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SC按照Manhattan的语法进行的分类


GMAT Sentence Correction Sample Questions
1. GRAMMAR, MEANING, CONCISION

12th Edition: 8, 12, 16, 17, 21, 31, 37, 49, 57 2nd Edition: 3, 18, 22, 36, 54, 72
8. The widely

accepted big bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding ever since. (A) that the universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding (B) that the universe had begun in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and had been expanding (C) (D) (E) that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago that has expanded the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago that is expanding the universe to have begun in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding 12. Rising inventories, when unaccompanied correspondingly by increases in sales, can lead to production cutbacks that would hamper economic growth. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 16. when unaccompanied correspondingly by increases in sales, can lead when not accompanied by corresponding increases in sales, possibly leads when they were unaccompanied by corresponding sales increases, can lead if not accompanied by correspondingly increased sales, possibly leads if not accompanied by corresponding increases in sales, can lead

Retail sales rose 0.8 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled of personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubling that of of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it would more than double that of

Manhattan P111: Present tense and Conditional tense.The usual sequences are EITHER Present + Future OR Past + Conditional Conditional Tense is formed by combining ―would‖ with the base form of the verb: ―would provide‖, which expresses the future from the past’s point of view.

Manhattan P208: V-A-N Pattern 2: Prefer a ―That‖-Clause(with Verbs) to a Series of Phrases(with Nouns); ―That‖-Clause words: hypothesis,idea,suggestion,belief,discovery,evidence,indication,report 17. The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. or nothing that has been or that has been and nothing that is or anything that has been and anything

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language. (A) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are (B) (C) (D) (E) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

31.

Unlike the conviction held by many of her colleagues that genes were relatively simple and static, Barbara McClintock adhered to her own more complicated ideas about how genes might operate, and in 1983, at the age of 81, was awarded a Nobel Prize for her discovery that the genes in corn are capable of moving from one chromosomal site to another. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Unlike the conviction held by many of her colleagues that genes were Although many of her colleagues were of the conviction of genes being Contrary to many of her colleagues being convinced that genes were Even though many of her colleagues were convinced that genes were Even with many of her colleagues convinced of genes being

37.

Although schistosomiasis is not often fatal, it is so debilitating that it has become an economic drain on many developing countries. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) it is so debilitating that it has become an economic it is of such debilitation, it has become an economical so debilitating is it as to become an economic such is its debilitation, it becomes an economical there is so much debilitation that it has become an economical

39.

In 1527 King Henry VIII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so as to marry Anne Boleyn. (A) (B) (C) (D) (A) so as to marry and so could be married to to be married to so that he could marry in order that he would marry

49.

The automotive conveyor-belt system, which Henry Ford modeled after an assembly-line technique introduced by Ransom Olds, reduced from a day and a half to 93 minutes the required time of assemblinga Model T. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) from a day and a half to 93 minutes the required time of assembling a Model T the time being required to assemble a Model T, from a day and a half down to 93 minutes the time being required to assemble a Model T, a day and a half to 93 minutes the time required to assemble a Model T from a day and a half to 93 minutes from a day and a half to 93 minutes, the time required for the assembling of a Model T

57.

That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault: Alvin Toffler, one of the most prominent students of the future, did not even mention microcomputers in Future Shock, published in 1970. (A) (B) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said to be at fault (C) (D) It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology (E) The fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said

3.

However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) However much United States voters may agree that Despite the agreement among United States voters to the fact Although United States voters agree Even though United States voters may agree There is agreement among United States voters that

18.

Except for a concert performance that the composer himself staged in1911,Scott Joplin's ragtime opera Treemonisha was not produced until 1972, sixty-one years after its completion. (A) Except for a concert performance that the composer himself staged

(B) (C) (D) (E)

Except for a concert performance with the composer himself staging it Besides a concert performance being staged by the composer himself Excepting a concert performance that the composer himself staged With the exception of a concert performance with the staging done by the composer himself

―Except……for‖ is followed by a noun. 22. Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 36. expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating

Polio, although it is eradicated in the United States, it continues elsewhere and is able to be brought into the country by visitors. (A) (B) (C) (D) Polio, although it is eradicated in the United States, it continues elsewhere and is able to be Polio, although eradicated in the United States, it still continues elsewhere and can be Although still continuing elsewhere, polio has been eradicated in the United States and could be Although having been eradicated in the United States, polio still continues elsewhere and is capable of being (E) Although eradicated in the United States, polio continues elsewhere and could be

54.

A patient accusing a doctor of malpractice will find it difficult to prove damage if there is a lack of some other doctor to testify about proper medical procedures. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) if there is a lack of some other doctor to testify unless there will be another doctor to testify without another doctor's testimony should there be no testimony from some other doctor lacking another doctor to testify

The construction ―y will happen unless x happens first‖ requires the present tense following the ―unless‖ clause. The use of ―lack‖: Old gradgets ARE LACKING IN features. Old gradgets LACK features. The LACK OF features is upsetting. 72. State officials report that soaring rates of liability insurance have risen to force cutbacks in the operations of everything from local governments and school districts to day-care centers and recreational facilities. (A) rates of liability insurance have risen to force

(B) (C) (D) (E)

rates of liability insurance are a force for rates for liability insurance are forcing rises in liability insurance rates are forcing liability insurance rates have risen to force

soar: increase rapidly above the usual level : the cost of living continued to soar | [as adj. ] (soaring) the soaring crime rate. ―Rate of‖ means ―speed or frequency of‖; ―rate for ‖ means ―prices for‖.

2.

SUBJECT—VERB AGREEMENT

12th Edition: 2, 5, 13, 27, 45, 60, 66, 68, 78, 84 2nd Edition: 10, 11, 14, 20, 34, 35, 65
2. Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally under way, many economists say that without a large amount of spending the recovery might not last. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 5. have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally raised hopes for there being a recovery finally had raised hopes for a recovery finally being has raised hopes that a recovery is finally raised hopes for a recovery finally

Diabetes, together with its serious complications, ranks as the nation's third leading cause of death, surpassed only by heart disease and cancer. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Rank: This problem RANKS AS one of the wrong we have seen. ranks as the nation's third leading cause of death, surpassed only rank as the nation's third leading cause of death, only surpassed has the rank of the nation's third leading cause of death, only surpassed are the nation's third leading causes of death, surpassed only have been ranked as the nation's third leading causes of death, only surpassed

13.

A surge in new home sales AND a drop in weekly unemployment claims suggest that the economy might not be as weak as some analysts previously thought. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) claims suggest that the economy might not be as weak as some analysts previously thought claims suggests that the economy might not be so weak as some analysts have previously thought claims suggest that the economy might not be as weak as have been previously thought by some analysts claims, suggesting about the economy that it might not be so weak as previously thought by some analysts claims, suggesting the economy might not be as weak as previously thought to be by some analysts

27.

Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed in Burma and estimated at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human beings. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of as being 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of that it is 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was to be 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of as 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was

ESTIMATE: She ESTIMATES the cost TO BE ten dollars. The cost IS ESTIMATED TO BE ten dollars. 45. Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 60. believed to be are believed to be some believe them to be some believe they are it is believed that they are

While all states face similar industrial waste problems, the predominating industries and the regulatory environment of the states obviously determines the types and amounts of waste produced, as well as the cost of disposal. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) all states face similar industrial waste problems, the predominating industries and the regulatory environment of the states obviously determines each state faces a similar industrial waste problem, their predominant industries and regulatory environment obviously determine all states face a similar industrial waste problem; their predominating industries and regulatory environment obviously determines each state faces similar industrial waste problems, the predominant industries and the regulatory environment of each state obviously determines all states face similar industrial waste problems, the predominant industries and the regulatory environment of each state obviously determine

66.

The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely related to whales and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is famous for its aggressive hunting pods. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is include the animal known as the killer whale, growing as big as 30 feet long and include the animal known as the killer whale, growing up to 30 feet long and being includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow as big as 30 feet long and is includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and it is

KNOWN AS: named

KNOWN TO BE: acknowledged as 68. The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar. Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq. (A) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but (B) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also (C) having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but (D) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also (E) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but 78. Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of the Greater Antilles Islands. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of sloth, that they found in Puerto Rico in 1991, has been dated at 34 million years old, thus making it the earliest mammal known on sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old, making this the earliest known mammal of sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old, making the sloth the earliest known mammal on sloth which, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old, made the sloth the earliest known mammal of DATE: Ther DATED the artifact AT three centuries old. The artifact WAS DATED AT three centuries old. 84. Often visible as smog, ozone is formed in the atmosphere from hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, two major pollutants emitted by automobiles, react with sunlight. (A) (B) (C) ozone is formed in the atmosphere from ozone is formed in the atmosphere when ozone is formed in the atmosphere, and when

(D) (E)

ozone, formed in the atmosphere when ozone, formed in the atmosphere from

D41. Excavators at the Indus Valley site of Harappa in eastern Pakistan say the discovery of inscribed shards dating to circa 2800–2600 B.C. indicate their development of a Harappan writing system, the use of inscribed seals impressed into clay for marking ownership, and the standardization of weights for trade or taxation occurred many decades, if not centuries, earlier than was previously believed. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
10.

indicate their development of a Harappan writing system, the use of indicate that the development of a Harappan writing system, using indicates that their development of a Harappan writing system, using indicates the development of a Harappan writing system, their use of indicates that the development of a Harappan writing system, the use of

The rising of costs of data-processing operations at many financial institutions has created a growing opportunity for independent companies to provide these services more efficiently and at lower cost. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The rising of costs Rising costs The rising cost Because the rising cost Because of rising costs

11.

Native to South America, when peanuts were introduced to Africa by Portuguese explorers early in the sixteenth century they were quickly adopted into Africa's agriculture, probably because of being so similar to the Bambarra groundnut, a popular indigenous plant. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) when peanuts were introduced to Africa by Portuguese explorers early in the sixteenth century they were quickly adopted into Africa's agriculture, probably because of being peanuts having been introduced to Africa by Portuguese explorers early in the sixteenth century and quickly adopted into Africa's agriculture, probably because of being peanuts were introduced to Africa by Portuguese explorers early in the sixteenth century and were quickly adopted into Africa's agriculture, probably because they were peanuts, introduced to Africa by Portuguese explorers early in the sixteenth century and quickly adopted into Africa's agriculture, probably because they were peanuts, introduced to Africa by Portuguese explorers early in the sixteenth century and having been quickly adopted into Africa's agriculture, probably because they were NATIVE: The kangaroo is NATIVE TO Australia.(said of animals and plants) My friend is A NATIVE OF Australia.(said of people)

14.

The themes that Rita Dove explores in her poetry is universal, encompassing much of the human condition while occasionally she deals with racial issues. (A) (B) (C) (D) is universal, encompassing much of the human condition while occasionally she deals is universal, encompassing much of the human condition, also occasionally it deals are universal, they encompass much of the human condition and occasionally deals are universal, encompassing much of the human condition while occasionally dealing

(E) 20.

are universal, they encompass much of the human condition, also occasionally are dealing

Declining values for farm equipment and land , the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

COLLATERAL 的用法: 34. Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 35. equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when

The rise in the Commerce Department's index of leading economic indicators suggest that the economy should continue its expansion into the coming months, but that the mixed performance of the index's individual components indicates that economic growth will proceed at a more moderate pace than in the first quarter of this year. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) suggest that the economy should continue its expansion into the coming months, but that suggest that the economy is to continue expansion in the coming months, but suggests that the economy will continue its expanding in the coming months, but that suggests that the economy is continuing to expand into the coming months, but that suggests that the economy will continue to expand in the coming months, but

65.

The market for recycled commodities like aluminum and other metals remain strong despite economic changes in the recycling industry. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) commodities like aluminum and other metals remain commodities like those of aluminum and other metals are remaining commodities such as aluminum and other metals remains commodities, such as aluminum and other metals, remain commodities, like the commodities of aluminum and other metals, remains

3.
th

PARALLELISM

12 Edition: 6, 11, 14, 15, 22, 24, 26, 28, 29, 36, 42, 46, 52, 53, 55, 56, 62, 65, 72, 77, 81, 83, 88, D36, D39, D46 2nd Edition: 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 15, 17, 24, 26, 27, 45, 46, 49, 52, 53, 58, 60, 61, 63,

67

6.

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, there by raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

11.

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, AND, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

14.

Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun's poles or equator. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on

Common Parallelism Categories: Nouns: (1)Concrete Nouns (2)Action Nouns and Complex Gerunds

(3)Simple Gerunds Other: (1)Working Verbs (2)Infinitives (3)Adjectives and Particles (4)Clauses 15. Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the National Academy of Sciences has urged the nation to REVAMP computer security procedures, INSTITUTE new emergency response teams, creating a special nongovernment organization to take charge of computer security planning. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 22. creating a special nongovernment organization to take creating a special nongovernment organization that takes creating a special nongovernment organization for taking and create a special nongovernment organization for taking and create a special nongovernment organization to take

None of the attempts to specify the causes of crime explains why most of the people exposed to the alleged causes do not commit crimes and, conversely, why so many of those not so exposed have. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) have has shall do could

24.

