 9. get sth done =have sth done 使某事被做……. e.g. I'll just get these dishes washed and then I'll come. get + n. + to do get + n. + doing You'll get her to agree. I'll get the car going. get done: 用于意想不到、突然或偶然发生，意为“被…….” e.g. Be careful when you cross this very busy street. 10. break away (from sb / sth) 脱离；破除… e.g. It is not easy for him to break away from bad habits. The man broke away from his guards. break down (会谈)破裂，失败；(汽车等)出故障；(人的健康状况)变得恶劣；（情感）失控 e.g. His car broke down on the way to work this morning. His health broke down under the pressure of work. He broke down and wept when he heard the news. Talks between the two countries have completely broken down. ? break in 闯入；打岔 ? break off 中断，折断 ? break into 闯入 ? break out 爆发;发生 ? break up 驱散；分散，拆散 11. as well as 不仅…而且；既…又…
e.g. He is a teacher as well as a writer. The children as well as their father were seen playing football in the street. 12. convenience: n.方便；便利（convenient: adj. e.g. We bought this house for its convenience. 13. attraction: （attract: v.） 1). 吸引；引力(不可数 n.) e.g. attraction of gravitation 重力 2). 吸引人的东西；喜闻乐见的东西；精彩节目(可数 n.) He can't resist the attraction of the sea on a hot day. A big city offers many and varied attractions. What are the principle attractions this evening? 14. influence 1) v. 对…产生影响 e.g. What influence you to choose a career in teaching? 2)可数n. 产生影响的人或事 e.g. He is one of the good influences in the school. 3) (不可数n.) 影响 e.g. A teacher has great influence over his pupils. Unit 3: 1. impression n. 印记；印象；感想；后接 of sb./ of sth./ on sb./ that 从句； e.g. My first impression of him was favourable. I got the impression that they were unhappy about the situation. 知识拓展： impress v.给……留下深刻的印象； 使铭记； 使感动； 常用结构有： impress sth. on/upon sb./impress sb. with sth.给……留下深刻的印象；使铭记； e．g It impressed me that she remembered my name.令我佩服的是她记得我的名字。 2. remind v.提醒；使想起； 常用结构有: remind sb. to do sth.提醒某人做某事； remind sb.＋(that)/wh-从句 提醒某人……；使某人想起……； remind sb. about/of sth. 使某人想起或意识到……；提醒某人某事 e.g. I'm sorry, but I've forgotten your name, can you remind me? You remind me of your father when you say that. 知识拓展：reminder n.提醒物；引起回忆的事物 3. constantly adv.始终；一直；重复不断地 e.g. Fashion is constantly changing.时尚总是日新月异。 知识拓展：constant adj.连续发生的；不断的；重复的； 4. previous adj.先前的；以往的；（时间上）稍前的 e.g. No previous experience is necessary for this job. I couldn't believe it when I heard the news. I had only seen him the previous day. 知识拓展：previously adv. 先前的；早先 e.g. The building had previously been used as a hotel. 5. bend v.（bent bent）弯曲；使弯曲；弯腰；弯身； e.g. It's hard to bend an iron bar. 把铁棒弄弯很不容易。 She bent her head and kissed her daughter. 她低下头吻了她的女儿。
常用搭配有: bend one's mind/efforts to sth. 致力于某事 bend sb.to sth. 迫使；说服 bend the truth 歪曲事实 6. press v. 压；按；推；挤；坚持；敦促 n. 报章杂志，新闻工作者，新闻界 e.g. She pressed a handkerchief to his nose. 她用手绢捂住鼻子。 She pressed down hard on the gas pedal. 她用力踩下油门踏板。 He is still pressing her claim for compensation. 他仍坚持索赔。 The press was/were not allowed to attend the trial. 庭审谢绝新闻采访。 7. switch n. & v. 用作名词表示“开关；转换”。用作动词表示“转换”。 e.g. She made the switch from full-time to part-time work when her first child was born. Press these two keys to switch between documents on screen. I can't work next week, will you switch with me? 8. lack n. & v. 用作名词，表示：“缺乏；短缺”；用作动词，表示：“缺乏；短缺；没有；不足”。 e.g. a lack of food /money/skills 缺乏食物/金钱/技能 The trip was cancelled through lack of interest. 因为缺乏兴趣这次旅行被取消了。 He lacks confidence. 他缺乏信心。 知识拓展：lacking adj. 缺乏；没有；匮乏；不足 9. surroundings n.[pl.] 环境；surround v. 围绕；环绕 surrounding adj. 周围的；附近的 e.g. Everyone likes to work in pleasant surroundings. 10. catch/gain/get sight of 发现，看出 ? lose sight of 看不见,忘记 ? lose one's sight 失明 ? at first sight 一见就；乍看起来 At first sight, the problem seems easy. ?at (the) sight of 一看见就…… At the sight of the teacher, the boy ran away. ?be in sight 看得见，在眼前 The island is still in sight. ?out of sight 看不见 Out of sight, out of mind. 11. take up to fill or use an amount of space or time 占用（时间）；占据（空间） to learn to or start to do sth 开始做（某项工作）；开始从事 to accept sth. that is offered or available 接受（建议或能得到的东西） e.g. The table takes up too much room. 这张桌子太占地儿。 They have taken up golf. 他们学起打高尔夫球来了。 She took up his offer of a drink. 他请她喝一杯，她接受了。 He takes up his duties next week. 他下周就要开始履行职责。 12. sweep up 打扫；清扫；横扫；涌向；快速地抱起 e.g. He swept up the baby up into his arms. 他一把将孩子抱进怀里 Unit 4: 1. concentrate vi. 聚精会神，集中思想，多与 on 和 upon 或连用 Concentrate on your work. 集中精神工 作。
