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高二英语必修四课文详解及习题练习


1.respect: n. v. 尊敬,尊重 e.g We should respect each other. 我们应该互相尊重 respectful: 恭敬的,对人有礼的 respectable; 受/被人尊重

e.g He is a respectful student. He respects the teachers.他是个对人有礼貌的学生, 他尊

敬老师。 He is respectable teacher. He is respected by all his students.他是个受人尊敬的老师, 他所有学生都尊重他。 2.inspire 激励,鼓舞;赋予?灵感 inspired adj 有灵感的 inspire sb. to do 激励某人做某事

inspiring adj.激励人心的 inspiration: n. 灵感

e.g He tried to inspire them to make greater efforts.他试着鼓励它们做出更大努力。 eg. His speech inspired us greatly. 他的演讲大大地鼓舞了我们。 eg. The memory of his childhood inspired his first novel. 他对童年的记忆促成了他 第一部小说。 3.support : v. 承受;支撑;抚养,资助;赞成,支持;supporter: n. 支持者 e.g Do you think those shelves can support so many books? 你认为那些架子能承 受这么多书吗? She needs a high income to support such a large family.她需要高收入来养活这一大 家子。 Do you support their demands of independence? 你支持他们独立的要求吗? e.g I? m a strong supporter of women? s rights.我是女权的强烈支持者。 4.deliver: v. 传送;把..踢向;发表,宣布;给?接生 e.g Letters are delivered every day.信件每天都会传送。 She delivered a hard kick to his knee.她狠狠地踢了他膝盖一下。 The doctor delivered her baby.医生给她接生。 5.mean 的用法 mean doing sth. ? 意味着做? mean to do sth? 打算做某事 delivery: n.

eg. Doing such a thing means wasting time. 做这样的事儿就是浪费时间 eg. Do you mean to go without money? 没有钱你也打算走吗?

6.wander 的用法 1)可以解释为漫步,逛,常与 about 搭配 e.g We love wandering about the hills 我们喜欢在山上漫步。 2)还可以解释为脱 离,迷失 e.g Don? t wander off the point 不要离题。 7“Only + 状语” 开头的句子要用倒装 eg. Only in this way can we learn English better.只有用这种方法才能把英语学更好。 Only then did I realize my mistake. 直到那时我才知道我的错误. 8.work out 算出;进行;发展;理解,说出;制定,拟定 eg. I can? t work out the meaning of the poem.我不理解这首诗的意思。 Things have worked out badly. 事情进展得很糟糕。 work out his income. 算出他的收入 work out a plan 制定计划

9.have/ has been doing 现在完成进行时,表示动作从过去就已开始,一直持续 到现在,可能还会继续下去. eg. He has been reading since this morning.今早起,他一直在看书. He is very tired; he has been working hard all day .他很累,他一整天都在努力工作 He has been writing a letter.他一直在写信. He has written a letter.他已写过信了.

II.Reading

A STUDENT OF AFRICAN WILDLIFE 非洲野生动植物学生

It is 5:45 am and the sun is just rising over Gombe National Park in East Africa. 早上 5:45 分,太阳冉冉升起在东非的贡贝国家公园上, 【注释:Gome National Park 贡 贝国家公园,位于东非的坦桑尼亚。冈贝最常见的其他哺乳动物是灵长类。人们 从 20 世纪 60 年代开始,就一直对它们进行研究,发现橄榄树狒狒最为常见,经 常成群结队在海滨流连, 而红尾猴和疣猴则一直以森林作为天然篷幛,疣猴经常 遭受黑猩猩的追猎。 】 Following Jane’s way of studying chimps, our group are all going to visit them in the forest.按照詹尼研究黑猩猩的方法, 我们这群人都将看到 森林中的黑猩猩。 【注释:following Jane’s way of studying chimps 是现在分词作状 语。 】 Jane has studied these families of chimps for many years and helped people understand how much they behave like humans.詹尼研究黑猩猩家族已有许多年 了,她帮助人们理解黑猩猩怎样像人类一样地行为表现。 【注释:behave 为或举止)表现 eg. He has behaved well at school.他在学校表现良好。 vi.(行 (2)工作