In virtually all types of tissue in every animal species, dioxin induces the production of enzymes that are the organism's trying to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical that is irritating it. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) trying to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical that is irritating it trying that it metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritant attempt to try to metabolize, or render harmless, such a chemical irritant attempt to try and metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritating it attempt to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritant

26.

Emily Dickinson's letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan's marriage to Emily's brother AND ending shortly before Emily's death in 1886, outnumbering her letters to anyone else. (A) (B) (C) Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan's marriage to Emily's brother and ending shortly before Emily's death in 1886, outnumbering Dickinson were written over a period that begins a few years before Susan's marriage to Emily's brother and ended shortly before Emily's death in 1886, outnumber Dickinson, written over a period beginning a few years before Susan's marriage to Emily's brother and that ends shortly before Emily's death in 1886 and outnumbering

(D) (E)

Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan's marriage to Emily's brother, ending shortly before Emily's death in 1886, and outnumbering Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan's marriage to Emily's brother and ending shortly before Emily's death in 1886, outnumber

28.

Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, AND exploiting other wild and domestic resources. (A) (B) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of (C) (D) (E) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

29.

The end of the eighteenth century saw the emergence of prize-stock breeding, with individual bulls and cows receiving awards, fetching unprecedented prices, AND excited enormous interest whenever they were put on show. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) excited it excited exciting would excite it had excited

36.

Dressed as a man and using the name Robert Shurtleff, Deborah Sampson, the first woman to draw a soldier's pension, joined the Continental Army in 1782 at the age of 22, was injured three times, AND was discharged in 1783 because she had become too ill to serve. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become 22, was injured three times, while being discharged in 1783 because she had become 22 and was injured three times, and discharged in 1783, being 22, injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she was 22, having been injured three times and discharged in 1783, being

42.

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago AND extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest. (A) (B) extending extends

(C) (D) (E)

extended it extended is extending

PARALLELISM: The present participles can parallel the past participles. 46. In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images AND when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them. (A) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them (B) (C) (D) (E) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images as well as constructing and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined creating images of Buddha accounted for much of the local artisans' creative energy, and also constructing and decorating the temples enshrining them the creation of Buddha images accounted for much of the local artisans' creative energy as well as construction and decoration of the temples that enshrined them EXPEND…ON: We EXPEND energy ON neighborhood development. 52. To Josephine Baker, Paris was her home long, before it was fashionable to be an expatriate, AND she remained in France during the Second World War as a performer and an intelligence agent for the Resistance. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 53. To Josephine Baker, Paris was her home long before it was fashionable to be an expatriate, For Josephine Baker, long before it was fashionable to be an expatriate, Paris was her home, Josephine Baker made Paris her home long before to be an expatriate was fashionable, Long before it was fashionable to be an expatriate, Josephine Baker made Paris her home, Long before it was fashionable being an expatriate, Paris was home to Josephine Baker,

The nineteenth-century chemist Humphry Davy presented the results of his early experiments in his "Essay on Heat and Light," a critique of all chemistry since Robert Boyle as well as a vision of a new chemistry that Davy hoped to found. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) a critique of all chemistry since Robert Boyle AS WELL AS a vision of a a critique of all chemistry following Robert Boyle and also his envisioning of a a critique of all chemistry after Robert Boyle and envisioning as well critiquing all chemistry from Robert Boyle forward and also a vision of critiquing all the chemistry done since Robert Boyle as well as his own envisioning of

55.

Many house builders offer rent-to-buy programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing AND to apply part of the rent to a purchase later.

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing and to apply programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing and to apply programs; that enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing, to apply programs, which enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing, applying programs, which enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing, applying

56.

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan Empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

62.

When Congress reconvenes, some newly elected members from rural states will try and establish tighter restrictions for the amount of grain farmers are to be allowed to grow AND to encourage more aggressive sales of United States farm products overseas. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) and establish tighter restrictions for the amount of grain farmers are to be allowed to grow and to encourage and establish tighter restrictions on the amount of grain able to be grown by farmers and encouraging establishing tighter restrictions for the amount of grain farmers are allowed to grow and to encourage to establish tighter restrictions on the amount of grain capable of being grown by farmers and encouraging to establish tighter restrictions on the amount of grain farmers will be allowed to grow and to encourage RESTRICTION: The government imposed RESTRICTIONS ON the price of gasoline.

65.

In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of Engineers proposed building parallel to shore a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline and act as a buffer, so that it absorbs the energy of crashing waves AND protecting the beaches. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) act as a buffer, so that it absorbs act like a buffer so as to absorb act as a buffer, absorbing acting as a buffer, absorbing acting like a buffer, absorb

―Act‖ followed by ―like‖ means ―to behave or comport oneself‖ and describes the action of a person: He acted like a fool. Here , ‖act as‖ describes the function of a thing. 72. More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development AND investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) to greater economic development and investing to greater development economically and investing of greater economic development and invest of greater development economically and invest for greater economic development and the investment of

(1) MEANS: RIGHT: Music education is A MEANS TO improved cognition. WRONG: Music education is A MEANS OF improved cognition. Music education is A MEANS FOR improved cognition. (2) ECONOMIC vs. ECONOMICAL economic consideration – that is, monetary considerations. Economical means ―thrifty, efficient‖. 77. The only way for growers to salvage frozen citrus IS to process them quickly into juice concentrate before they rot when warmer weather returns. (A) (B) (C) (D) to process them quickly into juice concentrate before they rot when warmer weather returns if they are quickly processed into juice concentrate before warmer weather returns to rot them for them to be processed quickly into juice concentrate before the fruit rots when warmer weather returns if the fruit is quickly processed into juice concentrate before they rot when warmer weather returns (E) to have it quickly processed into juice concentrate before warmer weather returns and rots the fruit 81. Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 83. not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for half the increase in spending on prescription drugs, a phenomenon that is explained NOT JUST because of more expensive drugs BUT by the fact that doctors are writing many more prescriptions for higher-cost drugs.

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing a phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that drugs are becoming more expensive but also by the fact that doctors are writing a phenomenon occurring not just because of drugs that are becoming more expensive but because of doctors having also written which occurred not just because drugs are becoming more expensive but doctors are also writing which occurred not just because of more expensive drugs but because doctors have also written

88.

Thelonious Monk, who was a jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work both rooted in the stride-piano tradition of Willie (The Lion) Smith and Duke Ellington, yet in many ways he stood apart from the mainstream jazz repertory. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Thelonious Monk, who was a jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work both rooted Thelonious Monk, the jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work that was rooted both Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk, who produced a body of work rooted Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk produced a body of work that was rooted Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk produced a body of work rooted both

D36. New data from United States Forest Service ecologists show that for every dollar spent on controlled smallscale burning, forest thinning, and the training of firemanagement personnel, it saves seven dollars that would not be spent on having to extinguish big fires. (A) that for every dollar spent on controlled smallscale burning, forest thinning, and the training of fire-management personnel, it saves seven dollars that would not be spent on having to extinguish (B) that for every dollar spent on controlled smallscale burning, forest thinning, and the training of fire-management personnel, seven dollars are saved that would have been spent on extinguishing (C) (D) (E) that for every dollar spent on controlled smallscale burning, forest thinning, and the training of fire-management personnel saves seven dollars on not having to extinguish for every dollar spent on controlled small-scale burning, forest thinning, and the training of firemanagement personnel, that it saves seven dollars on not having to extinguish for every dollar spent on controlled small-scale burning, forest thinning, and the training of firemanagement personnel, that seven dollars are saved that would not have been spent on extinguishing D39. According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct rendering of speech, but was more likely to begin as a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication, AND only later merged with spoken language. (A) (B) (C) was more likely to begin as more than likely began as more than likely beginning from

(D) (E)

it was more than likely begun from it was more likely that it began

This sentence is a comparison in which ―probably not x‖ is balanced by ―but more than likely y‖. when ―more‖ is used in the comparitive form of an adjective (―more difficult‖) or adverb (―more likely‖) , it is followed by ―than‖. D46. Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind from birth, and who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person. (A) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture (B) who thus never saw anyone gesturing, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, and that they will gesture (C) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, as well as gesturing (D) (E) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, as well as gesturing thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless to make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and to gesture 1. Like ants, termites have an elaborate social structure in which a few individuals reproduce and the rest are serving the colony by tending juveniles, Gathering food, building the nest, or they battle intruders. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 2. are serving the colony by tending juveniles, gathering food, building the nest, or they battle are serving the colony in that they tend juveniles, gather food, build the nest, or battle serve the colony, tending juveniles, gathering food , building the nest, or by battling serve the colony by tending juveniles, gathering food, by building the nest, or by battling serve the colony by tending juveniles, gathering food, building the nest, or battling

Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that take on different duties SUCH AS defending the entrance, acting as sentinels and to sound a warning at the approach of danger, and scouting outside the cave for new food and roosting sites. (A) (B) (C) (D) acting as sentinels and to sound acting as sentinels and sounding to act as sentinels and to sound to act as a sentinel sounding

4.

The voluminous personal papers of Thomas Alva Edison reveal that his inventions typically sprang to life not in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly from previous works. (A) (B) sprang to life not in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly sprang to life not in a flash of inspiration but were slowly evolved

(C) (D) (E)

did NOT spring to life in a flash of inspiration BUT evolved slowly did not spring to life in a flash of inspiration but had slowly evolved did not spring to life in a flash of inspiration but they were slowly evolved

NOTES: The construction ―not…but‖ shows a contrast. The words following ―not‖ must be parallel in construction to the words following ―but‖. 5. Hundreds of species of fish generate and discharge electric currents, in bursts or as steady electric fields around their bodies, using their power either to find and attack prey, to defend themselves. or also for communicating and navigating. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 7. either to find and attack prey, to defend themselves, or also for communicating and navigating either for finding and attacking prey, defend themselves, or for communication and navigation to find and attack prey, for defense, or communication and navigation for finding and attacking prey, to defend themselves, or also for communication and navigation to find and attack prey, to defend themselves, or to communicate and navigate

From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the way in which the Ojibwa society organized its labor, provided access to its resources, AND defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources defining rights and obligations involved in their distribution and consumption and defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and consumption whose rights and obligations were defined in their distribution and consumption the distribution and consumption of them defined by rights and obligations

15.

It is well known in the supermarket industry that how items are placed on shelves AND the frequency of inventory turnovers can be crucial to profits. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the frequency of inventory turnovers can be the frequency of inventory turnovers is often the frequency with which the inventory turns over is often how frequently is the inventory turned over are often how frequently the inventory turns over can be

17.

Travelers to Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, contend with the chemically reactive Martian soil, AND perhaps even having to ward off contamination by Martian life-forms. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) contend with the chemically reactive Martian soil, and perhaps even having to ward contend with the chemically reactive Martian soil, and perhaps even warding contend with the chemically reactive Martian soil, and perhaps even ward contending with the chemically reactive Martian soil, and perhaps even to ward contending with the chemically reactive Martian soil, and perhaps even warding

24.

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

26.

The Baldrick Manufacturing Company has for several years followed a policy aimed at decreasing operating costs AND improving the efficiency of its distribution system. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) AIM: We adopted new procedures AIMED AT REDUCING theft. We adopted new procedures WITH THE AIM OF REDUCING theft. aimed at decreasing operating costs and improving aimed at the decreasing of operating costs and to improve aiming at the decreasing of operating costs and improving the aim of which is the decreasing of operating costs and improving with the aim to decrease operating costs and to improve

27.

Obtaining an investment-grade rating will keep the county's future borrowing costs low, protect its already-tattered image, AND increase its ability to buy bond insurance. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Obtaining an investment-grade rating will keep the county's future borrowing costs low, protect To obtain an investment-grade rating will keep the county's future borrowing costs low, and protect Having obtained an investment-grade rating will, in keeping the county's future borrowing costs low, protect To obtain an investment-grade rating would keep the county's future borrowing costs low, protecting Obtaining an investment-grade rating, keeping the county's borrowing costs low, would be protecting

45.

Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form of pure carbon, changes into the substance commonly referred to as diamond AND remaining this way whether or not the heat and pressure are removed. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) remaining this way whether or not remaining like that even as remaining as such whether or not remains in this way although remains thus even when

NOTES: ―Thus‖ is the most economical way to say ―this way‖, ―like that‖, ―as such‖, or ―in this way‖.

46.

The psychologist William James believed that facial expressions NOT ONLY provide a visible sign of an emotion, actually contributing to the feeling itself. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) emotion, actually contributing to the feeling itself emotion but also actually contributing to the feeling itself emotion but also actually contribute to the feeling itself emotion; they also actually contribute to the feeling of it emotion; the feeling itself is also actually contributed to by them

49.

In developing new facilities for the incineration of solid wastes, we must avoid the danger of shifting environmental problems FROM landfills polluting the water TO polluting the air with incinerators. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) landfills polluting the water to polluting the air with incinerators landfills polluting the water to the air being polluted with incinerators the pollution of water by landfills to the pollution of air by incinerators pollution of the water by landfills to incinerators that pollute the air water that is polluted by landfills to incinerators that pollute the air

52.

Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are A BRANCH OF the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Rather than developing independently from rather than a type that developed independently from rather than a type whose development was independent of instead of developing independently from instead of a development that was independent of

X rather than Y or X instead of Y Independent of: not connected with or influenced by sth; not connected with each other. 53. The normative model of strategic decision-making suggests that executives examine a firm's external environment and internal conditions, and in using the set of objective criteria they derive from these analyses, can decide on a strategy. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) conditions, and in using the set of objective criteria they derive from these analyses, can decide conditions, and they use the set of objective criteria derived from these analyses in deciding conditions and,in using the set of objective criteria derived from these analyses, deciding conditions and,using the set of objective criteria derived from these analyses, decide conditions and,in their use of the set of objective criteria they derive from these analyses, they decide NOTES: The noun clause introduced by ―that‖ has one subject and two main verbs, so we do not need to repeat the subject in the second clause. 58. Law makers are examining measures that would require banks to disclose all fees and account requirements in writing, provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings

accounts to carry minimal fees and require minimal initial deposits. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts to carry provide free cashing of government checks, and creating basic savings accounts carrying to provide free cashing of government checks, and creating basic savings accounts that carry to provide free cashing of government checks, creating basic savings accounts to carry to provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts that carry 60. In the textbook publishing business, the second quarter is historically weak, because revenues are low AND marketing expenses are high as companies prepare for the coming school year. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 61. low and marketing expenses are high as companies prepare low and their marketing expenses are high as they prepare low with higher marketing expenses in preparation low, while marketing expenses are higher to prepare low, while their marketing expenses are higher in preparation

Almost a decade after New York State passed laws to protect patients by reducing the grueling hours worked by medical residents, twelve hospitals have been investigated by state medical officials, finding that all twelve consistently break the laws, many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, and that more than half the surgical residents work more than 95 hours a week. (A) twelve hospitals have been investigated by state medical officials, finding that all twelve consistently break the laws, many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, and that more than halfthe surgical residents work (B) an investigation by state medical officials of twelve hospitals have found all twelve consistently breaking the laws, that many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, with more than half the surgical residents working (C) an investigation of twelve hospitals by state medical officials has found that all twelve consistently break the laws, that many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, and that more than half the surgical residents work (D) twelve hospitals were investigated by state medical officials who found all twelve breaking the laws, with many residents working longer than 24 hours straight, and more than half the surgical residents work (E) an investigation by state medical officials has found that, of twelve hospitals, all twelve consistently break the laws, that many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, with more than half the surgical residents working

63.

Many policy experts say that shifting a portion of health-benefit costs back to the workers helps to control the employer's costs, but also helps to limit medical spending by making patients more careful consumers. (A) (B) (C) (D) helps to control the employer's costs, but also helps helps the control of the employer's costs, and also not only helps to control the employer's costs,but also helps helps to control not only the employer's costs, but

(E) 67.

not only helps to control the employer's costs,and also helps

Faced with an estimated $2 billion budget gap, the city's mayor proposed a nearly 17 percent reduction in the amount allocated the previous year to maintain the city's major cultural institutions AND to subsidize hundreds of local arts groups. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) proposed a nearly 17 percent reduction in the amount allocated the previous year to maintain the city's majorcultural institutions and to subsidize proposed a reduction from the previous year of nearly 17 percent in the amount it was allocating to maintain the city's major cultural institutions and for subsidizing proposed to reduce, by nearly 17 percent, the amount from the previous year that was allocated for the maintenance of the city's major cultural institutions and to subsidize has proposed a reduction from the previous year of nearly 17 percent of the amount it was allocating for maintaining the city's major cultural institutions, and to subsidize was proposing that the amount they were allocating be reduced by nearly 17 percent from the previous year for maintaining the city's major cultural institutions and for the subsidization

4.
th nd

PRONOUNS

12 Edition: 1, 7, 47, 91, D42 2 Edition: 16, 19, 21, 29, 40, 43, 48, 51, 62, 64

1.

The Glass House Mountains in Queensland, Australia, were sighted in 1770 by the English navigator Captain James Cook, by whom they were named supposedly because its sheer wet rocks glistened like glass. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) by whom they were named supposedly because its by whom they were named supposedly and their naming them supposedly since their who so named them supposedly because their who so named it since supposedly their

7.

As its sales of computer products have surpassed those of measuring instruments, THE COMPANY has become increasingly willing to compete for the mass market sales they would in the past have conceded to rivals. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) they would in the past have conceded to rivals they would have conceded previously to their rivals that in the past would have been conceded previously to rivals it previously would have conceded to rivals in the past it would in the past have conceded to rivals

23.

In a previous design, the weight of the discus used in track competition is concentrated in a metal center, but now it is lined with lead around the perimeter, thereby improving stability in flight and resulting in longer throws.

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

In a previous design, the weight of the discus used in track competition is concentrated in a metal center, but now it is According to a previous design, the weight of the discus used in track competition was concentrated in a metal center, but now it is Once designed with its weight concentrated in a metal center, the discus used in track competition is now The discus used in track competition, once designed with its weight concentrated in a metal center, but now The discus used in track competition was once designed having its weight concentrated in a metal center and now

47.

Five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland this summer, bringing to 34 the number of wild birds successfully raised since transplants from Norway began in 1975. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) bringing and brings and it brings and it brought and brought

91.

Nobody knows exactly how many languages there are in the world, partly because of the difficulty of distinguishing between a language and the sublanguages or dialects within it, but those who have tried to count typically have found about five thousand. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) and the sublanguages or dialects within it, but those who have tried to count typically have found and the sublanguages or dialects within them, with those who have tried counting typically finding and the sublanguages or dialects within it, but those who have tried counting it typically find or the sublanguages or dialects within them, but those who tried to count them typically found or the sublanguages or dialects within them, with those who have tried to count typically finding

D42. The Supreme Court has ruled that public universities may collect student activity fees even with students’ objections to particular activities, so long as the groups they give money to will be chosen without regard to their views. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) with students’ objections to particular activities, so long as the groups they give money to will be if they have objections to particular activities and the groups that are given the money are if they object to particular activities, but the groups that the money is given to have to be from students who object to particular activities, so long as the groups given money are though students have an objection to particular activities, but the groups that are given the money be 16. Iguanas have been an important food source in Latin America since prehistoric times, and it is still

prized as a game animal by the campesinos, who typically cook the meat in a heavily spiced stew. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 19. it is still prized as a game animal it is still prized as game animals they are still prized as game animals they are still prized as being a game animal being still prized as a game animal

Chinese, the most ancient of living writing systems, consists of tens of thousands of ideographic characters, each character a miniature calligraphic composition inside its own square frame. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) each character a miniature calligraphic composition inside its all the characters a miniature calligraphic composition inside their all the characters a miniature calligraphic composition inside its every character a miniature calligraphic composition inside their each character a miniature calligraphic composition inside their

21.

While depressed property values can hurt some large investors, they are potentially devastating for homeowners, whose equity-in many cases representing a life's savings-can plunge or even disappear. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) they are potentially devastating for homeowners, whose they can potentially devastate homeowners in that their for homeowners they are potentially devastating, because their for homeowners, it is potentially devastating in that their it can potentially devastate homeowners, whose

29.

According to some economists, the July decrease in unemployment so that it was the lowest in two years suggests that the gradual improvement in the job market is continuing. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) so that it was the lowest in two years so that it was the lowest two-year rate to what would be the lowest in two years to a two-year low level to the lowest level in two years

40.

The Gorton-Dodd bill requires that a bank disclose to their customers how long they will delay access to funds from deposited checks. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) that a bank disclose to their customers how long they will delay access to funds from deposited checks a bank to disclose to their customers how long they will delay access to funds from a deposited check that a bank disclose to its customers how long it will delay access to funds from deposited checks(The Command Subjunctive) a bank that it should disclose to its customers how long it will delay access to funds from a deposited check that banks disclose to customers how long access to funds from their deposited check is to be delayed

NOTES: The subjunctive construction with a Bossy Verb is always as follows: Bossy Verb + THAT + subject + Command Subjunctive We PROPOSE THAT the school board DISBAND. 43. Though the term "graphic design" may suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, They have come to signify widely ranging work, from package designs and company logotypes to signs, book jackets, computer graphics, and film titles. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come to signify widely ranging suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, it has come to signify a wide range of suggest corporate brochure and annual report layout, it has signified widely ranging have suggested corporate brochure and annual report layout, it has signified a wide range of have suggested laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come to signify widely ranging NOTES: ―Widely ranging‖ could describe a conversation that moves one topic to another; in this context, it is incorrect because the work does not move from one place to another. ―A wide range of work‖ shows that the work consists of many different kinds of projects. 48. Reporting that one of its many problems had been the recent extended sales slump in women's apparel, the seven-store retailer said it would start a three-month liquidation sale in all of its stores. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 51. its many problems had been the recent its many problems has been the recently its many problems is the recently their many problems is the recent their many problems had been the recent

In a 5-to-4 decision, the Supreme Court ruled that two upstate New York counties owed restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians for the unlawful seizure of their ancestral lands in the eighteenth century. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) that two upstate New York counties owed restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians for the unlawful seizure of that two upstate New York counties owed restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians because of their unlawful seizure of two upstate New York counties to owe restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians for their unlawful seizure of on two upstate New York counties that owed restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians because they unlawfully seized on the restitution that two upstate NewYork counties owed to three tribes of Oneida Indians for the unlawful seizure of

OWE: He OWE money TO the government FOR back taxes. 62. Parliament did not accord full refugee benefits to twelve of the recent immigrants because it BELIEVED THAT to do it rewards them for entering the country illegally. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 64. to do it rewards doing it rewards to do this would reward doing so would reward to do it would reward

Ms. Chambers is among the forecasters who predict that the rate of addition to arable lands will drop while those of loss rise. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) those of loss rise it rises for loss those of losses rise the rate of loss rises there are rises for the rate of loss

5.
th nd

MODIFIERS

12 Edition: 10, 18, 25, 30, 38, 40, 48, 58, 61, 63, 71, 79, D40, D44 2 Edition: 33, 42, 57, 59, 69, 71, 75, 83, 84

10.

Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) which kept that keeps which has kept that has been keeping having kept

18.

Plants are more efficient at acquiring carbon than are fungi, in the form of carbon dioxide, and converting it to energy-rich sugars. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Plants are more efficient at acquiring carbon than are fungi, Plants are more efficient at acquiring carbon than fungi, Plants are more efficient than fungi at acquiring carbon, Plants, more efficient than fungi at acquiring carbon, Plants acquire carbon more efficiently than fungi,

NOTES: ―In the form of carbon dioxide‖ refers to ―carbon‖ rather than to either ―plants‖ or ―fungi‖.

25.

Based on accounts of various ancient writers, scholars have painted a sketchy picture of the activities of an all-female cult that, perhaps as early as the sixth century B.C., worshipped a goddess known in Latin as Bona Dea, "the good goddess." (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Based on accounts of various ancient writers, Basing it on various ancient writers' accounts, With accounts of various ancient writers used for a basis, By the accounts of various ancient writers they used, Using accounts of various ancient writers,

30.

For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) a method to protect as a method protecting protecting as a protection of to protect

38.

In 1850, Lucretia Mott published her Discourse on Women, arguing in a treatise for women to have equal political and legal rights AND for changes in the married women's property laws. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) arguing in a treatise for women to have equal political and legal rights arguing in a treatise for equal political and legal rights for women a treatise that advocates women's equal political and legal rights a treatise advocating women's equal political and legal rights a treatise that argued for equal political and legal rights for women

40.

Dr. Tonegawa won the Nobel Prize for discovering how the body can constantly change its genes to fashion a seeming unlimited number of antibodies, each specifically targeted at an invading microbe or foreign substance. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) seeming unlimited number of antibodies, each specifically targeted at seeming unlimited number of antibodies, each targeted specifically to seeming unlimited number of antibodies, all specifically targeted at seemingly unlimited number of antibodies, all of them targeted specifically to seemingly unlimited number of antibodies, each targeted specifically at

NOTES: Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. Adverbs modify adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs. 48. In 1713, Alexander Pope began his translation of the Iliad, a work that, taking him seven years until completion, and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope's contemporary, pronounced the greatest translation in any language.

(A)

his translation of the Iliad, a work that, taking him seven years until completion, and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope's contemporary, pronounced

(B)

his translation of the Iliad, a work that took him seven years to complete and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope's contemporary, pronounced

(C)

his translation of the Iliad, a work that had taken seven years to complete and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope's contemporary, pronounced it as

(D)

translating the Iliad, a work that took seven years until completion and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope's contemporary, pronounced it as

(E)

translating the Iliad, a work that had taken seven years to complete and literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope's contemporary, pronounced it

58.

A leading figure in the Scottish Enlightenment, Adam Smith's two major books are to democratic capitalism what Marx's Das Kapital is to socialism. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Adam Smith's two major books are to democratic capitalism what Adam Smith's two major books are to democratic capitalism like Adam Smith's two major books are to democratic capitalism just as Adam Smith wrote two major books that are to democratic capitalism similar to Adam Smith wrote two major books that are to democratic capitalism what

61.