e.g. A driver should concentrate on the road when driving. Industrial development is being concentrated in the west of the country. 2. acquire vt. 获得, 学到，取得，拥有 acquired, acquiring e.g. She acquired a knowledge of the English by careful study. Some smoking and alcoholic drinks are an acquired taste and are not in born. 3. accuse sb. of doing sth. 指责，指控 accused, accusing e.g. The police accused him of murder. 警方指控他谋杀。 She accused him lying. 她指责他说谎. He was wrongly accused of stealing. 他误遭控告犯偷盗罪. 4. be of interest/ importance, value, use, help, ... = interesting/important/valuable/useful/helpful... e.g. This is a matter of great importance. 这是一件非常重要的事。 The book is of great value to me. 这本书对我来说有很大价值。 There is nothing interesting/of interest in today's newspaper. 5. journalist n.新闻记者；新闻工作者 e.g. He is a professional journalist. 他是一位专门的新闻从业人员 6. delighted a. 高兴的, 快乐的 e.g. I am really delighted. 我真的很高兴。 【词语联想】 delight n. 高兴, 愉快 ； vt. 使高兴, 乐于； vi. 感到高兴(或愉快、快乐) e.g.Singing is her chief delight. 唱歌是她的主要爱好。 7. assist n. 帮助, 协助； vt. 帮助, 促进； vi. 协助, 参加 【习惯用语 】 ? assist sb. with sth. 帮助某人[做某事] ?assist sb. to do sth. 帮助某人[做某事] ?assist sb. in doing sth. 帮助某人[做某事] ◆ 区别: help, aid, assist 都含"帮助"、"援助"的意思。 ?help 系常用词, 意义较aid, assist 强, 指"以积极态度给予各方面的帮助", 强调"受助者得到帮助或好处", 并着重"受助者对帮助的需要" e.g. Please help me arrange these papers. ?aid 属较正式用语, 强调"帮助受助者脱离困难或危险", 有时意味着"强者援助弱者" e.g. They aided flood victims. ?assist是正式用语, 多指"在提供帮助时, 帮助者起次要或起协助作用" e.g. She assisted him in his experiments. Unit 5： 1. first aid 的意思是“急救”，例如：first aid to the injured 给予伤员的急救。 短语联想 give/offer aid 援助
come to sb's aid 帮助某人
teaching aids 教具 with the aid of 借助于
medical aid 医疗救护
get injured 受伤，在现代英语中大量地出现了由“get + 及物动词不达意的过去分词”构成的被动语态，这叫 get - 型被动语态。又如： The computer got (was)damaged when we were moving. My bike is getting (is being)repaired row. 2. Protect 动词，“保护、维护”，用于句式“protect + 名词 + against/from + 名词”。 e.g. He is wearing sunglasses to protect his eyes from the strong sunlight. 【短语联想】 ? Keep... from... 不让/避免 ? stop... (from) ... 阻止 ? prevent...(from) ... 妨碍/防止 ?disable... from... 使……失去（能力/资格） ?save... from... 挽救、拯救 3.depend on 取决于。 e.g. The amount you pay depends on where you live.词义拓展 depend on 依靠，依赖：His family depends on him. 他的一家人全靠他养活。 依赖，信任：We are depending on you to finish the job by Friday. 4. squeeze 动词，意思是“榨取”、“挤出”，例如：squeeze an orange 榨橘子 squeeze + 名词 + out(of/from) + 名词， e.g. Those blackmailers intended to squeeze more money out of him. 5. hurt 既可作及物动词，作“伤害”、“使受伤”解，也可作不及物动词，作“疼痛”、“感到疼痛”解。既可表 达身体的受伤，也可以表达情感的伤害。例如： e.g. The little boy has fallen off a ladder and hurt himself. The driver hurt himself in the accident. 司机在事故中受了伤。 6. unless 除非……；如果不……。如： 7. icy adj. 冰凉的 -y 是个形容词后缀。如： windy 有风的 hilly 多小山的 greeny 略呈绿色 spicy 辛辣的 thirsty 饥渴的 dirty 脏的
sleepy 困倦的 woody 树木茂密的 snowy 下雪的
8. in place 放在适当的地方。如： e.g. The librarian put the returned books in place. 图书管理员把还回的图书放到原处。 Yon'd better put things back in place.Otherwise, it will be difficult to find things. 9. sense n. 感觉 ?sense of touch 触觉 ? sense of hearing 听觉 ? sense of humour 幽默感
sense of sight 视觉 sense of smell 嗅觉 sense of beauty 美感
?ense of hunger 饥饿感
the sixth sense 第六感
10. variety n. 多样, 种类, ★ a variety of… 各种各样…… 【词语联想】 various a. 不同的, 各种的, 多方面的, 许多的 e.g. Everyone arrived late at the party for various reasons.