eg. How is the new engine behaving?新的引擎运行得如何?】 Watching a family of chimps wake up is our first activity of the day.观察黑猩猩一家起床是我们当天的第 一项活动。 【注释:watching a family of chimps wake up 是动名词短语作主语,谓 语动词用第三人称单数式形式; 另外动词不定式、名词从句作主语谓语动词均为 第三人称单数式形式。 】 This means going back to the place where we left the family sleeping in a tree the night before.这就意味着:在前天夜里就要走回到我们 让黑猩猩在树上睡觉的地方。 【注释:mean doing sth.意味着? eg. These new

orders for our manufactures will mean working overtime.这些订购我们产品的新订 单意味着要加班。 Mean to do sth.打算做某事 若是能留下, 我想留在这儿。 eg. I mean to stay here, if I can. eg. 1) Having my

mean to 对?来说很重要

family around me means happiness to me.家人同我在一起就意味着幸福。 2) The smell means dinner to the dog!对狗来说, 这气味意味着进食! mean nothing to me.我完全不明白这些符号是什么意思。 to anyone.他无意伤害任何人。 mean 3) These symbols

4) He means no harm

adj.吝啬的,小气的 He's too mean to Everybody sits and waits in the shade of

make a donation.他很小气, 不肯捐款。 】

the trees while the family begins to wake up and move off.当黑猩猩一家开始醒来

要离开的时候,大家在树下坐着等着。 【注释:①while

conj. (1)在?期间, 当?

的时候; 与?同时 While in prison, he wrote his first novel.他在狱中写出了第一部 小说。 (2) 而, 然而 (表示对比) eg. One person wants out, while the other wants the relationship to continue.一人想就此了断, 而另一人想继续保持这种关系。 (3) 虽然,尽管 eg. While I wouldn't recommend a night-time visit, by day the area is

full of interest.虽然我不建议夜间游玩,但是在白天,这个地区很有玩头。②move off 离开;死;畅销 看反光镜。 eg. 1) Check your mirrors before you move off.开车前注意看

2) Farmers are rapidly moving off the land.农民正迅速离开土地。 】

Then we follow as they wander into the forest.然后,当他们漫游到森林里,我们便 跟着。 Most of the time, chimps either feed or clean each other as a way of showing love in their family.大多数情况下,黑猩猩们要么进食,要么相互清洁,在家族里 这是作为一种表达爱的方式。 【注释: either…or… 要么?要么 … eg. Either I

accompany you to your room or I wait here.要么我陪你去你的房间,要么我在这儿 等。 】 Jane warns us that our group is going to be very tired and dirty by the afternoon and she is right.詹尼预先告诉我们到下午我们将会很累很脏,她说的对。 【注释:warn sb. that 预告:预先通知或告诉: eg. They called and warned me that they might be delayed.他们打来电话,预先告诉我他们可能耽搁一会儿。 warn sb. of sth.警告某人当心某事; warn sb. not to do sth.警告某人不要做某事; 】 However, the evening makes it all worthwhile. 然而,晚上使得这一切都值得。 【注 释:worthwhile adj.值得做的, 值得出力的
eg. eg, eg. 值得做 eg. eg. The book is well worth reading The book is worthy of $50. The book is worthy of being read The book is worthy to be read It is worthwhile reading the book. It is worthwhile to read the book. of sth.值得,配得上 (2) be worthy of being done to be done (3) It is worthwhile doing sth.

(1) be well worth doing sth.很值得做某事

to do sth.做某事是值得的

试题:1. She has done some ____ things during the summer vacation, and she is ___ of being praised. A. worthwhile; worthy B. worthwhile; worth C. worthy; worth D. worth; worthy 2. Try to spend your time just on the things you find ____. A. worth doing them B. worth being done C. worthy of doing them D. worthy of being done】 We watch the mother chimp and her babies play in the tree. 我们观看黑猩猩妈妈和她的幼子在树上玩耍。 Then we see them go to sleep

together in their nest for the night.然后,我们看他们一起在巢穴睡觉过夜。 We realize that the bond between members of a chimp family is as strong as in a human family.我们意思到黑猩猩家族成员之间的关系和我们人类一样紧密。 Nobody before Jane fully understood chimp behaviour.在詹尼之前没有人懂得 黑猩猩的行为举止。 She spent years observing and recording their daily activities. 她花费了几年时间来观察和记录他们的日常活动。
【辨析: spend, pay, cost, take 这几个词均表示“花费” ,区别在于句型结构不同: sb. spend some time (in) doing sth. eg. I have spent four years studying English. eg. She always spends a lot of money on clothes. eg. I paid $10,000 for the car. Participating in the strike cost me my job.参加罢工而使我失去工作. eg. It took me two hours to finish my homework.】

some money on sth. sb. pay some money for sth. Sth. cost sb. sth. eg. It takes sb. some time to do sth.

