智课网 SAT 备考资料
摘要: FabiolaGianotti 法比奥拉吉亚诺蒂是著名意大利粒子物理学家。在被男性科学家所占据的科学界，吉亚 诺蒂可谓独树一帜。她带领将近 3000 名科学家，在欧洲核物理研究中心（CERN）成功开展了多项
FabiolaGianotti 法比奥拉· 吉亚诺蒂是著名意大利粒
子物理学家。在被男性科学家所 “占据”的科学界，吉亚诺蒂可谓独树一帜。 她带领将近 3000 名科学家，在欧洲核物理研究中心（CERN）成功开展了多项有突破性进展的实验。吉亚诺蒂 更因此成为了史上第二位登上美国《时代周刊》年度人物的女性。 “Physicsis, unfortunately, often seen as a male subject; sterile and without charm oremotion…But this is not true, because physics is art, aesthetics, beauty andsymmetry.” —Fabiola Gianotti Fabiola Gianotti, a female particlephysicist, is the coordinator for the world’s biggest science experiment:finding Higgs Boson particle by using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) atEuropean Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in the European particlephysics laboratory. She took charge of the main team consisting 3,000 topscientists that work on the Collider’s five-storey Atlas detector.Herappointment put her in the top ranks of a profession dominated by men. In2012, Gianotti became the second women ever listed asTimeMagazine’sPeople of The Year. Gianotti wasdifferent from that of the ordinaryparticle experimenters, who were born with rich scientific background. Indeed,her mother studied literature and music; her father is a retired geologist.When she began her high school studies in Milan, she seemed to be taking afterher mother, focusing on literature, art history, philosophy and ancient Latinand Greek. Math and physics were part of her curriculum but way at the bottom.Her interest in philosophy and the big questions it raises, however, actuallyled her away from the humanities. “I thought that physics, the little bit Iknew ofit, would allow me to address those questions in a more practical way,”she said. “I mean, being able to give answers.” Gianotti then perused a Ph.D. degree inexperimental sub-nuclear physics from the University of Milan, Italy. Shedecided to be an experimenter, working with the complex hardware of physics,for equally primal reasons. “I like manual things,” she said, “doing thingswith my hands, the feeling of touching.” What’s more, she was involved in heruniversity studies in the early 1980s, when the W and Z gauge bosons, whichmediate the weak force, had just been discovered at CERN (European Organizationfor Nuclear Research), so she knew this was a field on the move. She joined CERN in 1987 and worked on variousexperiments but shespent most ofher time with the Large Hadron Collider(LHC).The LHC straddles the French-Swiss border and is the foremost collider in theworld, with a 27 km
circumference. The machine and its accomplishments are theresult of a quarter-century of effort by a worldwidecommunity of scientists.All that effort and hardware isdevoted principally to accelerating protons tonear the speed of light, then crashing them together at enormously highenergies. In the subatomic debris that results from these collisions, newparticles might be found. 【合作与竞争】Sincethe debut of LHC, fruitful results were got, uncountable times of experimentswere carried out and many new particles were found. One of the mostgroundbreaking results, which caused global sensation which does not alwaysbeen seen in response to a scientific discovery, was the finding of Higgs-Bosonparticle (also called the GOD particle). Gianotti played a crucial role in theexperiment: she leads a team of 3000 scientists, probably the largest team ofscientists in science history. Back to 1960s, distinguishedBritish physicistPeter Higgs, statedthat all particles (other than Higgs Bosons) live in a fieldwith which they interact. Those interactions give particles their mass,basically by attracting Higgs Bosons particles to them. The more particles theyattract, the greater mass th ey are. Most scientific results supported Higgs’statement, but for decades, noone proved the existence of Higgs-Boson particle.
【领导与群众】Gianottiledher team at the LHC and finished mostof her work on a gigantic instrumentcalled ATLAS detector, which was equipped with a huge magnet that can measureparticles passing the path. The ATLAS project had over three thousandscientists across 169 institutions and 37 countries. Gianotti served as ATLASphysics coordinator from 1999 to 2003 and has worked with the collaborationsince its inception. After 18 years of working with CERN, Gianotti became theATLAS experiment’s spokesperson and coordinator, leading the lab’s strategicplanning and presenting findings to the international media. She also made particularly importantcontributions to a piece of hardware known as the liquid-argon calorimeter,which detects electromagnetic energy. By applying her artistic background, Gianottidesigned the detector which has a beautiful geometry that allows it to respondin less than 50 billionths of a second, so energy from particles moving closeto the speed of light can be detected. Eventually on December 2011, at the annualseminar at the CERN, Gianotti presented preliminary findings on the hunt forthe Higgs boson. In doing so, scientist had nailed the particle that givesother fundamental particles their mass. That in turn completed the so-calledstandard model of physics, the grand framework that ties together theuniverse’s three great forces,the strong force, the weak force andelectromagnetism, and governs the behavior of subatomic particles. Apart from the great result, an anecdote alsoepitomized Gianotti’s legendary. Just a few days before the presentation aboutthe finding of Higgs Boson particle, Gianotti accidentally suffered from asevere toothache. She took a drugstore painkiller, then started taking two whenone didn’t work, then went to three. Finally she woke up the night before theseminar with a raging fever and chills and had to be rushed to the hospital foremergency dental surgery. When she was done, the doctor told her she had tostay home. “I said, ‘O.K., I can stay home, for 20 minutes,’” she said. Thatwas the time she needed to race back to her house, take a shower and get toCERN. Then she shared eagerly to the public, as we mentioned, thegroundbreaking finding of Higgs Boson particle. 【质疑与遵从】Although being a leaderof a team of 3000 top scientists needs enormous effort, Gianotti is alsodealing with the special burdens and joysthat come with being a role model.Physics is a male-dominated field, and the assumption is that a woman has to overcomehurdles and face down biases that men don’t. But that just isn’t so.
Women inphysics are familiar with this misconception and acknowledge it mostly withjokes. “Of cour se there are many women in leadership positions at CERN,” saidone physicist. Currently, Gianotti receives all manner of mails, often fromhigh school students and often from girls, who are inspired by the way she has risenand thrived. Normally Gianotti will reply these mails and wrote, “Never abandonyour dreams. You may regret it for the rest of your life.” 使用说明： 第一步：浏览所有素材名单和简单的中文介绍，按照自己的偏向喜好挑选 4-6 个人物。特别要注明的是，希 望本书能帮助考生们开启灵感的阀门，如果在浏览的过程中想到更多的例子，建议自行进行整理。 第二步：对于所挑选人物，仔细阅读英文介绍部分，按照主题把其中相关内容单独整理出来。思考例子和某 一类 SAT 题目的联系。（要注意的是：例子的整理不是以人或者事件为单位，而是以主题作为划定标准。）当 然前提是大家要对 SAT 题目有基本的了解。
copyright ©right 2010-2020。