过去分词作——定语、表语、宾补、状语 The Past Participle used As Attribute and Predicative 第一讲、过去分词做定语和表语 1.English is a widely used language. 2.He threw away the broken cup. 3.This is one of the schools built in 1980s. 4.Prices of daily goods bought through a computer can be lower than store prices. 单个过去分词作定语，常放在被修饰词的前面; 过去分词短语作定语，常放在被修饰词的后面。 spoken English = English which is spoken terrified people = the people who are terrified an organized way = a way that is organized affected area 灾区 = the area which is affected stolen culture relics = culture relics that had been stolen the book recommended by the teacher = the book which was recommended by the teacher printed articles = articles that are printed 1) Doctor John Snow was a well-known doctor in London. 定语 2) John Snow told the astonished people in Broad Street. 定语 3) He got interested in the two theories. 表语 4) Neither its cause, nor its cure was understood 表语 Past Participle Attribute 定语 as the Past Participle as the Predicative
1.terrified people 2.reserved seats 3.polluted water 4.a crowded room 5.a pleased winner 6. Astonished children 7.a broken vase 8.a closed door 9.the tired audience 10.a trapped animal
1.people who are terrified 2.seats that are reserved 3.water that is polluted 4.a room that is crowded 5.a winner that is pleased 6.children who look astonished 7.a vase that is broken 8.a door that is closed 9.the audience who feel tired 10.an animal that is trapped
There are many fallen leaves on the ground. = There are many leaves which had fallen on the ground. (地上有许多落叶) Some of them, born and brought up in rural villages, had never been to Beijing. = Some of them , who had been born and brought up in rural villages, had never been to Beijing. (他们中的一些人，在农村出生并长大，从没去过北京) 及物动词的过去分词表示结束了的被动动作或者没有一定的时间性,只表示被动关系。 polluted water = water which is polluted reserved seats = the seats which were reserved trapped animal = the animal which was trapped 不及物动词的过去分词不表被动，只表示动作发生在谓语动词之前，含有动作完成，动作 结束之含义。 boiled water = water which has boiled fallen leaves = the leaves which have fallen risen sun = the sun which has risen 过去分词作定语也可用作非限制性定语，前后用逗号隔开。 The books, written by Guo Jingming, are very popular with teenagers. 这些书是郭敬明 写的，深受青少年的喜爱。
Some of them, born and brought up in rural villages, had never been to Beijing. 他们中的 一些人，在农村出生并长大，从没过北京. The book _written by the farmer (一本农民写的书) is very popular. The building built last year (去年建的楼房) now collapsed in the Wenchuan earthquake. The problem discussed at the meeting yesterday (在昨天会议上讨论的) was very difficult to solve. The window broken by that naughty boy 被那个顽皮男孩打破的) is being repaired. The children examined in the hospital yesterday 昨天在医院检查的) were seriously ill. The people exposed to the sun (暴露在阳光下的) got sunburnt. The boy punished severely by the teacher (受到老师严厉惩罚的) is now a college student. The water delivered to his home (送到他家的水) carried disease. The English today is quite different from the English spoken in the past 300 years (300 年前所说 的). Most of the artists invited to the party (被邀请去参加聚会的) were from South Africa. The students inspired by the teacher (受到老师鼓舞的)worked harder than ever before. The Olympic Games, __A_ in 776 B.C. did not include women players until 1912. A. first played B. to be first played C. first playing D. to be first playing ①过去分词做定语与其修饰词之间是动宾关系且过去分词表示的动作已完成。 ②现在分词作定语表示动作正在发生，与修饰词是主谓关系。 ③不定式作定语表示将要发生的动作。 first played in 776B.C. = which was first played in 776 B.C. Consolidation 巩固 1. Prices of daily goods ____ through a computer can be lower than store prices. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying 2. With a lot of different problems ____, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 3. Don’t use words, expressions or phrases ____ only to people wi th specific knowledge. A. being known B. having been known C. to be known D. known 4. When I got back, I saw a message ____ to the door____ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.” A. pin, read B. pinning, reading C. pinned, reading D. pinned, read