Since her childhood she had wanted to work with animals in their own environment. 自从童年时代, 她就想和动物一起在野外自然环境下合作 (生活) 。 However, this was not easy.然而,这并不容易。 When she first arrived in Gombe in 1960, it was unusual for a woman to live in the forest.当她在 1960 年首次到达贡贝,对一位妇 女来说生活在森林里是不同寻常的。 Only after her mother came to help her for the first few months was she allowed to begin her project.只有在头几个月她妈妈来 帮她之后,才允许她开始她的项目。 【注释:由 only 及 only 所修饰的状语位于句 首时, 主句要采用半倒装结构, 但当 only 修饰主语时, 不倒装。如: 1) Only when he entered, did she pick up the receiver. 他刚一进来她就接到了电话。 2) Only if it receives a copy of the latest report, can the committee make its decision by Friday of next week. 委员会只有在收到最后的报告后,才可以在下周五作出决定。 3) Only a doctor can do that.只有医生才能这样做。 】 Her work changed the way people think about chimps. 她的工作改变了人们对黑猩猩的思考方式。 For example one important thing she discovered was that chimps hunt and eat meat. 例 如, 她所发现的一个重要情况就是:黑猩猩围猎并吃肉。 【注释:that chimps hunt and eat meat.是由 that 引导的名词从句作表语, 即表语从句。 】 Until then everyone had thought chimps ate only fruit and nuts. 直到那时, 人们一直都以为黑猩猩只吃 水果和坚果。She actually observed chimps as a group hunting a monkey and then eating it.她确实观察到黑猩猩以群体方式围猎猴子,然后将其吃掉。 【注释:as a group 以群体方式,作状语。 】 She also discovered how chimps communicate with each other, and her study of their body language helped her work out their social system.她还发现黑猩猩怎样彼此交流, 对黑猩猩肢体语言的研究帮助她解决了黑 猩猩的社会体系。 【注释:(1) communicate with 与?通话/交流 eg. The Minister for Foreign Affairs has already communicated on this event with the American President.外交部长已经跟美国总统就此事件交换过意见了。 (2) work out 找到 解答; 解决;有特定结果 eg. worked out the equations; worked out their personal differences.解出方程式; 找到他们个人的区别 It worked out that everyone left on the same train.结果每个人都乘同一列火车离开】 For forty years Jane Goodall has been outspoken about making the rest of the world understand and respect the life of these animals.四十年来,詹尼·古道尔直言不讳 地说起让世界其他人理解并尊重这些动物的生活。 【注释: (1) be outspoken about… 对?直言不讳的/坦率的 eg. Tom was outspoken about his ideal that he