Rivaling the pyramids of Egypt or even the ancient cities of the Maya as an achievement, the army of terra-cotta warriors created to protect Qin Shi Huang, China's first emperor, in his afterlife is more than 2,000 years old and took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to complete. (A) the army of terra-cotta warriors created to protect Qin Shi Huang, China's first emperor, in his afterlife is more than 2,000 years old and took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to complete (B) Qin Shi Huang, China's first emperor, was protected in his afterlife by an army of terra-cotta warriors that was created more than 2,000 years ago by 700,000 artisans who took more than 36 years to complete it (C) it took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to create an army of terra-cotta warriors more than 2,000 years ago that would protect Qin Shi Huang, China's first emperor, in his afterlife (D) more than 2,000 years ago, 700,000 artisans worked more than 36 years to create an army of terra-cotta warriors to protect Qin Shi Huang, China's first emperor, in his afterlife (E) more than 36 years were needed to complete the army of terra-cotta warriors that 700,000 artisans created 2,000 years ago to protect Qin Shi Huang

63.

The yield of natural gas from Norway's Troll gas field is expected to increase annually until the year 2005 AND then to stabilize at six billion cubic feet a day, which will allow such an extraction rate at least for 50 years' production. (A) (B) 2005 and then to stabilize at six billion cubic feet a day, which will allow such an extraction rate at least for 2005 and then to stabilize at six billion cubic feet a day, an extraction rate that will allow at least

(C) (D) (E)

2005 and then stabilizing at six billion cubic feet a day, with such an extraction rate at the least allowing 2005, then stabilizing at six billion cubic feet a day, allowing such an extraction rate for at least 2005, then stabilizing at six billion cubic feet a day, which will allow such an extraction rate for at least

71.

Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy, where the models are encased in glass or operated only by staff members, the Virtual Leonardo Project, an online version of the museum, encourages visitors to "touch" each exhibit, which thereby activates the animated functions of the piece. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) exhibit, which thereby activates exhibit, in turn an activation of exhibit, and it will activate exhibit and thereby activate exhibit which, as a result, activates

79.

Defense attorneys have occasionally argued that their clients' misconduct stemmed from a reaction to something ingested, but in attributing criminal or delinquent behavior to some food allergy, the perpetrators are in effect told that they are not responsible for their actions. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) in attributing criminal or delinquent behavior to some food allergy, if criminal or delinquent behavior is attributed to an allergy to some food, in attributing behavior that is criminal or delinquent to an allergy to some food, if some food allergy is attributed as the cause of criminal or delinquent behavior, in attributing a food allergy as the cause of criminal or delinquent behavior,

D40. In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff’s laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 AND now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) laws, an observation about electric current firstmade in 1845 and laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

D44. Seldom more than 40 feet wide and 12 feet deep, but it ran 363 miles across the rugged wilderness of upstate New York, the Erie Canal connected the Hudson River at Albany to the Great Lakes at Buffalo, providing the port of New York City with a direct water link to the heartland of the North American continent. (A) (B) Seldom more than 40 feet wide and 12 feet deep, but it ran 363 miles across the rugged wilderness of upstate New York, the Erie Canal connected Seldom more than 40 feet wide or 12 feet deep but running 363 miles across the rugged

wilderness of upstate New York, the Erie Canal connected (C) (D) (E) It was seldom more than 40 feet wide and 12 feet deep, and ran 363 miles across the rugged wilderness of upstate New York, but the Erie Canal, connecting The Erie Canal was seldom more than 40 feet wide or 12 feet deep and it ran 363 miles across the rugged wilderness of upstate New York, which connected The Erie Canal, seldom more than 40 feet wide and 12 feet deep, but running 363 miles across the rugged wilderness of upstate New York, connecting 33. The Wallerstein study indicates that even after a decade young men and women still experience some of the effects of a divorce occurring when a child. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 42. occurring when a child occurring when children that occurred when a child that occurred when they were children that has occurred as each was a child

Twenty-two feet long and 10 feet in diameter, the AM-1 is one of the many new satellites that is a part of 15 years effort of subjecting the interactions of Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces to detailed scrutiny from space. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) satellites that is a part of 15 years effort of subjecting the interactions of Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces satellites, which is a part of a 15-year effort to subject how Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces interact satellites, part of 15 years effort of subjecting how Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces are interacting satellites that are part of an effort for 15 years that has subjected the interactions of Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces satellites that are part of a 15-year effort to subject the interactions of Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces

57.

According to its proponents, a proposed new style of aircraft could , by skimming along the top of the atmosphere. fly between most points on Earth in under two hours. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) According to its proponents, a proposed new style of aircraft could, by skimming along the top of the atmosphere, fly between most points on Earth in under two hours. By skimming along the top of the atmosphere, proponents of a proposed new style of aircraft say it could fly between most points on Earth in under two hours. A proposed new style of aircraft could fly between most points on Earth in under two hours, according to its proponents, with it skimming along the top of the atmosphere. A proposed new style of aircraft, say its proponents, could fly between most points on Earth in under two hours because of its skimming along the top of the atmosphere. According to its proponents, skimming along the top of the atmosphere makes it possible that a proposed new style of aircraft could fly between most points on Earth in under two hours.

59.

Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place: one reason is

suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals. (A) Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place; one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals. (B) If used repeatedly in the same place, one reason that certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticidedegrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals. (C) If used repeatedly in the same place, one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes are found in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than those that are free of such chemicals. (D) The finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals is suggestive of one reason, if used repeatedly in the same place, certain pesticides can become ineffective. (E) The finding of much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in those that are free of such chemicals suggests one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place. 69. The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale, with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of upto 600 rooms each, were connected by a complex regional system of roads. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 71. scale, with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of upto 600 rooms each, were scale, with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of upto 600 rooms each, scale of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of upto 600 rooms, each that had been scale of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of upto 600 rooms and with each scale of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of upto 600 rooms, each had been

Analysts blamed May's sluggish retail sales on unexciting merchandise as well as the weather, colder and wetter than was usual in some regions, which slowed sales of barbecue grills and lawn furniture. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) colder and wetter than was usual in some regions, which slowed which was colder and wetter than usual in some regions, slowing since it was colder and wetter than usually in some regions, which slowed being colder and wetter than usually in some regions, slowing having been colder and wetter than was usual in some regions and slowed

75.

Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal deposits in the upper twenty centimeters of Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity

there. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 83. Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these findings Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there

In theory, international civil servants at the United Nations are prohibited from continuing to draw salaries from their own governments; in practice, however, some governments merely substitute living allowances for their employees' paychecks, assigned by them to the United Nations. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) for their employees' paychecks, assigned by them for the paychecks of their employees who have been assigned for the paychecks of their employees, having been assigned in place of their employees' paychecks, for those of them assigned in place of the paychecks of their employees to have been assigned by them

SUBSTITUTE: We SUBSTITUTE Parmesan cheese FOR mozzarella. 84. The computer company's present troubles are a result of technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct it. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 6.
th nd

so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct it so that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct in that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct them that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct them

VERB TENSE, MOOD & VOICE

12 Edition: 3, 19, 41, 54, 67, 69, 70, 74, 85, 86, 87 2 Edition: 30, 37, 38, 39, 56, 74

3.

Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American poets had professed an interest in Native American poetry and had pretended to imitate Native American forms in their own works, until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study traditional Native American poetry in native languages. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study until almost 1900 scholars and critics had not begun seriously studying not until almost 1900 were scholars and critics to begin seriously to study it was not almost until 1900 when scholars and critics began to seriously study it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and critics seriously began studying

19.

The Iroquois were primarily planters, but supplementing their cultivation of maize, squash, and beans with fishing and hunting. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) but supplementing and had supplemented and even though they supplemented although they supplemented but with supplementing

41.

To develop more accurate population forecasts, demographers have to know a great deal more than now about the social and economic determinants of fertility. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) have to know a great deal more than now about the social and economic have to know a great deal more than they do now about the social and economical would have to know a great deal more than they do now about the social and economical would have to know a great deal more than they do now about the social and economic would have to know a great deal more than now about the social and economic

NOTES: This sentence explains a hypothetical situation and therefore calls for a conditional – or contraryto-face – construction,because in order to more accurately predict population, demographers ―would have to know‖ more than they presently know. 54. The report recommended that the hospital should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and use space in other hospitals. (A) should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and use space in other hospitals (B) (C) (D) (E) should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and other hospitals' space be used should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and to use space in other hospitals eliminate unneeded beds, consolidate expensive services, and other hospitals' space used eliminate unneeded beds, consolidate expensive services, and use space in other hospitals

NOTES: Common Verbs that take ONLY the Command Subjunctive: demand, dictate, insist, mandate, propose, recommend, request, stipulate, suggest Verbs that take ONLY the Infinitive: advise, allow, forbid, persuade, want 67. Affording strategic proximity to the Strait of Gibraltar, Morocco was also of interest to the French throughout the first half of the twentieth century because they assumed that if they did not hold it, their grip on Algeria was always insecure. (A) (B) (C) if they did not hold it, their grip on Algeria was always insecure without it their grip on Algeria would never be secure their grip on Algeria was not ever secure if they did not hold it

(D) (E)

without that, they could never be secure about their grip on Algeria never would their grip on Algeria be secure if they did not hold it

NOTES: Conditional constructions require specific verb tense. For a past condition, the subordinate clause introduced by ―if‖ uses the past indicative, and the main clause uses the conditional ―if X happened, then Y would happen‖. 69. Once they had seen the report from the medical examiner, the investigators did not doubt whether the body recovered from the river was the man who had attempted to escape from the state prison. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 70. did not doubt whether the body recovered from the river was have no doubt whether the body recovered from the river was had not doubted that the body recovered from the river was have no doubt whether the body recovered from the river was that of had no doubt that the body recovered from the river was that of

His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets HAD EXISTED in now currently temperate areas. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

74.

A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

85.

Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile Delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations that flourished at the same time those had flourishing at the same time as those did flourishing at the same time as those were

86.

The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it had fallen which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen

NOTES: This sentence describes two sequentially ordered indicators by which the results of a company’s cost-cutting measures can be seen. The first indicator to be identified, a 5 pencent increase in profits, occurred AFTER indicator mentioned next. The sentence therefore needs to clarify the sequence by presenting the first-identified indicator in a clause with a verb tense that indicates a later time period than the verb tense in the clause presenting the second-identified indicator. 87. In an effort to reduce their inventories, Italian vintners have cut prices; their wines have been priced to sell, and they are. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 30. have been priced to sell, and they are are priced to sell, and they have are priced to sell, and they do are being priced to sell, and have had been priced to sell, and they have

Thomas Eakins' powerful style and his choices of subject-the advances in modern surgery, the discipline of sport, the strains of individuals in tension with society or even with themselves-was as disturbing to his own time as it is compelling for ours. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) was as disturbing to his own time as it is were as disturbing to his own time as they are has been as disturbing in his own time asthey are had been as disturbing in his own time as it was have been as disturbing in his own time as

37.

Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were constructed in violation of the city's building code. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year had been Some buildings that the earthquake destroyed and heavily damaged last year have been Last year the earthquake destroyed or heavily damaged some buildings that have been Last year some of the buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake had been

38.

A study commissioned by the Department of Agriculture showed that if calves exercise and associated with other calves, they will require less medication and gain weight quicker than do those raised in confinement.

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 39.

associated with other calves, they will require lessmedication and gain weight quicker than do associated with other calves, they require less medication and gain weight quicker than associate with other calves, they required less medication and will gain weight quicker than do associate with other calves, they have required less medication and will gain weight more quickly than do associate with other calves, they require less medication and gain weight more quickly than

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) had elected early retirement rather than face had elected early retirement instead of facing have elected retiring early instead of facing have elected to retire early rather than facing have elected to retire early rather than face

56.

Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered chalice, which dates from the eighth century, was probably buried to keep from being stolen by invaders. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) to keep from to keep it from to avoid in order that it would avoid in order to keep from

74.

While some academicians believe that business ethics should be integrated into every business course, others say that students will take ethics seriously only if it would be taught as a separately required course. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) only if it would be taught as a separately required course only if it is taught as a separate, required course if it is taught only as a course required separately if it was taught only as a separate and required course if it would only be taught as a required course, separately

NOTES: ―If … Then‖ Constructions Here are the five common patterns of ―If … Then‖ sentences. (1) General Rule with no uncertainty IF Sophie EATS pizza, THEN she BECOMES ill. IF Present, THEN Present. (2) General Rule with some uncertainty IF Sophie EATS pizza, THEN she MAY BECOME ill. IF Present, THEN ―Can‖ or ―May‖. (3) Particular Case (in the future) with no uncertainty IF Sophie EATS pizza, THEN she WILL BECOME ill.

IF Present, THEN Future. (4) Unlikely Case(in the future) IF Sophie ATE pizza tomorrow, THEN she WOULD BECOME ill. IF Hypothetical Subjunctive, THEN Conditional. (5) Case that Never Happened(in the past) IF Sophie HAD EATEN pizza yesterday, THEN she WOULD HAVE BECOME ill. IF Past Perfect, THEN Conditional Perfect. The helping verbs ―would‖ and ―should‖ NEVER go in the ―if‖ part of the sentence. 7.
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COMPARISONS

12 Edition: 9, 20, 32, 43, 76, 82, 89, 97, 99, 100, D35, D37 2 Edition: 13, 25, 32, 41, 44, 66, 85

9.

