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【金榜新学案】人教必修4 Unit 4 Body language第四学时



动词ing形式作定语和状语 一、动词ing形式作定语

1.单个的动词ing形式可以作前置定语,一般具有两 种含义。
① 说明被修饰名词的用途和性能。 a reading room=a room which is used for reading阅览室 running shoes

=shoes for running跑鞋

a working method =a method of working工作方法
a drawing board 画板 a sewing machine缝纫机

a swimming pool 游泳池 a waiting room候车室 a dining car 餐车 a driving permit驾驶许可证 a singing competition 歌咏比赛 a walking stick 手杖 ②表示所修饰的人或物的动作或状态,在意思上接近一 个定语从句,可以表示正在进行的动作,也可表示经常性动 作或当时的状态。 developing countries=countries that are developing 发展 中国家

an ordinarylooking house=a house that looks ordinary 看 起来很普通的房子 a puzzling problem=a problem that puzzles somebody 困 扰人的问题

a barking dog 狂吠的狗
a disappointing play 令人失望的戏剧 an astonishing adventure 惊人的冒险

a sleeping baby熟睡的婴儿
boiling water 正在沸腾的水 failing sight 逐渐衰退的视力

the setting sun 落日
the coming week 下一周

2.作定语的动词ing形式如是一个短语,则应放在被修饰 词的后面。 The bottle containing vinegar should be sent to the laboratory. 装着醋的那个瓶子应送到实验室去。 They lived in a house facing south.

3.某些情况下,动词ing形式不能用来作定语,必须用定 语从句。 ① 作定语的动词ing形式表示的动作要与主句谓语的动作 同时发生,如两者不能同时发生的话,则需使用定语从句。

误:The professor coming here yesterday will give us a lecture.

正:The professor who came here yesterday will give us a lecture.

② 动词ing形式的完成式一般只用来作状语,不作定
语。 误:The temple having been destroyed by the earthquake will be rebuilt soon. 正:The temple which has been destroyed by the earthquake will be rebuilt soon.


二、动词ing形式作状语 动词ing形式可以作状语,修饰动词,在句中表示时 间、原因、结果、条件、让步、行为方式或伴随情况等。 动词ing形式作时间、原因、条件、让步状语时多位于句首; 作结果、伴随状语时常位于句末。

Having made full preparations,we are ready for the examination.=After we have made full preparations... 我们已经作好了充分准备,现在可以应考了。

2.表示原因,相当于一个原因状语从句。 Being ill,he didn't go to school yesterday.(=Since he was ill...)

3.表示结果,相当于一个并列谓语。 His father died,leaving him a lot of money.

=…and left him a lot of money.
他父亲死了,留给他许多钱。 4.表示条件,相当于一个条件状语从句。 Working hard at your lessons,you will succeed. =If you work hard at your lessons... 如果你努力学习,就一定能成功。

5.表示让步,相当于一个让步状语从句。 Knowing all this,they made me pay for the damage.= Although they knew all this... 尽管知道了一切情况,他们还是要我赔偿损失。 6.表示行为方式、伴随情况或补充说明,相当于一个 并列结构。 He lay on the grass,staring at the sky for a long time. =...and stared at the sky for a long time.


温馨提示:①动词ing形式作状语,其逻辑主语应与句 子的主语一致。

I stood for a minute watching them and then went to greet them.
She stepped back appearing surprised and put up her hands,as if in defence. Then Akira Nagata from Japan came in smiling... . ②动词ing形式前可有while,when,unless,though, if等连词。 When waiting for the doctor to come,I had a talk with my daughter.

典例剖析 ing 形式主要考查其在句子中作定语和状语的用法。 European football is played in 80 countries,________it the most popular sport in the world. A.making C.made B.makes D.to make

解析:making it the most popular sport in the world为现 在分词短语作结果状语,这类分词短语常放在句子的后面。 又如:His parents died,leaving him an orphan.


1.(2012年湖南卷)Everyone in the village is very friendly. It doesn’t matter you have lived there for a short or a long time.? A. Why B. how? C. Whether D. when 解析:句意:村里的每个人都很友好,不论你在那里住的时 间长还是短都没关系。此处it为形式主语,真正的主语是matter 后的从句。从句中的or是关键词,whether...or...表示“是…… 还是”,符合语意。其他选项均在从句中作状语,而从句并不 缺少状语。? 答案:C?

2.He sent me an email,________ to get some further information. A.hoped B.hoping C.to hope D.hope

解析:现在分词短语作伴随状语。? 答案:B?

3.Though ________ money,his parents managed to send him to university. (

C )
B.lacking of
D.lacked in


4.________ the poem a second time,its meaning will become clearer to you. A.Your having read B.While reading

C.If reading D.When you read 解析:从句的主语是you,主句的主语是its meaning,不能 用分词短语作状语。? 答案:D?