wanted to go to college.汤姆直言不讳谈他的理想——上大学。 (2) respect vt. & n. 尊敬,尊重;敬意 show respect for sb./sth.尊敬/尊重…; have respect for…尊 敬/尊重…; in this respect 在这一方面; in all/many respects 在各个/许多方面; in respect of sth 关于…;就…而言; without respect 恕我直言;respect sb./sth. for sth. 因某事而尊敬某人 eg. 1) We have had many lessons in this respect. 2) He always treated his peers with respect. 3) There are three opinions with respect to this question.】 She has argued that wild animals should be left in the wild and not used for entertainment or advertisements.她认为野生动物应该处于野生状态,不 应该用于娱乐或广告。 【注释:(1) leave sb./sth. +补语(形容词、现在分词、过去 分词、介词短语),eg. 1) Sorry, I left my book on the desk.对不起,我把书放在桌 子上了。 2) Leave him alone and he will produce. 别打扰他, 他会写出来的。 (2) argue vi.争论;辩论;vt. 争论;说服 argue with sb. on/about/over sth.与某人 争论某事;argue against/for 为反对/赞成…而辩论; argue sb. into/ out of doing sth. 说服某人做/不做某事 eg. 1) Don’t argue with one who is in hot blood.不要和正 在气头上的人争论。 2) They strongly argued against going there next Sunday.他们 坚决反对下星期去那里。 3) We argued her out of going on such a dangerous journey.我们说服他不要去做这样危险的旅行。 】 She has helped to set up special places where they can live safely.她帮助建了一些黑猩猩能够安全生活的特殊的地 方。 She is leading a busy life but she says:她过着忙碌的生活,但她说: “Once I stop, it all comes crowding in and I remember the chimps in laboratories.“一旦我停 下来, 一切都蜂拥而至, 我记得那些在实验室里的黑猩猩, 【注释: come crowding in 一拥而入;蜂拥而至 eg. When he went home and sat in the sofa, what happened in the day all came crowding in.当她回到家坐在沙发上, 白天所发生的一 切一下子涌上心头。 】It ’s terrible.太可怕啦。 It affects me when I watch the wild chimps.当我观察到野生黑猩猩时,深深地影响了我。 I say to myself, ‘Aren’t they lucky?’ 我自问, ‘难道他们不是幸运的吗?’ And then I think about small chimps in cages though they have done nothing wrong.随后,我想到困在笼子里的小黑猩猩, 虽然他们没有做错什么。 Once you have seen that you can never forget…”一旦你 看到那些情况,你就永远不会忘记……”【注释:once As soon as; if ever; when: 一?就;一旦;当?时 eg. (1) Once he goes, we can clean up.他一走,我们就 能清理 (2) Once printed, this dictionary will be very popular!一旦出版, 这本词典 将会非常畅销! (3) Once he arrives we can start.他一到我们就可以动身。 】 She has achieved everything she wanted to do:她已经实现她想要做的一切: 【注释: achieve the target/ goals/ aim 达到目的; achieve success 获得成功; achieve one’s purpose 达到目的; make an achievement 取得成就】 working with animals in their own environment, gaining a doctor ’s degree and showing that women can live in the forest as men can.在自然环境下与动物一起合作(生活) ,获得博士学位,表明女 子能像男子一样能够生活在森林里。 She inspires those who want to cheer the achievements of women.她激励起那些想为妇女的成功而欢呼的人们。 【注释:(1) inspire vt. 鼓励;激励 1) inspire sb. with hope 激起某人的希望 2) I was inspired to work harder than ever before.我受激励比以往任何时候都更加努力地 工作。 (2) cheer 用欢呼声鼓励:用欢呼声鼓励?或好象用欢呼声鼓励?;激励 eg. The fans cheered the runners on.热烈的观众们用欢呼声为赛跑选手打气 】

考题: 1. Lucy has _____ all of the goals she set for herself in high school and is ready for new challenges at university. A. acquired B. finished C. concluded D. achieved 2. All the things ____ must be done well. A. worth to do B. worthy of being done C. worthy doing D. worth of doing 3. The lady is so old that she has to ____ herself with a cane. A. help B. support C. raise D. lift 4. Although the bike is old, it ’s _____. A. out of condition B. in good condition C. in bad condition D. on good condition 5. The Internet gives people the chance to have the information they need ____ to them quickly and cheaply. A. to deliver B. deliver C. delivering D. delivered 6. We had wanted to finished our task by noon, but it didn ’t quite ____ as planned. A. find out B. give out C. hand out D. work out 7. Only after they had performed hundreds of experiments ____ . A. they succeed in solving the problem B. they would succeed in solving the problem C. did they succeed in solving the problem D. will they succeed in solving the problem 8. She has done some ____ things during the summer vacation, and she is ___ of being praised. A. worthwhile; worthy B. worthwhile; worth C. worthy; worth D. worth; worthy 9. Try to spend your time just on the things you find ____. A. worth doing them B. worth being done C. worthy of doing them D. worthy of being done 重点句型: 1.Only after her mother came to help her for the first few months was she allowed to begin her project. 【精提取】 以 only+状语(一般为介词短语、副词、从句等)开头的句子要用部 分倒装。 【巧应用】 只有当我到达山顶的时候,我才有一种巨大的成就感。 Only when I reached the top of the mountain ____ ____ ____ _____ ___ _____ ____ ________. 答案:did I feel a great sense of achievement 2.She is leading a busy life but she says:“Once I stop,it all comes crowding in and I remember the chimps in laboratories.It’s terrible.It affects me when I watch the wild chimps...” 【精提取】 once 此处用作连词。意为“一旦……就”,用于连接时间状语从句, 类似于 as soon as。