Like the idolization accorded the Brontes and Brownings, James Joyce and Virginia Woolf are often subjected to the kind of veneration that blurs the distinction between the artist and the human being. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Like the idolization accorded the Brontes and Brownings, As the Brontes' and Brownings' idolization, Like that accorded to the Brontes and Brownings, As it is of the Brontes and Brownings, Like the Brontes and Brownings,

20.

As contrasted with the honeybee, the yellow jacket can sting repeatedly without dying and carries a potent venom that can cause intense pain. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) As contrasted with the honeybee, In contrast to the honeybee's, Unlike the sting of the honeybee, Unlike that of the honeybee, Unlike the honeybee,

NOTES: The intent of the sentence is to contrast the honeybee and the yellow jacket. Correct idioms for such a contrast include ―in contrast with X, Y‖; ―in contrast to X, Y‖; and ―unlike X, Y‖. 32. Galileo was convinced that natural phenomena, as manifestations of the laws of physics, would appear the same to someone on the deck of a ship moving smoothly and uniformly through the water as a person standing on land. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) water as a water as to a water; just as it would to a water, as it would to the water; just as to the

43.

Laos has a land area about the same as Great Britain but only four million in population, where many are members of hill tribes ensconced in the virtually inaccessible mountain valleys of the north. (A) (B) about the same as Great Britain but only four million in population, where many of about the same size as Great Britain is, but in Laos there is a population of only four million, and many (C) that is about the same size as Great Britain's land area, but in Laos with a population of only four million people, many of them (D) (E) comparable to the size of Great Britain, but only four million in population, and many comparable to that of Great Britain but a population of only four million people, many of whom

76.

Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much because of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that shoppers were getting a head start on buying their holiday gifts. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that

NOTES: As much because X as because Y 82. According to a recent poll, owning and living in a freestanding house on its own land is still a goal of a majority of young adults, like that of earlier generations. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 89. like that of earlier generations as that for earlier generations just as earlier generations did as have earlier generations as it was of earlier generations

Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but financially strained townships point out that dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads dirt roads cost twice as much to maintain as paved roads do maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads do maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as it does for paved roads to maintain dirt roads costs twice as much as for paved roads

NOTES: X costs twice as much to maintain as Y 97. Unlike Schoenberg's 12-tone system that dominated the music of the postwar period, Bartok founded no school and left behind only a handful of disciples.

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

Schoenberg's 12-tone system that dominated Schoenberg and his 12-tone system which dominated Schoenberg, whose 12-tone system dominated the 12-tone system of Schoenberg that has dominated Schoenberg and the 12-tone system, dominating

NOTES: The sentence must clearly indicate that it is the individuals, ―Bartok‖ and ―Schoenberg‖, who are being conpared. It must also make it plain that it was the ―system‖ that dominated the music of the postwar period. 99. Ranked as one of the most important of Europe's young playwrights, Franz Xaver Kroetz has written 40 plays; his works—translated into more than 30 languages—are produced more often than any contemporary German dramatist. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) than any than any other than are any than those of any other as are those of any

100. The stars, some of them at tremendous speeds, are in motion just as the planets are, yet being so far away from Earth that their apparent positions in the sky do not change enough for their movement to be observed during a single human lifetime. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The stars, some of them at tremendous speeds, are in motion just as the planets are, yet being Like the planets, the stars are in motion, some of them at tremendous speeds, but they are Although like the planets the stars are in motion, some of them at tremendous speeds, yet As the planets, the stars are in motion, some of them at tremendous speeds, but they are The stars are in motion like the planets, some of which at tremendous speeds are in motion but D35. Unlike the buildings in Mesopotamian cities, which were arranged haphazardly, the same basic plan was followed for all cities of the Indus Valley: with houses laid out on a north-south, eastwest grid, and houses and walls were built of standard-size bricks. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the buildings in Mesopotamian cities, which were arranged haphazardly, the same basic plan was followed for all cities of the Indus Valley: with houses the buildings in Mesopotamian cities, which were haphazard in arrangement, the same basic plan was used in all cities of the Indus Valley: houses were the arrangement of buildings in Mesopotamian cities, which were haphazard, the cities of the Indus Valley all followed the same basic plan: houses Mesopotamian cities, in which buildings were arranged haphazardly, the cities of the Indus Valley all followed the same basic plan: houses were Mesopotamian cities, which had buildings that were arranged haphazardly, the same basic plan was used for all cities in the Indus Valley: houses that were

D37. Like the grassy fields and old pastures that the upland sandpiper needs for feeding and nesting when it returns in May after wintering in the Argentine Pampas, the sandpipers vanishing in the northeastern United States is a result of residential and industrial development and of changes in farming practices. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the sandpipers vanishing in the northeastern United States is a result of residential and industrial development and of changes in the bird itself is vanishing in the northeastern United States as a result of residential and industrial development and of changes in that the birds themselves are vanishing in the northeastern United States is due to residential and industrial development and changes to in the northeastern United States, sandpipers’ vanishing due to residential and industrial development and to changes in in the northeastern United States, the sandpipers’ vanishing, a result of residential and industrial development and changing NOTES: The point of this comparison is that both the habitat and the bird are disappearing for similar reasons. 13. Growing competitive pressures may be encouraging auditors to bend the rules in favor of clients; auditors may, for instance, allow a questionable loan to remain on the books in order to maintain a bank's profits on paper. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 25. clients; auditors may, for instance, allow clients, as an instance, to allow clients, like to allow clients, such as to be allowing clients; which might, as an instance, be the allowing of

LIKE Auden, the language of James Merrill is chatty, arch, and conversational-given to complex syntactic flights as well as to prosaic free-verse strolls. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Like Auden, the language of James Merrill Like Auden, James Merrill's language Like Auden's, James Merrill's language As with Auden, James Merrill's language As is Auden's the language of James Merrill

32.

LIKE Rousseau, Tolstoi rebelled against the unnatural complexity of human relations in modern society. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Like Rousseau, Tolstoi rebelled Like Rousseau, Tolstoi's rebellion was As Rousseau, Tolstoi rebelled As did Rousseau, Tolstoi's rebellion was Tolstoi's rebellion, as Rousseau's, was

41.

UNLIKE a funded pension system, in which contributions are invested to pay future beneficiaries,

a pay-as you-go approach is the foundation of Social Security. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 44. a pay-as-you-go approach is the foundation of Social Security the foundation of Social Security is a pay-as-you-go approach the approach of Social Security is pay-as-you-go Social Security's approach is pay-as-you-go Social Security is founded on a pay-as-you-go approach

IN CONTRAST TO large steel plants that take iron ore through all the steps needed to produce several different kinds of steel, processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small mills to put capital into new technology AND remain economically viable. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small mills to put capital into new technology and remain processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small mills to put capital into new technology, remaining the processing of steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small mills to put capital into new technology, remaining small mills, by processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products, have been able to put capital into new technology and remain small mills, by processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products, have been able to put capital into new technology and remained

66.

UNLIKE auto insurance, the frequency of claims does not affect the premiums for personal property coverage, but if the insurance company is able to prove excessive loss due to owner negligence, it may decline to renew the policy. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Unlike auto insurance, the frequency of claims does not affect the premiums for personal property coverage, Unlike with auto insurance, the frequency of claims do not affect the premiums for personal property coverage, Unlike the frequency of claims for auto insurance, the premiums for personal property coverage are not affected by the frequency of claims, Unlike the premiums for auto insurance, the premiums for personal property coverage are not affected by the frequency of claims, Unlike with the premiums for autoinsurance, the premiums for personal property coverage is not affected by the frequency of claims,

85.

According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about EQUIVALENT TO the enrollment of the nation's four-year colleges and universities. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) equivalent to the enrollment of the equivalent of those enrolled in equal to those who are enrolled in as many as the enrollment of as many as are enrolled in

8.
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IDIOMS

12 Edition: 4, 33, 34, 35, 44, 50, 51, 59, 64, 73, 75, 96, 106, 117, 118, 120, D38, D45 2 Edition: 6, 12, 23, 28, 47, 73, 107, 113

4.

Of all the vast tides of migration that have swept through history, maybe none is more concentrated as the wave that brought 12 million immigrants onto American shores in little more than three decades. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) maybe none is more concentrated as it may be that none is more concentrated as perhaps it is none that is more concentrated than maybe it is none that was more concentrated than perhaps none was more concentrated than

33.

Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, Because of plunging prices for computer chips, which is due to an oversupply, Because computer chip prices have been sent plunging, which resulted from an oversupply, Due to plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply, Due to an oversupply, with the result that computer chip prices have been sent plunging,

34.

Beyond the immediate cash flow crisis that the museum faces, its survival depends on if it can broaden its membership and leave its cramped quarters for a site where it can store and exhibit its more than 12,000 artifacts. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) if it can broaden its membership and leave whether it can broaden its membership and leave whether or not it has the capability to broaden its membership and can leave its ability for broading its membership and leaving the ability for it to broaden its membership and leave

35.

Along with the drop in producer prices announced yesterday, the strong retail sales figures released today seem like it is indicative that the economy, although growing slowly, is not nearing a recession. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) like it is indicative that as if to indicate to indicate that indicative of like an indication of

44.

The plot of The Bostonians centers on the rivalry between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, with her charming and cynical cousin, Basil Ransom, when they find themselves drawn to the same radiant young woman whose talent for public speaking has won her an ardent following. (A) rivalry between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, with her charming and cynical cousin, Basil Ransom, (B) rivals Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, against her charming and cynical cousin, Basil Ransom, (C) (D) (E) rivalry that develops between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, and Basil Ransom, her charming and cynical cousin, developing rivalry between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, with Basil Ransom, her charming and cynical cousin, active feminist, Olive Chancellor, and the rivalry with her charming and cynical cousin Basil Ransom,

50.

According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a "soft landing," followed by a gradual increase in business activity. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared, and instead to come in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared earlier this year by many, with it instead coming

51.

A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may be so brisk it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make sense of speech. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting in being unable to make

59.

The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month.

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival's month world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival

NOTES: In this sentence, the second clause explains the first one, so the conjunction ―for‖, meaning ―because‖, is the most appropriate choice for joining two independent clauses of the compound sentence. ―Festival’s month‖ is an awkward and imprecise use of the possessive; ―during the month of the festival‖ is clearer. 64. Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate genetic predispositions toward certain diseases. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate do damage by themselves but also are aggravating to are damaging by themselves but also are aggravating not only do damage by themselves, they are also aggravating to are doing damage by themselves, and they are also aggravating

NOTES: When used as a verb, ―aggravate‖ means to make worse; the adjective ―aggravating‖ is instead widely interpreted to mean ―annoying‖. 73. Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could out in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path, appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths, appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths, appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, 75. A proposal has been made to trim the horns from rhinoceroses to discourage poachers; the question is whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses after their horns are trimmed. (A) (B) (C) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses after their horns are whether tourists will continue to visit game parks to see one once their horns are whether tourists will continue to visit game parks to see rhinoceroses once the animals' horns have been

(D) (E) 96.

if tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses once the animals' horns are if tourists will continue to visit game parks to see one after the animals' horns have been

One of the primary distinctions between our intelligence with that of other primates may lay not so much in any specific skill but in our ability to extend knowledge gained in one context to new and different ones. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) between our intelligence with that of other primates may lay not so much in any specific skill but between our intelligence with that of other primates may lie not so much in any specific skill but instead between our intelligence and that of other primates may lie NOT SO MUCH in any specific skill AS our intelligence has from that of other primates may lie not in any specific skill as of our intelligence to that of other primates may lay not in any specific skill but

NOTES: It’s not so much a hobby as a career(= more like a career than a hobby). 106. Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience. (A) Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is (B) (C) (D) (E) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is, CONCEIVE: He CONCEIVES OF architecture AS a dialogue. 117. George Sand (Aurore Lucile Dupin) was one of the first European writers to consider the rural poor to be legitimate subjects for literature and portray these with sympathy and respect in her novels. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) to be legitimate subjects for literature and portray these should be legitimate subjects for literature and portray these as being legitimate subjects for literature and portraying them as if they were legitimate subjects for literature and portray them legitimate subjects for literature and to portray them

CONSIDER: I CONSIDER her a friend. I CONSIDER her intellegent.