2）作表语 表示主语的心理感觉或所处的状态。许多动词的过去分词已经被当作形容词使 用。如：disappointed, excited, moved, puzzled, pleased, surprised, lost 等。 The window is broken. 窗户碎了。 Don’t get so excited. 别这么激动。 1.用作表语的过去分词被动意味很弱， 主要表示动作的完成和状态， 此时相当于一个形容词。 2.被动语态的过去分词动词意味很强,句子主语为动作的承受者，后面常跟 by 短语。 ① The glass is broken. The glass was broken by Tom. ② The windows are closed. The windows are closed by Jack. 3.表示“感觉流露”的一些过去分词(如:interested, surprised, excited, frightened, shocked)和一些过去分词(如 dressed, drunk, devoted, lost, known)常用作表语,表示状态.其中有些仅表示状态,毫无被动意味。 ① How did the audience receive the new play? They got very excited. ② How did Bob do in the exams this time? Well, his father seems pleased with his results. ③ She was very disappointed to hear the result. ④ He’s quite experienced in teaching beginners. 作表语练习： Cleaning women in big cities usually get ________by the hour. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay 该题考查分词作表语的用法。“to pay sb. by the hour” 计时给某人报酬。此题被动结构作表 语。类似的有：get burnt, get hurt , get wounded. 1. The rooms are ____, so you can’t move in. A. painted B. painting C. being painted D. to be painted 2. As soon as he entered the city, he ____. A. was losing B. got losing C. grew lost D. got lost 3. What he has done is really ____.Now his parents are _____ him. A. disappointing; disappointed at B. disappointing; disappointed about C. disappointing; disappointed with D. disappointed; disappointing by 现在分词和过去分词做定语的区别 现在分词表示主动意义，过去分词表示被动意义． 现在分词表示正在进行，过去分词表示状态或完成．
a moving movie 感人的电影 a moved audience 被感动的观众 boiling water 正在烧(煮沸)的水 boiled water 已煮沸的水 developing countries 反展中国家 developed countries 发达国家 falling leaves 落叶(正在进行) fallen leaves 落叶(已经完成) The child standing over there is my brother. The room facing south is our classroom. The book written by Lu Xun is very good. The road completed yesterday is leading to Tibet. 第二讲、过去分词作宾补用法归纳 英语中过去分词可作宾补， （此时的过去分词一般是及物动词）表被动意义或完成意义，有 时两者兼而有之。做宾补的过去分词与宾语有逻辑上的动宾关系，即宾语是过去分词动作的 对象。如： She found the door broken in when she came back.(宾补与宾语有被动的关系，表一种状态。) 一． 过去分词用在表状态的动词 keep,leave 等的后面。 Eg:They kept the door locked for a long time. Keep your mouth shut and your eyes open.(谚语：少说多看） Don't leave such an important thing undone. Don't leave the windows broken like this all the time. 二．过分词用在 get,have,make, 的后面。 1.注意“have +宾语+过去分词”的两种情况： A）表"让某人做某事/让某事（被人）做" eg: I have had my bike repaired. The villagers had many trees planted just then. B)表"遭遇到某种不幸，受到打击/受....影响，蒙受..... 损失" Eg:I had my wallet stolen on a bus last month. The old man had his leg broken in the accident. He had his leg broken in the match yesterday.(MET1986) 2."make+宾语+过去分词",在这种结构中，过去分词的动词必须是表示结果含义的。如： They managed to make themselves understood in very simple English. I raised my voice to make myself heard. 三、过去分词用在感观动词 watch,notice,see,hear,listen to ,feel,find 等后面。如 When we got to school,we saw the door locked. We can hear the windows beaten by the heavy rain drops. He felt himself cheated. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see carried out the next year.(NMET2000) 四、过去分词用在 want,wish,like ,expect 等表示“希望，愿望”这一类动词后面做宾补。如 The boss wouldn't like the problem discussed at the moment.
I would like my house painted white. I want the suit made to his own measure. I wish the problem settled. 五、过去分词用在“with +宾语＋宾补”这一结构中，过去分词与宾语之间是动宾关系。如： The thief was brought in with his hands tied behind his back. With many brightly-coloured flowers planted around the building ,his house looks like a beautiful garden. With everything well arranged,he left the office. 六、过去分词、现在分词、和不定式作宾补的区别。 现在分词作宾补：宾语和补语之间是主谓关系。其动作与谓语动作同时进行。 过去分词作宾补：宾语和补语之间是动宾关系。其动作先于谓语动作。 不定式作宾补： 表一个完成的动作、 或表一个很短时间内看到、 听到或感觉到的具体动作。 eg:He didn't notice me waiting. I heard the song sung in English. I saw him opening the window. I saw the window opened. I saw him open the window. I heard her sing the song in English. 专项训练 1： 1.___ poor at English, I'm afraid I can't make myself ___. A.To be;understand B.I'm ;to understand C.Being ;understanding D.Being;understood 2.I have had my bike ___ ,and I'm going to have somebody ___ my radio tomorrow. A.repair;to repair B.repairing;to be repaired C.repaired;repair D.to repair;repairing 3.You must get the work ___ before Friday. A.do B.to do C.doing D.done 4.___ the room,the nurse found the tape-recorder ___. A.Entering;stealing B.Entering;gone C.To have entered; being stolen D.Having entered;to be stolen 5.We are pleased to see the problem ___ so quickly. A.settled B.having been settled C.be settled D.settling 6.Mrs. Brown was much disappointed to see the washing machine she had had ____ went wrong again.(上海 1999） A.it B.it repaired C.repaired D.to be repaired 7.It is wise to have some money ___ for old age.(NMET1996) A.put away B.keep up C.give away D.laid up (put away 放好, 储存...备用, 处理掉, 放弃, 抛弃) 8.I don't want the children ___ out in such weather. A.take B.to take C.taken D.taking 9.I'm afraid that I can't make myself ___ be cause of my poor English. A.understand B.understanding C.to understand D.understood 10.The murderer was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back. A.being tied B.having tied C.to be tied D.tied (表动作完成） 专项训练 2： 1.We found her greatly ___.
