不定式由“to+动词原形”构成,其否定形式是 “not/never to do”,不定式可以带宾语或状语 构成不定式短语,没有人称和数的变化,但有时 态和语态的变化。不定式可以作主语、宾语、 状语、表语和定语，但不能单独作谓语。
一.结构 : to do (否定) not/never to do 二. 时态与语态 不定式 主动语态 被
to do to be doing
to be done
to have been to have done done to have been ---------doing
(1).They pretended not to see us. (一般式表示与谓语的动作同时/几乎/发生在 它之后.) (2). He pretended to be sleeping. (3).She pretended to have known it before.
(在谓语动词发生的同时,不定式的动作也 正在进行) (完成式表示动作发生在谓语动作之前)
(4).We’re happy to have been working with you. (完成进行式表示谓语动作发生之前,
1. 作主语 2. 作宾语 3. 作宾语补足语 4. 作定语 5. 作状语 6. 作表语 7. 作独立成分
三. 用法/ 功能
To see is to believe. It’s important to learn English well . ?单个不定式作主语时,谓语动词用单数 ?若不定式太长,往往用it作形式主语,不定式置后.
My job is to help the patient. Your task is to clean the classroom.
I want to go home. The workers demanded to get better pay. I found it necessary to talk to him again. think/ consider/ find it + adj.+ to do
warn, tell, allow, help, ask, force等
The teacher told me to clean the blackboard. I expect you to give me some help. watch let 五看 see 三使 make look at have observe listen to notice
1> help 后面的“to”可省去
e.g. They often help the grandma (to) carry water.
2> see, hear, watch, feel, notice, look at等表示 感觉和let, make, have等表示使役的动词后 面，不定式作宾语时要省“to” （注：被动 语态不省to） e.g. I made him do his work. He was made to do his work (by me).
3> 不定式用在介词but, except, besides 后时,如果这些介词前有行为动词do的 各种形式,那么介词后的不定式不带to, 相反则带to.
(1). She could do nothing but cry. (2). I have no choice but to go. (3).What do you like to do besides sleep.
I have something to say. He has a lot of homework to do . He is looking for a room to live in . There is nothing to worry about.
请给我一支写字的笔. Please give me a pen to write with.
I came here to see you. He got up early to catch the train. 在一些短语中也有体现
in order to , so as to , enough to , only to , too….to.,
To tell the truth, I don’t agree with you.
?to be frank, ?to be honest,
(8)不定式与疑问词who,which, when, how, what等连用，在句中起名词作用，可充当 主语、表语、宾语等。
He didn’t know what to say.他不知道说什么。
How to solve the problem is very important.
My question is when to start.我的问题是什么
(1).不定式中的动词上文已出现过,下 文要 省略该动词. eg: Would you like to go with me ? I’d like to .
(2). 不定式是to be 结构, be 不可省.
eg: Would you like to be a teacher? I’d like to be.
不定式，非谓语, 具体动作有规律。 ? 作主语，作宾语, it 抢头作形式。 ? 作表语，作状语，表示任务和目的。 ? 省略动词保留to, 避免动词再重复。 ? 保留动词省略to, 感听看让半帮忙。
1.My teacher was made _____ his teaching because of poor health. A.giving up B. to give up C. give up D. given up
2.The Arctic is considered ____ the northern part of the Atlantic. A.having been B. to have been C. to be D. being
3.The Emperor ordered the wonderful cloth _____ for him without delay. A.to have woven B. to be woven C. to be weaving D. to weave 4.I found the German language hard ____. A.learned B. learning C. to be learned D. to learn
5.—The light in the office is still on. --- Oh, I forgot ______. A.turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off
6. ---What do you think of the school? ----It is a very good _____. ? school to study in B. school for children to study C. studying school D. school to study
7. ---Did you get a job? --- No, I ___ , but it’s no use. A.expected B. tried to C. managed to D. planned
8.We find it impossible for the work ___ ahead of time. A.to finish B. finishing C. being finished D. to be finished
9.---I usually go to Shanghai by train. ----Why not ___ there by boat for a change? A.to try to go B. try going C. to try going D. try to go
10.___ a living, she had to work from morning till night. A.To make B. Made C. Making D. To have made
11. I would rather starve to death than ___ for food. A.beg B. begging C. begged D. to beg
12.The boy pretended ____ when his mother entered. A.reading B. to read C. to be reading D. being read
几对易混淆的词组： stop to do sth. 停止去做某事 doing sth.停止正在做．．． forget to do sth. 忘记去做．．． doing sth. 忘记已做了．．． remember to do sth. 记得去做．．． doing sth. 记得曾经做．．． try to do sth. 努力做某事 doing sth. 尝试做某事
1. Robert is said ____ abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied in. A. to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studying
2. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ____ it more difficult. A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. don’t make 3. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what ____ in my new job. A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects
4. Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains ____ whether they will enjoy it. A. to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. see 5. It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows ____. A. it what to do with B. what to do with it C. what to do it with D. to do what with it
6. The mother didn’t know ____ to blame for the broken glass as it happened while she was out. A. who B. when C. how D. why
7. Paul doesn’t have to be made ____. He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning
8. We agreed ____ here but so far she hasn’t turned up yet. A. having met B. meeting C. to meet D. to have met 9. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ____. A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to
10. The patient was warned ____ oily food after the operation. A. to eat not B.eating not C. not to eat D.not eating
11. I would love ____ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone
12. Charles Babbage is generally considered ____the first computer. A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented
13. Little Jim should love ____ to the theatre this evening. A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taking 14. ____ late in the afternoon, Bob turned off the alarm. A. To sleep B. Sleeping C. Sleep D. Having sleep 15. The teacher asked us ____ so much noise. A. don’t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make
To love and to be loved are both great happiness. _______________
2中国人民决不会征服。 The Chinese people refuse _________________ to give in/ be conquered 3据说他已经完成了他的工作。
to have finished/completed his work He is said __________________________.
to have arrived safely They are reported ____________________
to be repaired at once/ immediately I want this bike ___________________________.
to have been told about it Mary seemed _____________________________.
to have been given He is known ________________ a gold medal at the Olympic.
1. He was overheard to say that he hoped John would resign. 2. Peter was made to wait outside.
3. He was heard to unlock the door and go out. 4. The man was seen to shoot the woman on the street. 5. The old lady was noticed to wipe her face with a handkerchief.
I forgot to ask you to go to the bank. It is very important to turn off the electricity before you check the machine. I know how to make a mouse out of my handkerchief. Luckily, we don’t have much more work to do. She was very pleased to have the opportunity to travel while she was young. She has been very successful in her work, and now her greatest wish is to get married and have a child.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
1. 2. 3. 4.
… started pushing/ to push… … promised to go… … advise you to eat… … began shouting/to shout… … avoid falling … … forget to call… … felt like throwing… … let them stay…
a. to tell a. putting a. talking a. to get b. spending b. to check b. to make c. to drink b. thinking
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