We can switch the order of the two objects, if one is long. I CONSIDER illegal the law passed last week by the new regime. The law IS CONSIDERED illegal. 118. The World Wildlife Fund has declared that global warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings, a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels, which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels, which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings, 120. A firm that specializes in the analysis of handwriting claims from a one-page writing sample that it can assess more than 300 personality traits, including enthusiasm, imagination, and ambition. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) from a one-page writing sample that it can assess from a one-page writing sample it has the ability of assessing the ability, from a one-page writing sample, of assessing to be able, from a one-page writing sample, to assess being able to assess, from a one-page writing sample

NOTES: The verb ―claim‖ may be followed by one of the two correct constructions: ―claims that + a subordinate clause‖, or ―claims + infinative‖. D38. The results of two recent unrelated studies support the idea that dolphins may share certain cognitive abilities with humans and great apes; the studies indicate dolphins as capable of recognizing themselves in mirrors—an ability that is often considered a sign of self-awareness— and to grasp spontaneously the mood or intention of humans. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) dolphins as capable of recognizing themselves in mirrors—an ability that is often considered a sign of self-awareness—and to grasp spontaneously dolphins’ ability to recognize themselves in mirrors—an ability that is often considered as a sign of self-awareness—and of spontaneously grasping dolphins to be capable of recognizing themselves in mirrors—an ability that is often considered a sign of self-awareness—and to grasp spontaneously that dolphins have the ability of recognizing themselves in mirrors—an ability that is often considered as a sign of self-awareness—and spontaneously grasping that dolphins are capable of recognizing themselves in mirrors—an ability that is often considered a sign of self-awareness—and of spontaneously grasping D45. In 1923, the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia as unconstitutional, and ruling that it was a form of price-fixing and, as such, an abridgment of the right of contract.

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia as unconstitutional, and the Supreme Court declared as unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia, and the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia, a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, when the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia as unconstitutional,

DECLARE: I DECLARED the election a fraud. I DECLARED the referendum invalid. I DECLARED invalid the referendum that the new regime imposed. They DECLARED THAT the election was a fraud. 6. A Labor Department study states that the numbers of women employed outside the home grew by more than a thirty-five percent increase in the past decade and accounted for more than sixty-two percent of the total growth in the civi lian workforce. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) numbers of women employed outside the home grew by more than a thirty-five percent increase numbers of women employed outside the home grew more than thirty-five percent numbers of women employed outside the home were raised by more than thirty-five percent number of women employed outside the home increased by more than thirty-five percent number of women employed outside the home was raised by more than a thirty-five percent increase 12. William H. Johnson's artistic debtto Scandinavia is evident in paintings that range from sensitive portraits of citizens in hiswife's Danish home, Kerteminde, and awe-inspiring views of fjords and mountain peaks in the western and northern regions of Norway. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 23. and to and to with in addition to

Consumers may not think of household cleaning products to be hazardous substances, but many of them can be harmful to health, especially if they are used improperly. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Consumers may not think of household cleaning products to be Consumers may not think of household cleaning products being A consumer may not think of their household cleaning products being A consumer may not think of household cleaning products as Household cleaning products may not be thought of, by consumers, as

28.

Eating saltwater fish may significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and also aid for sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis and asthma, according to three research studies published in the New

England Journal of Medicine. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) AID: She AIDS her neighbor. She provides AID TO victims. AID FOR victims is available. Her AID IN WALKING the dog was appreciated. 47. Wisconsin, Illinois, Florida, and Minnesota have begun to enforce statewide bans prohibiting landfills to accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 73. prohibiting landfills to accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings prohibiting that landfills accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings prohibiting landfills from accepting leaves, brush, and grass clippings that leaves, brush, and grass clippings cannot be accepted in landfills that landfills cannot accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and also aid for be significant in reducing the risk of heart attacks and aid for significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and aid cause a significant reduction in the risk of heart attacks and aid to significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks as well as aiding

After suffering $2 billion in losses and 25,000 layoffs, the nation's semiconductor industry, which makes chips that run everything from computers and spy satellites to dishwashers, appears to have made a long-awaited recovery. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) computers and spy satellites to dishwashers, appears to have computers, spy satellites, and dishwashers, appears having computers, spy satellites, and dishwashers, appears that it has computers and spy satellites to dishwashers, appears that it has computers and spy satellites as well as dishwashers, appears to have

107. Bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, whose repertory, views on musical collaboration, and vocal style were influential on generations of bluegrass artists, was also an inspiration to many musicians, that included Elvis Presley and JerryGarcia, whose music differed significantly from his own. (A) were influential on generations of bluegrass artists, was also an inspiration to many musicians, that included Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from (B) (C) influenced generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, including Elvis Presley and JerryGarcia, whose music differed significantly from was influential to generations of bluegrass artists, was also inspirational to many musicians, that included Elvis Presley and JerryGarcia, whose music was different significantly in comparison to (D) was influential to generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, who included Elvis Presley and JerryGarcia, the music of whom differed significantly when compared to (E) were an influence on generations of bluegrass artists, was also an inspiration to many musicians, including Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music was significantly different

from that of 113. In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria. Later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays byAeschylus and Euripides. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 9.
th nd

resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world, as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world, Alexandria's largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was

ODDS & ENDS

12 Edition: 80, 116 2 Edition: 31, 82

80.

A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes. (A) (B) (C) (D) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come (E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come

116. Mauritius was a British colony for almost 200 years, excepting for the domains of administration and teaching, the English language was never really spoken on the island. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 31. excepting for except in but except in but excepting for with the exception of

Nearly two tons of nuclear-reactor fuel have already been put into orbit around the Earth, and the chances of a collision involving such material increase greatly as the amount of both space debris and satellites continue to rise. (A) (B) (C) (D) as the amount of both space debris and satellites continue to rise as the rise continues in boththe amount of satellites and space debris as the amount of space debris and the number of satellites continue to rise with the continually increasing amount of space debris and the number of satellites

(E) 82.

with the amount of space debris continuing to increase along with the number of satellites

Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing density, allows for more open space in areas where little water or services exist. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) little water or services exist little water or services exists few services and little water exists there is little water or services available there are few services and little available water

10.
th

GMC/S-V/PARALLELISM: ADVANCED

Meaning & Concision 12 Edition: 93, 98, 135

93.

Heating-oil prices are expected to be HIGHER this year THAN last because refiners are paying about 5 dollars a barrel MORE for crude oil THAN thev were last year. (A) (B) Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were Heating-oil prices are expected to rise higher this year over last because refiners pay about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did (C) (D) (E) Expectations are for heating-oil prices to be higher this year than last year's because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did It is the expectation that heating-oil prices will be higher for this year over last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil now than what they were It is expected that heating-oil prices will rise higher this year than last year's because refiners pay about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did

98.

Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932.

(A)

Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932.

(B)

Although named for the New Mexico site where first discovered in 1932, Clovis points are spear points of longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces and have been found all over North America.

(C)

Named for the New Mexico site where they have been first discovered in 1932, Clovis points, spear points of longitudinal grooves chipped onto the faces, have been found all over North America.

(D)

Spear points with longitudinal grooves that are chipped onto the faces, Clovis points, even though named for the New Mexico site where first discovered in 1932, but were found all over North America.

(E)

While Clovis points are spear points whose faces have longitudinal grooves chipped into them, they have been found all over North America, and named for the New Mexico site where they have been first discovered in 1932.

135. Spanning more than 50 years, Friedrich Muller began his career in an unpromising apprenticeship as a Sanskrit scholar and culminated in virtually every honor that European governments and learned societies could bestow. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Muller began his career in an unpromising apprenticeship as Muller's career began in an unpromising apprenticeship as Muller's career began with the unpromising apprenticeship of being Muller had begun his career with the unpromising apprenticeship of being the career of Muller has begun with an unpromising apprenticeship of

Subject-Verb Agreement 12 Edition: 95, 104, 129, 133, 140, D43
th

95.

The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as "standing waves."

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is

104. El Nino, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated in the western Pacific to flow back to the east. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated a phenomenon where changes in the ocean and atmosphere are combining to allow the warm water that is accumulating a phenomenon in which ocean and atmosphere changes combine and which allows the warm water that is accumulated is a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine to allow the warm water that has accumulated is a phenomenon where ocean and atmosphere changes are combining and allow the warm water accumulating 129. Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000 Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English,Spanish, and Italian words.

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it and, in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian words are added

133. Last week local shrimpers held a news conference to take some credit for the resurgence of the rare Kemp's ridley turtle, saying that THEIR COMPLIANCE with laws requiring that turtle-excluder devices be on shrimp nets protect adult sea turtles. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) requiring that turtle-excluder devices be on shrimp nets protect requiring turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting that require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets protect to require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets are protecting to require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting

140. ROCK SAMPLES taken from the remains of an asteroid about twice the size of the 6-mile-wide asteroid that eradicated the dinosaurs has been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and thus is evidence of the earliest known asteroid impact on Earth. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) has been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and thus is has been dated at 3.47 billion years old and thus have been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and thus are have been dated as being 3.47 billion years old and thus have been dated at 3.47 billion years old and thus are

NOTES: The idiomatic way of expressing estimation of age is with the phrase ―DATED AT‖. D43. Despite the increasing number of women graduating from law school and passing bar examinations, the proportion of judges and partners at major law firms who are women have not risen to a comparable extent. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the proportion of judges and partners at major law firms who are women have not risen to a comparable extent the proportion of women judges and partners at major law firms have not risen comparably the proportion of judges and partners at major law firms who are women has not risen comparably yet the proportion of women judges and partners at major law firms has not risen to a comparable extent yet the proportion of judges and partners at major law firms who are women has not risen comparably 101. The Federalist PAPERS, a strong defense of the United States Constitution and important as a body of work in political science as well, represents the handiwork of three different authors. (A) (B) and important as a body of work in political science as well, represents as well as an important body of work in political science, represent

(C) (D) (E)

and also a body of work of importance in political science is representing an important body of work in political science and has been representative of and as political science an important body of work too, represent

Parallelism 12 Edition: 90, 92, 94, 109, 114, 119, 127, 130, 134, 137, D48, D50, D51 2
nd th

Edition: 55, 77, 78, 86, 91, 94, 95, 106, 112

90.

Although early soap operas were first aired on evening radio in the 1920s, they had moved to the daytime hours of the 1930s when the evening schedule became crowded with comedians and variety shows. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) were first aired on evening radio in the 1920s, they had moved to the daytime hours of the 1930s WERE first AIRED on evening radio IN THE 1920s, they WERE MOVED to the daytime hours IN THE 1930s were aired first on evening radio in the 1920s, moving to the daytime hours in the 1930s were aired first in the evening on 1920s radio, they moved to the daytime hours of the 1930s aired on evening radio first in the 1920s, they were moved to the 1930s in the daytime hours

92.

The energy source on Voyager 2 is not a nuclear reactor, in which atoms are actively broken apart; rather a kind of nuclear battery that uses natural radioactive decay to produce power. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) apart; rather apart, but rather apart, but rather that of apart, but that of apart; it is that of

NOTES: This sentence focus on a contrast by using the construction ―not X, but rather Y‖, X and Y are parallel. 94. The recent surge in the number of airplane flights has clogged the nation's air-traffic control system, to lead to 55 percent more delays at airports, and prompts fears among some officials that safety is being compromised. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) to lead to 55 percent more delays at airports, and prompts leading to 55 percent more delay at airports and prompting to lead to a 55 percent increase in delay at airports and prompt to lead to an increase of 55 percent in delays at airports, and prompted leading to a 55 percent increase in delays at airports and prompting

109. Among the objects found in the excavated temple were small terra-cotta effigies left by supplicants who were either asking the goddess Bona Dea's aid in healing physical and mental ills or thanking her for such help. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) in healing physical and mental ills or thanking her for such help in healing physical and mental ills and to thank her for helping in healing physical and mental ills, and thanking her for helping to heal physical and mental ills or to thank her for such help to heal physical and mental ills or thanking her for such help

114. The original building and loan associations were organized as limited life funds, whose members MADE monthly payments on their share subscriptions, then taking turns drawing on the funds for home mortgages. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) subscriptions, then taking turns drawing subscriptions, and then taking turns drawing subscriptions and then took turns drawing subscriptions and then took turns, they drew subscriptions and then drew, taking turns

119. New theories propose that catastrophic impacts of asteroids and comets may have caused reversals in the Earth's magnetic field, the onset of ice ages, splitting apart continents 80 million years ago, AND great volcanic eruptions. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) splitting apart continents the splitting apart of continents split apart continents continents split apart continents that were split apart

NOTES: Thi sentence lists four effects of catastrophic impacts. 127. Joan of Arc, a young French woman who claimed to be divinely inspired, TURNED the tide of English victories in her country by liberating the city of Orleans AND she persuaded Charles VII of France to claim his throne. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) she persuaded Charles VII of France to claim his throne persuaded Charles VII of France in claiming his throne persuading that the throne be claimed by Charles VII of France persuaded Charles VII of France to claim his throne persuading that Charles VII of France should claim the throne

130. One view of the economy contends that a large drop in oil prices should eventually lead to lowering interest rates, as well as lowering fears about inflation, A RALLY in stocks and bonds, AND A WEAKENING of the dollar. (A) (B) lowering interest rates, as well as lowering fears about inflation, a lowering of interest rates and of fears about inflation,

(C) (D) (E)

a lowering of interest rates, along with fears about inflation, interest rates being lowered, along with fears about inflation, interest rates and fears about inflation being lowered, with

134. Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised fatigue among shift workers, and raised and fatigue among shift workers while raising lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