A.improving B.changed C.to help D.having disturbed 2.Jane got her bad tooth ___ at the dentist's. A.to put in B.pulled out C.pushed out D.drawing out 3.When ____ ,the museum will be open to the public next year.(上海 2002) A.completed B.completing C.being completed D.to be completed 4.With a lot of difficulties ___ ,they went to the seashore and had a good rest. A.settled B.settling C.to settle D.being settled 5.The research is so designed that once ___ nothing can be done to change it.(NMET2002) A.begins B.having begun C.beginning D.begun( once begun 在句中作状语，begin 为及物动词: “着手” ） 6.___ ,they went home,___. A.Their work had been finished;singing and laughing B.They had finished their work;sang and laughed C.Their work finished ;singing and laughing D.after their work finished;singing and laughing 7.Before he came to London,he had never heard a single English word ___ A.speaking B.speak C.spoken D.to speak 8.____ more attention,the trees could have grown better. A.Given B.To give C.Giving D.Having given 9.___ from space,the earth with water ___70％ of its surface looks like a "blue blanket". A.Seen ;covered B.Being seen;covers C.Seeing;covering D.Seen;covering 10.____,the experiment will be successful. A.If carefully doing B.If it done carefully C.If carefully done D.If doing carefully 11.The girl wrote a composition without ___. A.ask B.asking C.being asked D.to be asked 12.He finished his homework and then went on ___me. A.helping B.with help C.with helping D.to help 13.___where to go ,he asked a policeman. A.Having lost his way and not knowing B.Losing his way and didn't know C.Having lost his way and didn't know D.Lost his way and didn't know 14.____ her friend was badly hurt,she burst into tears. A.Hearing B.Having heard C.To hear D.Heard 15.____ his team had won, his face lit up at once. A.Knowing B.When knowing C.After knowing D.When he knew 专项训练 3： 1.They hurried back home only to find their house ___ into. A.break B.to break C.broken D.breaking 2.When he came to,he found himself ___ on a chair, with his hands ___ back. A.to sit;tied B.sitting;tying C.sat;tied D.sitting;tied 3.We do not feel ___ to enter modern buildings;everything about them seems unfriendly. A.invited B.inviting C.to invite D.to be invited (feel 后加形容词，此处的 invited 表主语 we 的感受)
4.I'm going to have my letters ____ tomorrow if I've got them ready by then. A.to type B.type C.typed D.typing 5.Every great culture in the past had its own ideas of beauty ___ in art and literature. A.expressed B.to express C.being expressed D.to be expressed 答案： 专项训练 1：1-10 DCDBA CACDD 专项训练 2：:1-15 BBAAD DDADC CDDAD 专项训练 3：:1-5 CDACA 第三讲、Past Participle As the adverbial 过分作状语 Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days. Well-known for their expertise, his parents’ company ….. Confused by the new surroundings, I was hit by the lack of fresh air. Exhausted, I slid into the bed and fell fast asleep. 过去分词作状语： 过去分词作状语时， 说明动作发生的背景或情况， 其等同于一个状语从句。 vt 过去分词作状语时与主句主语构成被动关系，表示被动和完成，vi 过去分词表示状态或 动作的完成。 Heated , water changes into steam . The professor came in, followed by a group of young people . 1 作原因状语，等于 as / since / because 引导从句 Moved by what she said ,we couldn’t help crying . = ( As we are moved by what she said … 2 作时间状语，等于 when 引导时间从句，如果分词表示的动作与谓语的动作同时发生，可 在分词前加 when/ while / until 等使时间意义更明确。 When heated , water can be changed into steam . Seen from the hill ,the park looks very beautiful .= ( When the park is seen from the hill… 3 作条件状语等于 if / whether 引导从句 Given more attention , the cabbages could have grown better .= ( If they have been given more attention …. Compared with you , we still have a long way to go = ( If we are compared with you … 4 作方式或伴随状语 The actress came in , followed by her fans . She sat by the window , lost in thought . 5 作让步状语 Much tired ,he still kept on working .＝（Although he was tired ,) he ?. 6 独立主格结构： 当分词的逻辑主语不是主句主语时，分词可以有自己独立的逻辑主语， 这种结构称为独立主格结构。常用来表示伴随情况。 The boy rushed into the classroom , his face covered with sweat . All things considered ,your article is of great value than hers . Rewrite with proper conjunctions ? Example : United we stand, divided we fall. If we are united, we will stand, but if we are divided,we will fall.