【巧应用】 见一次就永远不会忘记。 ________ ________,it can never be forgotten。 答案:Once seen 3.Suddenly it hit me how difficult it was for a woman to get medical training at that time. 【精提取】 It hits me...意为“我突然想到……”。 【巧应用】 我突然想起,我把她的生日给忘了。 ____ _____ ____ ____ _____ ____ ___ _____ I had forgotten her birthday. 答案:It hit me all of a sudden that 4.Jane warns us that our group is going to be very tired and dirty by the afternoon and she is right. 【精提取】 warn 是及物动词,意为“警告、告诫、提醒等”。 【巧应用】 那样开车很危险, 已经警告过他了。 He ___ ____ ____ ___ ____ ____ of driving the car in that way. 答案:has been warned of the danger

1.必修四 Unit1A STUDENT OF AFRICAN WILDLIFE 非洲野生动物研究者 It is 5:45 am and the sun is just rising over Gombe National Park in East Africa. 清晨 5 点 45 分, 太阳刚从东非的贡贝国家公园的上空升起, Following Jane's way of studying chimps, our group are all going to visit them in the forest. 我们一行人准 备按照简研究黑猩猩的方法去森林里拜访它们。Jane has studied these families of chimps for many years and helped people understand how much they behave like humans. 简研究这些黑猩猩家族已经很多年了, 她帮助人们了解黑猩猩跟人类的 行为是多么的相似。Watching a family of chimps wake up is our first activity of the day. 我们当天的首项任务就是观察黑猩猩一家是如何醒来的。This means going back to the place where we left the family sleeping in a tree the night before. 这意 味着我们要返回前一天晚上我们离开黑猩猩一家睡觉的大树旁。 Everybody sits and waits in the shade of the trees while the family begins to wake up and move off. 大家坐在树荫下等待着, 这时候猩猩们睡醒了, 准备离开。 Then we follow as they wander into the forest. 然后这群黑猩猩向森林深处漫步而去,我们尾随其后。 Most of the time, chimps either feed or clean each other as a way of showing love in their family. 在大部分时间里,黑猩猩或相互喂食,或彼此擦身,这在它们的家 庭里是表示爱的方式。 Jane warns us that our group is going to be very tired and dirty by the afternoon and she is right. 简预先提醒我们, 到下午的时候我们就会又 脏又累。她说对了。However, the evening makes it all worthwhile. 不过到傍晚时 分我们觉得这一切都是值得的。 We watch the mother chimp and her babies play in the tree. Then we see them go to sleep together in their nest for the night. 我们 看到黑猩猩妈妈跟她的幼子们在树上玩耍, 后来看见它们晚上一起回窝里睡觉了。 We realize that the bond between members of a chimp family is as strong as in a