NOTES: Implementing the equations has reduced ―sickness‖, ―sleeping on the job‖, and ―fatigue‖; at the same time, it has increased ―efficiency‖. The three parallel elements (―have reduced X, Y, and Z‖) require ―and‖ before the final element. 137. Joachim Raff and Giacomo Meyerbeer are examples of the kind of composer who RECEIVES popular acclaim while living, often goes into decline after death, and never REGAINS popularity again. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) often goes into decline after death, and never regains popularity again whose reputation declines after death and never regains its status again but whose reputation declines after death and never regains its former status who declines in reputation after death and who never regained popularity again then has declined in reputation after death and never regained popularity

D48. Critics contend that the new missile is a weapon whose importance is largely symbolic, more a tool for manipulating people’s perceptions than to fulfill a real military need. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) for manipulating people’s perceptions than to fulfill for manipulating people’s perceptions than for fulfilling to manipulate people’s perceptions rather than that it fulfills to manipulate people’s perceptions rather than fulfilling to manipulate people’s perceptions than for fulfilling

NOTES: This sentence uses the comparative construction ―more X than Y‖ where X and Y must be parallel. D50. By developing the Secure Digital Music Initiative, the recording industry associations of North America, Japan, and Europe hope to create a standardized way of distributing songs and fulllength recordings on the Internet that will protect copyright holders AND foil the many audio pirates who copy and distribute digital music illegally. (A) (B) of distributing songs and full-length recordings on the Internet that will PROTECT copyright holders AND FOIL the many audio pirates who COPY AND DISTRIBUTE of distributing songs and full-length recordings on the Internet and to protect copyright

holders and foiling the many audio pirates copying and distributing (C) (D) (E) for distributing songs and full-length recordings on the Internet while it protects copyright holders and foils the many audio pirates who copy and distribute to distribute songs and full-length recordings on the Internet while they will protect copyright holders and foil the many audio pirates copying and distributing to distribute songs and full-length recordings on the Internet and it will protect copyright holders and foiling the many audio pirates who copy and distribute D51. Whereas a ramjet generally cannot achieve high speeds without the initial assistance of a rocket, high speeds can be attained by scramjets, or supersonic combustion ramjets, in that they reduce airflow compression at the entrance of the engine and letting air pass through at supersonic speeds. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 55. high speeds can be attained by scramjets, or supersonic combustion ramjets, in that they reduce that high speeds can be attained by scramjets, or supersonic combustion ramjets, is a result of their reducing the ability of scramjets, or supersonic combustion ramjets, to achieve high speeds is because they reduce scramjets, or supersonic combustion ramjets, have the ability of attaining high speeds when reducing scramjets, or supersonic combustion ramjets, can attain high speeds by reducing

The energy source on Voyager 2 is not a nuclear reactor, in which atoms are actively broken apart; rather a kind of nuclear battery that uses natural radioactive decay to produce power. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) apart; rather apart, but rather apart, but rather that of apart, but that of apart; it is that of

77.

Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth's crust, changing the measured strain across a fault zone and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) changing the measured strain across a fault zone and varying changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of changes in the measured strain across a fault zone , AND variations in changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among

78.

The root systems of most flowering perennials either become too crowded, which results in loss in vigor, and spread too far outward, producing a bare center. (A) (B) (C) which results in loss in vigor, and spread resulting in loss in vigor, or spreading with the result of loss of vigor, or spreading

(D) (E) 86.

resulting in loss of vigor, or spread with a resulting loss of vigor, and spread

Intar, the oldest Hispanic theater company in New York, has moved away from the Spanish classics and now it draws on the works both of contemporary Hispanic authors who live abroad and of those in the United States. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) now it draws on the works both of contemporary Hispanic authors who live abroad and of those now draws on the works of contemporary Hispanic authors, both those who live abroad and those who live it draws on the works of contemporary Hispanic authors now, both those living abroad and who live draws now on the works both of contemporary Hispanic authors living abroad and who are living draws on the works now of both contemporary Hispanic authors living abroad and those

91.

Seismologists studying the earthquake that struck northern California in October 1989 are still investigating some of its mysteries: the unexpected power of the seismic waves, the upward thrust that threw one man straight into the air, AND the strange electromagnetic signals detected hours before the temblor. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the upward thrust that threw one man straight into the air, and the strange electromagnetic signals detected hours before the temblor the upward thrust that threw one man straight into the air, and strange electromagnetic signals were detected hours before the temblor the upward thrust threw one man straight into the air, and hours before the temblor strange electromagnetic signals were detected one man was thrown straightinto the air by the upward thrust, and hours before the temblor strange electromagnetic signals were detected one man who was thrown straight into the air by the upward thrust, and strange electromagnetic signals that were detected hours before the temblor

94.

Judge Bonham denied a motion to allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day instead of to confine them to a hotel. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) to allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day instead of to confine them to that would have allowed members of the jury to go home at the end of each day instead of confined to under which members of the jury are allowed to go home at the end of each day instead of confining them in that would allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day rather than confinement in to allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day rather than be confined to

NOTES: The ligic of this sentence has two possible iptions for the ―members of the jury‖: they can go home

or be confined to a hotel.The first option is expressed using the infinitive ―to go home‖; the second option shoulf use the parallel form (―to‖ understood) ―be confined‖. Since the ―members of the jury‖ are not doing the confining themselves, the passive form must be used. 95. Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make computers that can understand English and other human languages, recognize objects, and reason as an expert does-computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) as an expert does-computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these as an expert does, which may be used for purposes such as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan like an expert-computers that will be used for such purposes as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan like an expert, the use of which would be for purposes like the diagnosis of equipment breakdowns or the decision whether or not a loan should be authorized like an expert, to be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan or not, or the like NOTES: Either the clause, ―as an expert does‖, or the prepositional phrase, ―like an expert‖, is correct and idiomatic in this sentence. 106. As well as heat and light, the sun is the source of a continuous stream of atomic particles known as the solar wind. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) As well as heat and light, the sun is the source of a continuous stream Besides heat and light, also the sun is the source of a continuous stream Besides heat and light, the sun is also the source of a continuous streaming The sun is the source not only of heat and light, but also of a continuous stream The sun is the source of not only heat and light but, as well, of a continuous streaming

112. In the 1980s the federal government was the largest single provider of day care for children, offering child care, health, and educational services to hundreds of thousands of children from poor households through the Head Start program AND WHICH SUPPORTED private day-care facilities through child-care tax credits, state block grants, and tax breaks for employers who subsidized day-care services. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) In the 1980s the federal government was the largest single provider of day care for children, offering The federal government was the largest single provider of day care for children in the 1980s, which offered In the 1980s the federal government was the largest single provider of day care for children and offered The largest single provider of day care for children in the 1980s was the federal government, offering In the 1980s the largest single provider of day care for children was the federal government,

which offered

11.

PRONOUNS & MODIFIERS: ADVANCED

Pronouns 12 Edition: 101, 113, 124, 132 2
nd th

Edition: 50, 68, 70, 80, 98, 105

101. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. (A) Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. (B) An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear. (C) (D) An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear. (E) Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. 113. Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands. (A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated (B) (C) (D) (E) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

124. Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep 15 hours a day, moving infrequently enough that two species of algae grow on ITS coat and between ITS toes. (A) (B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep 15 hours a day, moving infrequently enough sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep 15 hours a day, and with such infrequent movements (C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep 15 hours a day, and move so infrequently (D) (E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping 15 hours a day and moving so infrequently the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps 15 hours a day, and it moves infrequently enough 132. Although the term "psychopath" is popularly applied to an especially brutal criminal, in psychology it is someone who is apparently incapable of feeling compassion or the pangs of conscience. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 50. it is someone who is it is a person they are people who are it refers to someone who is it is in reference to people

The bank holds $3 billion in loans that are seriously delinquent or in such trouble that they do not expect payments when due. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) they do not expect payments when it does not expect payments when it is it does not expect payments to be made when they are payments are not to be expected to be paid when payments are not expected to be paid when they will be

NOTES: The plural pronoun ―they‖ cannot be used to refer to the singular noun ―bank‖. 68. By offering lower prices and a menu of personal communications options, such as caller identification and voice mail, the new telecommunications company has not only captured customers from other phone companies but also forced them to offer competitive prices. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) has not only captured customers from other phone companies but also forced them has not only captured customers from other phone companies, but it also forced them has NOT ONLY captured customers from other phone companies BUT ALSO forced these companies not only has captured customers from other phone companies but also these companies have been forced not only captured customers from other phone companies, but it also has forced them

70.

The gyrfalcon, an Arctic bird of prey, has survived a close brush with extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than when the use of DDT was sharply restricted in the early 1970s. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than extinction; its numbers are now five times more than extinction, their numbers now fivefold what they were extinction, now with fivefold the numbers they had extinction, now with numbers five times greater than

80.

Any medical test will sometimes fail to detect a condition when it is present and indicate that there is one when it is not. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) a condition when it is present and indicate that there is one when a condition is present and indicate that there is one a condition when it is present and indicate that it is present when a condition is present and indicate its presence the presence of a condition when it is there and indicate its presence

98.

Although Napoleon's army entered Russia with far more supplies than they had in their previous campaigns, it had provisions for only twenty-four days. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) they had in their previous campaigns, their previous campaigns had had, they had for any previous campaign, in their previous campaigns, for any previous campaign,

NOTES: The sentence incorrectly swithches between the plural pronouns ―they‖ and ―their‖ and the singular ―it‖ to refer to the army. The past perfect verb tense ―had had‖ is preferable to the simple past ―had‖, because this action occurred before the action in the main clause. In the context of ―supplies for a campaign‖, the preposition ―for‖ is preferable to the preposition ―in‖. 105. The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength-0.1 millimeters-is too long to be registered by the eye. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) infrared radiation , however, is invisible because its wavelength-0.1 millimeters-is too long to be registered by the eye however, the wavelength of infrared radiation-0.1 millimeters-is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength-0.1 millimeters-is too long for the eye to register it however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible

Modifiers

12 Edition: 102, 103, 105, 107, 110, 111, 112, 115, 121, 126, D49 2
nd

th

Edition: 88, 90, 92, 96, 100, 108, 109, 110 ,111

102. As rainfall began to decrease in the Southwest about the middle of the twelfth century, most of the Monument Valley Anasazi abandoned their homes to join other clans whose access to water was less limited. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) whose access to water was less limited where there was access to water that was less limited where they had less limited water access with less limitations on water access having less limitations to water access

103. Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps, wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile female workers. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all

NOTES: In this explanation, the society or population – not the individual wasps themselves – consists almost entirely of females. 105. Beatrix Potter, in her book illustrations, carefully coordinating them with her narratives, capitalized on her keen observation and love of the natural world. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Beatrix Potter, in her book illustrations, carefully coordinating them with her narratives, In her book illustrations, carefully coordinating them with her narratives, Beatrix Potter In her book illustrations, which she carefully coordinated with her narratives, Beatrix Potter Carefully coordinated with her narratives, Beatrix Potter, in her book illustrations Beatrix Potter, in her book illustrations, carefully coordinated them with her narratives and

107. Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology. (A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(B)

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission

(C)

A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(D)

A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,

(E)

A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced X-ray emission,

110. Published in Harlem, the owner and editor of The Messenger were two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader. (A) Published in Harlem, the owner and editor of The Messenger were two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader. (B) Published in Harlem, two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, were the owner and editor of The

Messenger.
(C) Published in Harlem, The Messenger was owned and edited by two young journalists, A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, and Chandler Owen. (D)

The Messenger was owned and edited by two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A.
Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, and published in Harlem.

(E)

The owner and editor being two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, The Messenger was published in Harlem.

111. Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69. during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles. (A) (B) (C) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and (D) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it

(E)

officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

NOTES: The main subject of the sentence is ―Construction‖, it has two main verbs: ―began‖ and ‖was completed‖. These two verbs should be connected by the conjunction ―and‖ to preserve their equal grammaitical status. Both verbs should be in simple paet tense. 112. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind as an adult. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500. 115. Gall's hypothesis of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today. (A) (B) (C) (D) of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today of different mental functions that are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today that different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today which is that there are different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today (E) which is widely accepted today is that there are different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain 121. Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease. (A) (B) (C) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again

(D) (E)

with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

126. The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional REACTIONS in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

D49. As an actress and, more importantly, as a teacher of acting, Stella Adler was one of the most influential artists in the American theater, who trained several generations of actors including Marlon Brando and Robert De Niro. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Stella Adler was one of the most influential artists in the American theater, who trained several generations of actors including Stella Adler, one of the most influential artists in the American theater, trained several generations of actors who include Stella Adler was one of the most influential artists in the American theater, training several generations of actors whose ranks included one of the most influential artists in the American theater was Stella Adler, who trained several generations of actors including one of the most influential artists in the American theater, Stella Adler, trained several generations of actors whose ranks included 88. Clouds are formed from the evaporation of the oceans' water that is warmed by the sun and rises high into the atmosphere, condensing in tiny droplets on minute particles of dust. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Clouds are formed from the evaporation of the oceans' water that is warmed by the sun and rises high into the atmosphere, condensing in tiny droplets onminute particles of dust. Clouds form by the sun's warmth evaporating the water in the oceans, which rises high into the atmosphere, condensing in tiny droplets on minute particles of dust. Warmed by the sun, ocean water evaporates, rises high into the atmosphere, and condenses in tiny droplets on minute particles of dust to form clouds. The water in the oceans evaporates, warmed by the sun, rises high into the atmosphere, and condenses in tiny droplets on minute particles of dust, which forms clouds. Ocean water, warmed by the sun, evaporates and rises high into the atmosphere, which then condenses in tiny droplets on minute particles of dust to form as clouds. 90. The commission PROPOSED that funding for the park's development, which could be open to the public early next year, is obtained through a local bond issue. (A) (B) that funding for the park's development, Which could be open to the public early nextyear, is that funding for development of the park, which could be open to the public early next year,

BE (C) (D) (E) 92. funding for the development of the park, perhaps open to the public early next year, to be funds for the park's development, perhaps open to the public early next year, be development funding for the park, which could be open to the public early next year, is to be

Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a parasitic worm, is prevalent in hot, humid climates, and it has become more widespread as irrigation projects have enlarged the habitat of the freshwater snails that are the parasite's hosts for part of its life cycle. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the freshwater snails that are the parasite's hosts for part of its life cycle the freshwater snails that are the parasite's hosts in part of their life cycle freshwater snails which become the parasite's hosts for part of its life cycles freshwater snails which become the hosts of the parasite during the parasite's life cycles parasite's hosts, freshwater snails which become their hosts during their life cycles

96.