5.________ the programme,they have to stay there for another two weeks. A.Not completing C.Not having completed B.Not completed D.Having not completed

解析:分词的否定式在分词前加not,分词的动作在谓语之 前发生,用分词的完成时态。? 答案:C?

6.They set out______ for the________ boy. (
A.searching;losing C.to search;lost B.searching;lost

C )


7.________ your composition carefully,you can at least avoid some spelling mistakes. A.Check B.To check

C.Having checked D.If you check 解析:如果选A,主句前需加and,这时,前面的祈使句表示 条件;不定式在句首,中间用逗号与主句隔开,这时的不定式 是目的状语,所以B不对。 D是一个条件状语从句,后面的主句 表示结果。? 答案:D? 8.When I got back home I saw a message pinned on the door,______ “ Sorry to miss you,will call later.” (





C.to read


9.The students sat there,____ what to do. ( D )
A.doesn't knowing B.didn't knowing

C.not know

D.not knowing

10.In his talk,the ________Prime Minister expressed his satisfaction,________ that he had enjoyed his stay here. (


) B.visited;adding




1.While he was reading the newspaper,my father was nodding from time to time.

________ ________ ________ ________,my father was nodding from time to time.
2.The person who is translating the songs can speak seven languages. The person ________ ________ ________can speak seven languages. 1.While reading the newspaper? 2.translating the songs?

3.Even if I take a taxi,I will still be late for the meeting. ________ ________ ________ a taxi,I will still be late for the meeting. 4.The road is under construction,and thus caused the delay.

The road is under construction,________ ________ the
delay. 5.She sat at the desk and did her homework. She sat at the desk ________ ________ ________. 3.Even if taking? 4.thus causing?

5.doing her homework?

三、语法填空 A young boy learnt a lesson from a large old oak (橡树) tree. As he stared 1.________ amazement at the tree,he asked his father,“Dad,2.________ did that tree grow so big and tall?” 3.________thinking for a while,the wise father replied,“Well,my son,it didn't start out that way. First,it was a seed that absorbed water and sunlight and then it formed roots to give it 4.________ (strong) so that it could grow even bigger.5.______ would then have to survive the cold snow of the long winters,but that snow also provided the seed with protection and the water it would grow 6.________ (survive) in the world.”

“The seed's roots would grow 7.________ (powerful) after the first winter. With each passing summer,the seed would stretch (伸展) its roots and eventually produce leaves.8.________ the tree would lose its leaves every autumn,they would always grow back in the same place every spring. So,as each year passes,nature 9.________ (perform) its job and the seed transforms 10.________ into a tree by growing stronger,taller and more beautiful than the year before.
语篇解读:一个小男孩从一颗高大的橡树那里学到 了人生的一课。一棵大树的生长是从一颗小小的种子开 始的,这颗种子发芽长成小树,在年复一年岁月的磨炼 中,逐渐长成一棵令人仰望的大树。?

1.解析:介词。in amazement“惊讶地”。in在这里表 示“处于(某种状态)中”。 答案:in 2.解析:疑问副词。那棵树是怎么长得那么大呢? 答案:how

3.解析:介词。考虑了一会儿后,这个睿智的父亲回 答道。
答案:After 4.解析:词性转换。根据空格前面的动词“give”后跟 双宾语可知,此处应使用“strong”的名词形式“strength”。 答案:strength

5.解析:指示代词。前两句“First,it was a seed that absorbed water and sunlight and then it formed roots to give it 4________ (strong) so that it could grow even bigger.” 中的it都指代 “the tree”,这里也是用it来指代the tree。 答案:It 6.解析:非谓语动词。动词不定式作目的状语。把后面的 从句补充成一个完整的句子则为:it would need the protection and the water to survive in the world. 答案:to survive 7.解析:形容词比较级。从句意分析:(大雪给种子提供 了防护和水分)在第一个冬天后,种子的根就变得更加强壮了。 powerful是多音节词汇,所以它的比较级应该在前面加more。

答案:more powerful

8.解析:连词。Although/Though引导让步状语从句。 尽管每年秋天,树木的叶子都会落尽,但是来年,树叶总 是会从原来生长的地方重新长出来。 答案:Although/Though 9.解析:考查时态。最后一句话是对这个种子历程的 总结,所以通用了一般现在时。根据空格前后的一般现在 时可知,本空也应使用一般现在时。 答案:performs

10.解析:反身代词。年复一年,自然做着自己的工 作,种子也把自己转换成一棵树木,每一年后比过去的一 年要更加强壮、高大和美丽。


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