human family. 我明白了猩猩家庭成员之间的联系像人类家庭一样紧密。 Nobody before Jane fully understood chimp behaviour. 在简之前没有人完全 了解黑猩猩的行为。 She spent years observing and recording their daily activities. 她花了多年的时间来观察并记录黑猩猩的日常生活。 Since her childhood she had wanted to work with animals in their own environment. 从孩童时代起, 简就想在动 物生活的环境中研究它们。However, this was not easy. 但是,这不是一件简单的 事。When she first arrived in Gombe in 1960, it was unusual for a woman to live in the forest. 当她 1960 年最初来到贡贝时,对女性来说,住进大森林还是很稀罕 的事情。Only after her mother came to help her for the first few months was she allowed to begin her project. 她母亲头几个月来帮过她的忙,这才使她得以开始 自己的计划。Her work changed the way people think about chimps. 她的工作改变 了人们对黑猩猩的看法。 For example, one important thing she discovered was that chimps hunt and eat meat. 比方说,她的一个重要发现是黑猩猩猎食动物。Until then everyone had thought chimps ate only fruit and nuts. 在此之前,人们一直认 为黑猩猩只吃水果和坚果。 She actually observed chimps as a group hunting a monkey and then eating it. 而她曾经亲眼看到过一群黑猩猩捕杀一只猴子,然后 把它吃掉。 She also discovered how chimps communicate with each other, and her study of their body language helped her work out their social system. 她还发现了黑 猩猩之间是如何交流的, 而她对黑猩猩肢体语言的研究帮助她勾勒出黑猩猩的社 会体系。 For forty years Jane Goodall has been outspoken about making the rest of the world understand and respect the life of these animals. 40 年来,简?古道尔一直在 呼吁世人了解并尊重这些动物的生活。 She has argued that wild animals should be left in the wild and not used for entertainment or advertisements. 她主张应该让野 生动物留在野外生活,而不能用于娱乐或广告。 She has helped to set up special places where they can live safely. 她还为黑猩猩建起了可以安全生活的保护区。 She is leading a busy life but she says: 她的生活是忙忙碌碌的,然而,正如她所说 的:"Once I stop, it all comes crowding in and I remember the chimps in laboratories. It's terrible. ―我一旦停下来,所有的一切都会涌上心头。我就会想起实验室的黑

猩猩,太可怕了。 It affects me when I watch the wild chimps. 每当我看着野生黑 猩猩时,这个念头总是萦绕着我。I say to myself, 'Aren't they lucky?" 我会对自己 说:?难道它们不幸运吗?‘ And then I think about small chimps in cages though they have done nothing wrong. 然后我就想起那些没有任何过错却被关在笼子里 的小黑猩猩。Once you have seen that you 你就永远不会忘记??‖ She has achieved everything she wanted to do: working with animals in their own environment, gaining a doctor's degree and showing that women can live in the forest as men can. 简已经得到了她想要得到的一切:在动物的栖息地工作;获得 博士学位;还向世人证明女人和男人一样也能在森林里生活。She inspires those who want to cheer the achievements of women.她激励着人们为妇女们的成就而 欢呼喝彩。 can never forget ..."一旦你看到这些,

【语法精讲】 : 主谓一致(Subject- Verb Agreement),指”人称”和”数方面的一致关系.如: He is going abroad. They are playing football. 可分为:语法一致, 内容一致, 就近一致. (一) 语法一致原则: 即主语为单数,谓语用单数,主语为复数,谓语也用复数. 1. 单数主语即使后面带有 with , along with, together with, like( 象 ), but ( 除 了),except, besides, as well as, no less than, rather than(而不是), including, in addition to 引导的短语, 谓语动词仍用单数. 如: Air as well as water is matter. 空气和水都是物质. 除了两个仆人外, 没有一个人

No one except two servants was late for the dinner. 迟来用餐。

2. 用 and 连接的并列主语,如果主语是同一个人,同一事,同一概念, 谓语动词用单 数, 否则用复数. 如: The poet and writer has come. 那位诗人兼作家来了.(一个人) 锤子和锯都是有用的工具. (两样物)

A hammer and a saw are useful tools.

用 and 连接的成对名词习惯上被看成是一个整体, 如:bread and butter(黄油抹面 包), knife and fork(刀叉)等作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。 3. 不定式(短语), 动名词(短语), 或从句作主语时, 谓语动词用单数. 如: Serving the people is my great happiness. 为人民服务是我最大的幸福. 我们什么时候出去郊游已决

When we? ll go out for an outing has been decided. 定了。

4. 用 and 连接的并列主语被 each, every 或 no 修饰时, 谓语动词用单数. Every boy and every girl likes to go swimming. 每个男孩和每个女孩都喜欢去游泳.