1 Asked what had happened, he told us about it. →When he was asked what had happened, … 2 Well known for his expert advice, he received many invitations to give lectures. →Because he was well known for his expert advice, … 3 Given more time, we would be able to do the work much better. If we were given more time, 4 Once translated into Chinese, the book became very popular among Chinese teenagers. Once it was translated into Chinese, 5 Deeply interested in medicine, she decided to become a doctor. Because she was deeply interested in medicine, 6 Left alone at home, Sam did not feel afraid at all. Although he was left alone at home, 现在分词与过去分词作状语 现在分词作状语时，与其逻辑主语之间是主动关系， ；而过去分词与其逻辑主语之间则表示 被动关系。 Seeing these pictures, I couldn’t help thinking of those days when I was in Beijing . Seen from the top of a thirty-storeyed building, Beijing looks more magnificent. (see) ? 选择现在分词还是过去分词，关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语发出， 分词就选用现在分词，反之就用过去分词。例如： ? Used for a long time, the book looks old. ? 由于用了很长时间，这本书看上去很旧。 Using the book, I find it useful. ? 在使用的过程中，我发现这本书很有用 注意:1.系表示主语所处的状态 _____ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. ( lose) ______ in white, she looks more beautiful.( dress) ? be lost in ? be caught in the rain ? be dressed in ? be seated in ? be interested in ? be prepared for ? be devoted to ? be determined to be supposed to 2.不与主语保持一致的固定结构 generally speaking 一般说来 strictly/ frankly speaking 严格地说/坦白地说 judging from 从…判断 all things considered 从整体来看 taking all things into consideration 全面看来 例如：Judging from his face, he must be ill.从他的脸色看，他一定是病了。 Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs. 总的来说，狗比猪跑得快。 （speaking 不是 dogs 的动作）
Practice ? 1. Complete each sentences using the P.P. of the right verb.
build frighten trap follow shoot see examine
1 ________ by noises in the night, the girl no longer dared to sleep in her room. 2 The lady returned home, ________ by two policemen. 3 After having been _________ carefully, the room was locked again. 4.______ in 1949, the exhibition hall is over 50 years old. 5 _____ from a distance, the Opera House looks like ship sails. 6 If _____ in a burning building, you should send for help. 7 Although ______ in the leg, he continued firing at the police. 练习 1 ____ time ,he will make a first-class tennis player . A Having given B To give C Giving D Given 2 ___in 1636 ,Harvard is one of the most famous universities in the United States . A Being founded B It was founded C Founded D Founding 3 Unless __to speak ,you should remain silent at the conference . A invited B inviting C being invited D having invited 4 ___,but he still couldn’t understand it . A He had been told many times B Having been told many times C Told many times D Although he had been told many times 5 When first ___to the market , these products enjoyed great success . A introducing B introduced C introduce D being introduced 6 There seemed to be nothing ___to do but ___for the doctor . A leave / send B left / to send C left / send D leaving / send 作介词 but ,expect ,besides 的宾语，前面又有实意动词 do 时，不定式通常省去 to 7____everywhere , the wolves had no where ___themselves . A Hunting / hiding B To hunt / to hide C Hunted / hiding D Hunted / to hide 8 . The ___ morning, the father came into the lonely house, ___ by his naughty boy. A. following, following B. followed, followed C. following, followed D. followed, following 9. Mrs. White was glad to see the nurse ___ after her son and was pleased to see the boy well ___ care of in the nursery. A. looked; taken B. looking; taken C. looked; took D. looking; taking 10. The murderer was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back. A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied
11. ___ more attention, the trees could have grown better. A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given 第四讲、倒装句 倒装句的定义：英语最基本的词序是主语在谓语动词的前面。 如果把谓语动词放在主语前面，就叫做倒装。 2. 倒装句的构成 a) 完全倒装 将句子的主语和谓语完全颠倒过来，称之为完全倒装。 Are you from here? 你是本地人吗？ Now comes the chance. 机会来了。 b) 部分倒装 只将助动词、系动词或情态动词移至主语之前，谓语的其他部分仍保留在主语的后面， 称之为部分倒装。例如： Has he come? 他来了吗？ Seldom have we felt as comfortable as here. 我们难得像在这里这么舒服。 Only in this way can we do the work better. 只有这样我们才能把工作做得更好。 3. 倒装的原因 a) 句子语法结构的需要。例如： Did you attend the meeting? 你参加会议了吗？ Long live peace! 和平万岁！ b) 一些句型的固定用法。例如： Such were his last words. 他最后的话就是这样。 c）强调的需要。倒装以后，句子更加流畅生动。例如： Never before have we seen such a sight. 以前我们从来没有见过这样的情景。 Before us lay a lot of difficulties. 在我们前面有很多困难。 Often did we warn them not to do so. 我们曾多次警告他们不要这样做。 4. 倒装句的基本用法 a) 构成疑问句（除对主语或主语之定语提问的特殊疑问句外） ： When are we going to drink to your happiness? 我们什么时候喝你们的喜酒? Have you seen the film? 你看了那部电影吗? b) 在以 here, there, now, then, in, away, up down 等副词开头的句子中: Away went the crowd one by one. 人们一个一个地离去。 Here comes our teacher! 我们的老师来了！ c) 副词 only+状语放在句首时: Only then did he realize his mistakes . 只有在那时他才认识到自己的错误。 Only in this way can you learn maths well . 只有用这种方法你才能学好数学。 d) 含有否定意义的副词或连词（如 little, hardly, never, rarely, no sooner…than 等）放在句首 时:
