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高中状语从句专题


状语从句
考点名称:状语从句状语从句的概念: 状语从句指句子用作状语时,起副词作用的句子。它可以修饰谓语、非谓语动词、定语、状 语或整个句子。根据其作用可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、方式和比 较等从句。状语从句一般由连词(从属连词)引导,也可以由词组引起。从句位于句首或句中 时通常用逗号与主句隔开, 位于句尾时可以不用逗号隔开。 比较 while/as/when: 1、 as/when 引导短暂性动作的动词例句:如:Just as/Just when/When I stopped my car, a man came up to me. 2、 当从句的动作发生于主句动作之前, 只能用 when 引导这个从句, 不可用 as 或 while。 如:When you have finished your work, you may have a rest. 3、从句表示“随时间推移”连词 能用 as, 不用 when 或 while。 如: As the day went on, the weather got worse. 比较 untill/till: 两个连词意义相同,肯定形式表示的意思是“做某事直至某时” ,动词必须是延续性的。否定 形式表达的意思是“直至某时才做某事” ,动词为延续性或非延续性都可以。正确使用这两 个连词的关键之一就在于判断句中的动词该用肯定式还是否定式。肯定句例句:I slept until midnight. 我一直睡到半夜时醒了。 Wait till I call you. 等着我叫 你。注意:在肯定句中可用 before 代替:Let's get in the wheat before the sunsets. 否定句例 句:She didn't arrive until 6o'clock. I didn't manage to do it until you had explained how. 1、 Until 可用于句首, 而 till 通常不用于句首。 例句:Until you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened. 2、Untilwhen 疑问句中,until 要放在句首。例句:Until when are you staying? 你呆到什么时候?注意:否定句可用另外两种句式表示。 1)Not until?在句首,主句用倒装。例句:Not until the early years of the19th century did man know what heat is. 2)It is not until?that?状语从句的用种类: 1、 时间状语从句: 表示时间的状语从句可由 when, as, while, whenever, after, before, till(until), since, once, as soon as(或 the moment), by the time, no sooner?than, hardly(scarcely)? when, everytime 等引导。 e.g. When I came into the office, the teachers were having a meeting. He started as soon as he received the news. Once you see him, you will never forget him. No sooner had I gone to bed than I went to sleep. 2、原因状语从 句:原因状语从句是表示原因或理由的,引导这类从句的最常用的连词是 because, since, as, nowthat (既然) 等, for 表示因果关系时 (它引导的不是从句) 为并列连词, 语气不如 because 强。 e.g. He is disappointed because he didn't get the position. As it is raining, I will not go out. Now that you mention it, I do remember. 3、地点状语从句: 引 导 地 点 状 语 从 句 的 连 词 是 where 和 wherever 等 。 e.g. Sit wherever you like. Make a mark where you have a question. 4、目的状语从句: 引导目的状语从句最常 用的词(组)是 so, so that(从句谓语常有情态动词), in order that, in case(以防,以免) 等。 e.g. Speak clearly, so that they may understand you. She has bought the book in order that she could follow the TV lessons. He left early in case he should miss the train. 5、结果状语从句: 结果状语从句是表示事态结果的从句,通常主句 是原因,从句是结果。由 so that(从句谓语一般没有情态动词),so?that, such?that 等引 导。 e.g. She was ill, so that she didn't attend the meeting. He was so excited that he could not say a word. She is such a good teacher that everyone admires her. 6、条件状语从句: 条件状语从句分真实性(有可能实现的事情)与非真实性(条件与 事实相反或者在说话者看来不大可能实现的事情)条件句。引导条件状语从句的词(组)主 要有 if, unless, so(as)long as, on condition that, so(as) far as, if only(=if)。注意:条件从句中的 if

不能用 whether 替换。 e.g. If he is not in the office, he must be out for lunch. You may borrow the book so long as you keep it clean. So far as I know (据我所知) , he will be away for three months. You can go swimming on condition that(=if) you don't go too far away from the river bank. If he had come a few minutes earlier, he could have seen her. 7、让步状语从句: 让步状语从句可由 although, though, as, even if(though), however, whatever, whether?or, no matter who(when, what,?)等引导。注意:as 引 导的 让步 状语 从句一般 是倒 装的 。 e.g. Though he is a child, he knows a lot. Child a she is, he knows a lot. Whatever(=No matter what) you say, I'll never change my mind. 8、 方式状语从句: 方式状语从句常由 as, as if(though), the way, rather than 等引导。 e.g.You must do the exercise as I show you. He acted as if nothing had happened. 9、比较状语从句: 比较状语从句常用 than, so(as)?as, the more?the more 等引导。 e.g. I have made a lot more mistakes than you have. He smokes cigarettes as expensive as he can afford. The busier he is, the happier he feels.使用 状语从句时要注意的几个问题: 1、在时间和条件(有时也在方式、让步等)从句中,主句是一般将来时,从句通常用一般 现在时表示将来。 e.g. We'll go outing if it doesn't rain tomorrow. I'll write to you as soon as I get to Shanghai. 2、有些时间、地点、条件、方式或让步从句,如果从 句的主语与主句主语一致(或虽不一致,是 it) ,从句的谓语又包含动词 be,就可省略从句 中的“主语+be”部分。 e.g. When(hewas) still a boy of ten, he had to work day and night. If(you are) asked you may come in. If(it is) necessary I'll explain to you again. 3、注意区分不同从句:引导的是什么从句,不仅要根据连词,还要根据句子结构和句意来 判别。以 where 为例,能引导多种从句。 e.g. You are to find it where you left it.(地点状 语从句) Tell me the address where he lives. (定语从句,句中有先行词) I don't know where he came from. (宾语从句) Where he has gone is not known yet. (主语从句) This place is where they once hid.(表语从句)注意:表示“一? 就?” 的结构 hardly/scarcely?when/before/no sooner?than 和 as soon as 都可以表示 “一? 就?”的意思。例句:I had hardly/scarcely got home when it began to rain. I had no sooner got home than it began to rain. As soon as I got home, it began to rain. 注意: 如果 hardly/scarcely 或 nosooner 置于句首, 句子必须用倒装结构: 例句: Hardly/Scarcely had I got home when it began to rain. No sooner had I got home than it began to rain.


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