No teacher and no student was absent from the meeting. 会缺席. Each man and (each) woman is asked to help. 请去帮忙。

没有老师也没有学生开 每个男人和每个女人都被

5. each of + 复数代词, 谓语动词用单数. 复数代词+each, 谓语动词用单数.如: Each of us has something to say. 我们每个人都有话要说。 We each has something to say.我们每个人都有话要说。 6. 若主语中有 more than one 或 many a/an , 尽管从意义上看是复数, 但它的谓 语动词仍用单数。但 more+复数名词+than one 做主语时, 谓语动词仍用复数. 如: Many a boy likes playing basketball. student was late. 不只一个学生迟到 许多男生都喜欢打篮球. More than one

More persons than one come to help us. 不止一个人来帮助我们。 7. none 做主语时,谓语动词可用单数, 也可用复数; 但在代表不可数的东西时 人无完人。

总是看作单数,因而谓语动词要用单数. 如: None of us are (is) perfect. None of this worries me. 这事一点不使我着急。

8. 名词如: trousers, scissors, clothes, goods, glasses 等作主语时, 谓语动词必须用 复数. 如: His clothes are good. 但这些名词前若出现 a pair of , 谓语一般用单数. 如: A pair of glasses is on the desk. 桌上有一副眼镜。 9. 形复意单名词如 :news 以 ics 结尾的学科名称如 : physics, mathematics,

economics; 国名如: the United States; 报纸名如: the New Times; 书名如: Arabian Night <天方夜谈>; 以及 The United Nations<联合国> 等作主语时, 谓语动词用单 数。 10. “a/one +名词+and a half “, “one and a half + 名词”, “the number of + 名 词” 等作主语时, 谓语动词要用单数. 如: Only one and a half apples is left on the table. 注意: one or two + 复数名词作主语, 谓语动词用复数形式, 如: One or two places have been visited. 参观了一两个地点。 (二) 内容一致原则: 1.主语中有 all, half, most, the rest 等, 以及”分数或百分数+名词”做主语时,谓语 动词单复数取决于连用的名词.如:

The rest of the bikes are on sale today. 60%of the apple was eaten by little boy. Most of the apples were rotten. was eaten by a rat.

剩下的自行车, 今天出售。 这个苹果的 60%都被这个小男孩吃了。

大部分的苹果都是烂的。 Most of the apple

这个苹果的大部分被老鼠吃了。

2. 不定数量的词组, 如:part of , a lot of , lots of , one of , a number of , plenty of 等 作主语时, 谓语动词的单复数取决于量词后面名词的数.如: A part of the textbooks have arrived. 一小部分教科书已运到。 这个苹果的一部分被猪吃光了。

A part of the apple has been eaten up by the pig. 3. 加减乘除用单数.如: Fifteen minus five is ten . 15 减去 5 等于 10。

4. 表示时间, 金钱, 距离, 度量等的名词做主语时 , 尽管是复数形式, 它们做为 一个单一的概念时, 其谓语动词用单数.如: Ten miles is a good distance. 十英里是一个相当的距离。 5. (1) 通常作复数的集体名词. 包括 police , people, cattle 等, 这些集体名词通常 用作复数.如: The British police have only very limited powers. (2) 通常作不可数名词的集体名词. 包括 equipment, furniture, clothing, luggage 等. (3) 可作单数也可作复数的集体名词 . 包括 audience, committee, government, 6. the +形容词/过去分词形式”表示一类人或事物, 作主语时, 谓语动词用复数. 如: The injured were saved after the fire. 大火过后这些受伤的人被救了。 (三) 就近原则 1. 由 here, there, where 等引导的倒装句中, (有时主语不止一个时)谓语动词与靠 近它的主语在数上一致.如: Here comes the bus 公共汽车来了. Here is a pen and some pieces of paper for you. 给你一支钢笔和几张纸。

Where is your wife and children to stay while you are away? 你不在这儿的时候, 你 爱人和孩子在哪儿呆呢? 2. 用连词 or, either.... or, neither?.nor, not only?.but also 等连接的并列主语, 谓

语动词与靠近它的主语在数上一致。 如: Neither the students nor the teacher knows anything about it 学生和老师都不知道 这事. He or you have taken my pen. 他或你拿了我的钢笔。 注意: one of +复数名词+who/that/which 引导的定语从句中, 定语从句的动词为 复数。如: Mary is one of those people who keep pets. 玛丽是饲养宠物者之一。 The only one of +复数名词+ who/that./which 引导的定语从句中,定语从句的动 词应为单数。 Mary is the only one of those people who keeps pets. 玛丽是唯一一 个饲养宠物的人。


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