Little did I think that he could be back alive. 我没有想到他竟能活着回来。 Not until New Year’s Day shall I give you a gift. 我要到元旦那天才能给你礼物。 Hardly had the train arrived at the station when we ran towards the sleeping car looking for our guests. 火车刚一进站，我们就跑到卧车那儿去找我们的客人。 e) 副词 so 或 neither(nor)在句首: He is interested in pop-songs, and so am I.他对流行歌曲感兴趣，我也如此。 He hasn’t been to the countryside, neither does he want to go there.他没有去过农村， 他也不想去 那里。 f) 在方式状语 thus 开头的句子中及程度状语 so 放句首: Thus ended his life. 这样结束了他的生命。 So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him . 他讲话的声音那样大， 连隔壁屋子里的人都听得见。 2. so 作“也”讲时，引导的句子用倒装语序，例如： He went to the film last night. So did I. 他昨天晚上去看电影了，我也去了。 如不作“也”讲而只起连词作用，表示一种结果的意思，句子就要用正常语序。例如： His mother told him to go to the film. So he did. 他母亲叫他去看电影，他就去了。 “He is a tall thin man.” “So he is.” “他又高又瘦。” “确实如此。” 3. 某些让步状语从句往往把表语提到主语前面或放在句首，以构成倒装结构。例如： No matter how interesting the book is，he doesn't like to read it．不管这本书多有趣，他都不想 看。 However hard a solid may be， we can change its shape. 不管一个固体有多硬， 我们都可以改变 其形状。 Young as he is, he knows a lot. 虽然他年轻，却知道很多东西。 4. 在虚拟语气中，如果非真实条件句省略 if，须将主句中的 were, had 和 should 等助动词和 主语颠倒形成部分倒装。例如： Were he younger (= If he were younger), he would learn skating. 假如他年轻一些，他就会去学 溜冰。 Should they forget (= If they should forget) to bring a map with them, they would get lost in the woods 如果他们忘记带一张地图的话，他们就会在深林里迷路。 Had they realized (= If they had realized) how important the task was, they wouldn’t have refused to accept it. 假如他们认识到这个任务是多么重要的话，他们就不致于拒绝接受这项任务。 单项选择 1. My brother had a cold last week, _________. A. so had I B. so did I C. I had so D. so I had 2. Not until _________ home __________ his parents had been ill for three days. A. he got; he knew B. did he get; he knew C. he got; did he know D. did he get; did he know
3. In hardly any situation ________ find her sad. A. that you can B. that can you C. you can D. can you 4. Be quick! _________. A. The bus comes here B. Here comes the bus C. The bus here comes D. Here is the bus coming 5. In ________ and the lesson began. A. the teacher came B. the teacher coming C. came the teacher D. did the teacher come 6. On the wall _________ two large portraits. A. hangs B. hang C. hanged D. hanging 7. --- Do you know Jim quarreled with his brother? --- I don’t know, _________. A. nor don’t I care B. nor do I care C. I don’t care neither D. neither don’t I care 8. Only when _________ how important it is to master English. A. did I work I realized B. I worked did I realize C. did I work did I realize D. I worked I realized 9. _______ in the darkness that he did not dare to move an inch. A. So frightened he was B. So frightened was he C. He was frightened so D. So he was frightened 10. _______, she is still as strong as you. A as old she is B. Old as she is C. As she is old D. As old is she
过去分词兼有动词、副词和形容词的特征，可以带宾语或受状语修饰。过去分词和宾语或状语一起构成过 去分词短语。它在句中可以作定语、表语、宾语补足语或状语。这节课讲解作定语、表语的用法。 1. 作定语 作定语的过去分词如果是单词，一般放在被修饰词的前面；过去分词短语作定语，一般放在被修饰词的后 面。例如： There are many fallen leaves on the ground. This is a book written by a worker. 2. 作表语 过去分词作表语,多表示主语所处的状态。 I was pleased at the news. The door remained locked. 过去分词作表语，相当于形容词，常见的有：delighted, disappointed, astonished, interested, satisfied, surprised, tired, worried, excited, married 等。 过去分词作表语时，应注意与被动结构的区别。系表结构说明主语的状态或具有的性质、特点；被动结构 强调谓语动作。 The small village is surrounded by trees.（状态） The small village was soon surrounded by enemy soldiers.（动作） I'm interested in chess.（状态） 3. 过去分词做状语 ①表时间，相当于一个时间状语从句，有时过去分词前可加连词 when 或 while 来强调时间概念。 Seen from the top of the hill, the city looked like a big garden. Accepted by the Party, he decided to devote his life to the cause of the Party. ②表原因，相当于一个原因状语从句。 Exhausted, the children fell asleep at once. Encouraged by the speech, the young people made up their minds to take up the struggle. ③表条件，相当于一个条件状语从句，有时过去分词前可用 if 等词 Heated, water changes into steam. Given another chance, he will do better. ④表让步，相当于一个though/although引导的让步状语从句。 Laughed at by many people, he continued his study. ⑤表伴随，说明动作发生的背景或情况。 Surrounded by a group of pupils, the old teacher walked into the classroom. The trainer appeared, followed by five little dogs.