Floating in the waters of the equatorial Pacific, an array of buoys collects and transmits data on long-term interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere, interactions that affect global climate. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) atmosphere, interactions that affect atmosphere, with interactions affecting atmosphere that affects atmosphere that is affecting atmosphere as affects

100. Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) which, causing plantand animal extinctions, marks which caused the plant and animal extinctions and marks and causing plantand animal extinctions that mark an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, which marks an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

108. Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperature sand densities. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by

NOTES: ―dissipate‖ is a intransitive verb, ―acoustic energy‖ cannot be its object. 109. The nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness account of the great eruption of Vesuvius in two letters to the historian Tacitus.

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

The nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness account of the great eruption of Vesuvius in two letters to the historian Tacitus. To the historian Tacitus, the nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote two letters, being the only eyewitness accounts of the great eruption of Vesuvius. The only eyewitness account is in two letters by the nephew of Pliny the Elder writing to the historian Tacitus an account of the great eruption of Vesuvius. Writing the only eyewitness account, Pliny the Elder's nephew accounted for the great eruption of Vesuvius in two letters to the historian Tacitus. In two letters to the historianTacitus,the nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness account of the great eruption of Vesuvius.

110. Being a United States citizen since 1988 and born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati Mukherjee has lived in England and Canada, and first came to the United States in 1961 to study at the Iowa Writers' Workshop. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Being a United States citizen since 1988 and born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati Mukherjee has Having been a United States citizen since 1988, she was born in Calcutta in 1940; author Bharati Mukherjee Born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati Mukherjee became a United States citizen in 1988; she has Being born in Calcutta in 1940 and having been a United States citizen since 1988, author Bharati Mukherjee Having been born in Calcuttain1940 and being a United States citizen since 1988, author Bharati Mukherjee 111. Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. (A) (B) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a $100million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World , a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI. (C) (D) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Pledging a $100million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992. (E) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, on Columbus Day 1992, the initiation of Project SETI took place.

12.

VERBS & COMPARISIONS: ADVANCED

Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice 12 Edition: 122, 128, 139 2
nd th

Edition: 76, 79, 81, 89, 99, 104

122. A wildlife expert predicts that the reintroduction of the caribou into northern Minnesota would fail if the density of the timber wolf population in that region is more numerous than one wolf for every 39 square miles. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) would fail if the density of the timber wolf population in that region is more numerous would fail provided the density of the timber wolf population in that region is more should fail if the timber wolf density in that region was greater will fail if the density of the timber wolf population in that region is greater will fail if the timber wolf density in that region were more numerous

128. Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving as a kind of snorkel. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolved to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved 139. The company announced that its PROFITS declined much less in the second quarter than analysts had expected it to and its business will improve in the second half of the year. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 76. had expected it to and its business will improve had expected and that its business would improve expected it would and that it will improve its business expected them to and its business would improve expected and that it will have improved its business

Under a provision of the Constitution that was never applied, Congress has been required to call a convention for considering possible amendments to the document when formally asked to do it by the legislatures of two-thirds of the states. (A) (B) (C) was never applied, Congress has been required to call a convention for considering possible amendments to the document when formally asked to do it was never applied, there has been a requirement that Congress call a convention for consideration of possible amendments to the document when asked to do it formally was never applied, whereby Congress is required to call a convention for considering

possible amendments to the document when asked to do it formally (D) (E) has never been applied, whereby Congress is required to call a convention to consider possible amendments to the document when formally asked to do so has never been applied, Congress is required to call a convention to consider possible amendments to the document when formally asked to do so 79. The computer company has announced that IT WILL purchase the color-printing division of a rival company for $950 million, which is part of a deal that will make it the largest manufacturer in the office color-printing market. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 81. million, which is part of a deal that will make million, a part of a deal that makes million, a part of a deal making million as a part of a deal to make million as part of a deal that will make

Since 1986, when the Department of Labor began to allow investment officers' fees to be based on how the funds they manage perform, several corporations began paying their investment advisers a small basic fee, with a contract promising higher fees if the managers perform well. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Investment officers' fees to be based on how the funds they manage perform, several corporations began investment officers' fees to be based on the performance of the funds they manage, several corporations began that fees of investment officers be based on how the funds they manage perform, several corporations have begun fees of investment officers to be based on the performance of the funds they manage, several corporations have begun that investment officers' fees be based on the performance of the funds they manage, several corporations began NOTES: ―Since 1986‖ indicates action begun in the past ans continuing into the present, and the form of the verb must show the continuity, as the present perfect tense does: since 1986, corporations ―have begun‖. In the original sentence, the pronoun ―they‖ lacks a clear referent. While ―they‖ should refer unambiguously to ―investment officers‖ , grammatically its referent is somewhat unclear because ―investment officers’ ‖ is a possessive modifying ―fees‖, and the plural noun ―fees‖ intervenes between ―officers’ ‖ and the pronoun.

89.

If Dr. Wade was right, any apparent connection of the eating of highly processed foods and excelling at sports is purely coincidental. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) If Dr. Wade was right, any apparent connection of the eating of Should Dr. Wade be right, any apparent connection of eating If Dr. Wade is right, any connection that is apparent between eating of If Dr. Wade is right, any apparent connection between eating Should Dr. Wade have been right, any connection apparent between eating

99.

After the Civil War, contemporaries of Harriet Tubman's maintained that she has all of the

qualities of a great leader: coolness in the face of danger, an excellent sense of strategy, and an ability to plan in minute detail. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Tubman's maintained that she has Tubman's maintain that she had Tubman's have maintained that she had Tubman maintained that she had Tubman had maintained that she has

104. Although the first pulsar, or rapidly spinning collapsed star, to be sighted was in the summer of 1967 by graduate student Jocelyn Bell, it had not been announced until February 1968. (A) (B) (C) Although the first pulsar, or rapidly spinning collapsed star, to be sighted was in the summer of 1967 by graduate student Jocelyn Bell, it had not been announced until February 1968. Although not announced until February 1968, in the summer of 1967 graduate student Jocelyn Bell observed the first pulsar, or rapidly spinning collapsed star, to be sighted . Although observed by graduate student Jocelyn Bell in the summer of 1967, the discovery of the first sighted pulsar, or rapidly spinning collapsed star, had not been announced before February 1968. (D) The first pulsar, or rapidly spinning collapsed star, to be sighted was observed in the summer of 1967 by graduate student Jocelyn Bell, but the discovery was not announced until February 1968. (E) The first sighted pulsar, or rapidly spinning collapsed star, was not announced until February 1968, while it was observed in the summer of 1967 by graduate student Jocelyn Bell.

Comparisons 12 Edition: 108, 123, 125, 131, 136, 138, D47, D52 2
nd th

Edition: 87, 93, 97, 102, 103

108. Authoritative parents are more likely than permissive parents to have children who as adolescents are self-confident, high in self-esteem, and responsibly independent. (A) Authoritative parents are more likely than permissive parents to have children who as adolescents are self-confident, high in self-esteem, and responsibly independent. (B) (C) (D) Authoritative parents who are more likely than permissive parents to have adolescent children that are self-confident, high in self-esteem, and responsibly independent. Children of authoritative parents, rather than permissive parents, are the more likely to be self-confident, have a high self-esteem, and to be responsibly independent as adolescents. Children whose parents are authoritative rather than being permissive, are more likely to have self-confidence, a high self-esteem, and be responsibly independent when they are an adolescent. (E) Rather than permissive parents, the children of authoritative parents are the more likely to have self-confidence, a high self-esteem, and to be responsibly independent as an adolescent.

123. She was less successful after she had emigrated to New York compared to her native Germany, photographer Lotte Jacobi nevertheless earned a small group of discerning admirers, and her photographs were eventually exhibited in prestigious galleries across the United States. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) She was less successful after she had emigrated to New York compared to Being less successful after she had emigrated to New York as compared to Less successful after she emigrated to New York than she had been in Although she was less successful after emigrating to New York when compared to She had been less successful after emigrating to New York than in

125. Today, because of improvements in agricultural technology, the same amount of acreage produces double the apples that it has in 1910. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) double the apples that it has twice as many apples as it did as much as twice the apples it has two times as many apples as there were a doubling of the apples that it did

131. Over 75 percent of the energy produced in France derives from nuclear power, while in Germany it is just over 33 percent. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) while in Germany it is just over 33 percent compared to Germany, which uses just over 33 percent whereas nuclear power accounts for just over 33 percent of the energy produced in Germany whereas just over 33 percent of the energy comes from nuclear power in Germany compared with the energy from nuclear power in Germany, where it is just over 33 percent

136. Whereas in mammals the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes form a random pattern. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Whereas in mammals the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes Whereas the tiny tubes for the conveying of nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in mammals in parallel lines, birds have tubes that Unlike mammals, where the tiny tubes for conveying nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, birds' tubes Unlike mammals, in whom the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, the tubes in birds Unlike the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells, which in mammals are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes 138. In no other historical sighting did Halley's Comet cause such a worldwide sensation as did its return in 1910-1911. (A) did its return in 1910-1911

(B) (C) (D) (E)

had its 1910-1911 return in its return of 1910-1911 its return of 1910-1911 did its return in 1910-1911

D47. Like embryonic germ cells, which are cells that develop early in the formation of the fetus and that later generate eggs or sperm, embryonic stem cells have the ability of developing themselves into different kinds of body tissue. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) embryonic stem cells have the ability of developing themselves into different kinds of body tissue embryonic stem cells have the ability to develop into different kinds of body tissue in embryonic stem cells there is the ability to develop into different kinds of body tissue the ability to develop themselves into different kinds of body tissue characterizes embryonic stem cells the ability of developing into different kinds of body tissue characterizes embryonic stem cells D52. It will not be possible to implicate melting sea ice in the coastal flooding that many global warming models have projected: just like a glass of water that will not overflow due to melting ice cubes, so melting sea ice does not increase oceanic volume. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 87. like a glass of water that will not overflow due to melting ice cubes, like melting ice cubes that do not cause a glass of water to overflow, a glass of water will not overflow because of melting ice cubes, as melting ice cubes that do not cause a glass of water to overflow, as melting ice cubes do not cause a glass of water to overflow,

Last year, land values in most parts of the pinelands rose almost so fast, and in some parts even faster than what they did outside the pinelands. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) so fast, and in some parts even faster than what they did so fast, and in some parts even faster than, those as fast, and in some parts even faster than, those as fast as, and in some parts even faster than, those as fast as, and in some parts even faster than what they did

93.

Two new studies indicate that many people become obese more due to the fact that their bodies burn calories too slowly than overeating. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) due to the fact that their bodies burn calories too slowly than overeating due to their bodies burning calories too slowly than to eating too much because their bodies burn calories too slowly than that they are overeaters because their bodies burn calories too slowly than because they eat too much because of their bodies burning calories too slowly than because of their eating too much

97.

Unlike the United States, where farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, the rains in most parts of Sri Lanka are concentrated in the monsoon months, June to September,

and the skies are generally clear for the rest of the year. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Unlike the United States, where farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, the rains in most parts of Sri Lanka Unlike the United States farmers who can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, the rains in most parts of Sri Lanka Unlike those of the United States, where farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, most parts of Sri Lanka's rains In comparison with the United States, whose farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, the rains in most parts of Sri Lanka In the United States, farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, but in most parts of Sri Lanka the rains 102. As business GROWS more complex, students majoring in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been becoming increasingly successful in the job market. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) majoring in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been becoming increasingly who major in such specialized areas as finance and marketing are becoming more and more who majored in specialized areas such as those of finance and marketing are being increasingly who major in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been becoming more and more having majored in such specialized areas as finance and marketing are being increasingly

103. Inuits of the Bering Sea were in isolation from contact with Europeans longer than Aleuts or Inuits of the North Pacific and northern Alaska. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) in isolation from contact with Europeans longer than isolated from contact with Europeans longer than in isolation from contact with Europeans longer than were isolated from contact with Europeans longer than were in isolation and without contacts with Europeans longer than


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