一、here, there, now, then, thus 等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run。 There goes the bell. 铃声响了。 Then came the chairman. 主席来了。
Here is your letter. 你的信。 二、否定词置于句首，句子应进行倒装。 neither 放句首 Tod can't swim, neither can I. 托德不会游泳，我也不会。 用于 never, hardly, seldom, scarcely, barely, little, often, at no time, not only, not once, many a time 等词开 头的句子。 Never shall I go there again. 我再也不去那了。 Little did he know who the woman was.他基本上不知道那女人是谁。 Seldom was he late for class.他很少上学迟到。 用于 no sooner ... than ..., hardly... when... 和 not until... 的句型中 Hardly had I reached the station when the train left. 我刚到车站,火车就离开了。 No sooner had she gone out than the phone rang. 她刚离开,电话就响了。 Not until the teacher came did he finish his homework. 直到老师来，他才完成作业。 三、用于 only 放句首，修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句的句子。 Only in this way can you master English well. 只有这种方法，你才能学好英语。 Only that time did he do his homework. 直到哪个时间，他才做作业。 Only when he told me did I realize what trouble I was in. 省略句： 一、省略的目的 省略多见于非正式文体，尤其在对话中，省略是一种普遍的现象。英语中的省略一般说来有三个目的： 1．避免重复，减少累赘。省略的主要目的是避免重复，去掉不必要的累赘和繁琐。 Mike said that he would come to school to see me the next day, but he didn't come to school to see me the next day. Mike said that he would come to school to see me the next day, but he didn't. （省掉最后九个词，句子简洁了许多） 2．连接紧密，结构紧凑 省略也是使上下文紧密连接的一种修辞手段。 John was the winner in 1994 and Bob in 1998.（Bob 后省略了 was the winner，句子结构显得比较紧凑） 3．强调重点，突出信息 省略的另一作用是突出新的信息 Truth speaks too low, hypocrisy too loud.后一分句省略谓语 speaks，突出了 too loud） 二、句子成分的省略 为了避免重复，或者为了使某一内容引人注目，可以省略某些句子成分而保持句子原意不变。 1．省略主语 Beg your pardon.请你原谅。（= I beg your pardon.）） Serves you right. 你活该（= It serves you right.） 2．省略谓语 Anything the matter? 要紧吗？（= Is anything the matter?） The river was deep and the ice thin. 河很深，冰很薄。 （= The river was deep and the ice was thin.）
3．省略表语 Are you ready? Yes,I am.（am 后面省略了表语 ready） 4．省略宾语 We have to analyze and solve problems. (analyze 后省略了宾语 problems) Let's do the dishes. I'll wash and you'll dry.（wash 和 dry 后面省略了宾语 dishes） 5．省略定语 He spent part of the money, and the rest he saved.（the rest 后面省略了定语 of the money） 6．省略状语 （Even）The wisest man cannot know everything. 省略在句子中的应用 在一个句子中，省略可分为依赖上下文省略和不依赖上下文省略两种。前者省略的部分可在句子中找到， 但后者可能找不到。 1．简单句中的省略 依赖上下文的省略在对话中最为常用。 Like more beer?（= Would you like more beer?） —World you mind if I used your telephone? —Not at all. 一点也不。 （= I do not mind at all.） —Will he pass this examination? Probably. 大概会的。（= He will probably pass the examination.） 不依赖于上下文的省略。 All aboard! 请上船（= All go aboard.省略谓语） Haven't seen you for ages!（省略主语 I） What about having a game of chess? Sounds like a good idea. 2．并列句中的省略 （=It sounds like a good idea. 省略主语） Everybody appears well prepared. （= Everybady appears to be well prepared. 省略不定式 to be） 并列句中如果前后分句有相同的部分，常常可以省略掉，以避免重复。通常被省略的可以是主语、谓语、 宾语或其他万分，或句子万分的一部分。 省略出现在后一分句 John likes collecting stamps but (John) hates listening to music.（省略主语） 省略出现在前一分句 We can (win tomorrow's match), and certainly will,win tomorrow's match. 我们能够，而且一定会在明天的比赛中获胜。（前一分句省略谓语 + 宾语） 前后两个分句都出现省略
They can (pay the full fee ) and (they)should pay the full fee. 复合句中的省略 在主从复合句中，活力的现象是很普遍的。 省略主句的句首部分。（I'm）Sorry I couldn't go. 省略整个主句或主句的一部分（回答问题时常用）。 （It is a）Pity he's failed. If he says he'll come, he will(come). 3．在一些状语从句中，如果谓语动词是 be，主语又和主句的主语一致，或者主语是 it，常常可以把从句 中的主语和 be 省略掉。 以 when, while, once, until 等连词引导的时间状语从句。 When (you are) in Rome do as Rome does.入国问禁，入乡随俗。 4．在比较从句中通常把和主句重复的部分省掉。 省略谓语的全部 James enjoys the theeartre more than Susun. Tom has as many books as Jack. 省略主语和谓语的一部分 Brown speaks French as fluently as English. (as 后省略了 he speaks）省略表语部分 Mrs White is not so young as she looks.（looks 后省略了 young） 省略主语和谓语的大部分，保留状语 He is working harder than before.（than 后省略了 he worked hard） 省略主语 He drank a little more than was good for him.（than 后省略了 it）省略宾语 You spent more money than I had expected.（expected 后省略了that you should spend） 省略从句的全部 You are getting slimmer.
simmer 后省略了than you were before）
主句和从句中可同时省略一些成分。 The sooner (this is done), the better(it will be).
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