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Unit1


Main idea

Structural analysis

Main idea

1. What is the story narrated in the text about?
The story told by the author is about how his life experience ,

helped grandfather , with his own _________________ __________

him to overcome ___________________ the sadness he felt when he was about to _________________ leave his old house , and opened his eyes to
the truth of his advice that one should never say goodbye ________________ to those who were dear to him.

Main idea

Structural analysis

The text conveys the message that we should give in to __________________ never ______ bitterness or sadness , we should always be firm and strong-willed , and that we should ___________________ always remember the happy moments in our lives and ___________________________ cherish friendship _________ .

Main idea

Structural analysis

Structural analysis 1. How are the events of the essay arranged? List some words and phrases which indicate the chronological order.

The story is related in a chronological order with a flashback in the middle part.

Main idea

Structural analysis

Words and phrases which indicate a chronological order: when I was ten, When the final day came, I continued to, a year and half later, then, when it came to my turn, … Words and phrases which indicate a flashback: a long, long time ago, one day, …

Main idea

Structural analysis

2. Based on the time phrases found above, divide the text into parts by completing the table. Time when I was ten, When the final day come paragraph(s) 1 2-4 Event The author was to leave his big old house. The author was anguish about the move. His grandfather advised him not to use the word “goodbye” to friends, for it implied sadness.

Main idea

Structural analysis

Time I continued to

paragraph(s)
5-9

Event The author’s grandfather took him to see the huge red rosebush in the front yard. Grandfather recalls the death of his first son and his response to it.

a long, long time ago

10-13

Main idea

Structural analysis

Time a year and half later

paragraph(s) 14-20

Event The dying old man parted with his grandson calmly and even cheerfully without saying the word “goodbye”.

Detailed reading

Never Say Goodbye 1. When I was ten I was suddenly confronted with the anguish of moving from the only home I had ever known. My whole life, brief as it was, had been spent in that big old house, gracefully touched with the laughter and tears of four generations. 2. When the final day came, I ran to the haven of the small back porch and sat alone, shuddering, as tears welled up from my heart. Suddenly I felt a hand rest on my shoulder. I looked up to see my grandfather. “It isn’t easy, is it, Billy?” he said softly, sitting down on the steps beside me.

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3. 4.

“Grandpa,” I replied through my tears, “how can I For a moment he just stared off into the apple

ever say goodbye to you and all my friends?”
trees. “Goodbye is such a sad word,” he said. “It seems too final, too cold, for friends to use. We seem to have so many ways of saying goodbye and they all have one

thing in common: sadness.”

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5. I continued to look into his face. He gently took my hand in his. “Come with me, my friend,” he whispered. 6. We walked, hand in hand, to his favorite place in the front yard, where a huge red rosebush sat conspicuously alone. 7. “What do you see here, Billy?” He asked. 8. I looked at the flowers, not knowing what to say, and then answered, “I see something soft and beautiful, Grandpa.” 9. Kneeling, he pulled me close. “It isn’t just the roses that are beautiful, Billy. It’s that special place in your heart that makes them so.”

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10. His eyes met mine again. “Billy, I planted these roses a long, long time ago — before your mother was even a dream. I put them into the soil the day my first son was born. It was my way of saying thank you to God. That boy’s name was Billy, just like yours. I used to watch him pick roses for his mother.” 11. I saw my grandfather’s tears. I had never seen him cry before. His voice became hoarse. 12. “One day a terrible war came, and my son, like so many sons, went away to fight a great evil. He and I walked to the train station together ... Three months later a telegram came. My son had died in some tiny village in Italy. All I could think of was that the last thing I said to him in this life was goodbye.”

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13. Grandpa slowly stood up. “Don’t ever say goodbye, Billy. Don’t ever give in to the sadness and the loneliness of that word. I want you to remember instead the joy and the happiness of those times when you first said hello to a friend. Take that special hello and lock it away within you — in that place in your heart where summer is an always time. When you and your friends must part, I want you to reach deep within you and bring back that first hello.”

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14.

A year and half later, my grandfather became

gravely ill. When he returned from several weeks in the hospital, he wanted his bed next to the window, where

he could see his beloved rosebush.
15. Then the family was summoned and I returned to the old house. It was decided that the oldest grandchildren would be allowed to say their goodbyes.

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16.

When it came to my turn, I noted how tired he

looked. His eyes were closed and his breathing was slow and hard. 17. mine. I took his hand as gently as he had once taken

18.
19.

“Hello, Grandpa,” I whispered. His eyes slowly
“Hello, my friend,” he said, with a brief smile.

opened. His eyes closed again and I moved on.

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20. I was standing by his rosebush when an uncle came to tell me that my grandfather had died. Remembering Grandpa’s words, I reached deep within me for those special feelings that had made up our friendship. Suddenly, and truly, I knew what he had meant about never saying goodbye — about refusing to give in to the sadness.

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Paragraph 1 Question

What do you know about the author’s home?
The author’s home was a large old house, in which four generations had lived in harmony and experienced both happiness and sadness.

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Paragraph 2 Question
Why did the author shudder and shed tears when the final day came? Because he was extremely reluctant to leave and could not bear to say goodbye to his grandfather and his friends as well as to his big old house.

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confront: vt. 1) be faced with and have to deal with e.g. The actress was confronted by a large group of reporters as she left the stage door. Whenever we are confronted with any difficulties, we shouldn’t give up what we are doing. 2) force to deal with or accept the truths of; bring face to face with e.g. When the police confronted her with the evidence, she confessed she was guilty.

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Collocations:
be confronted with confront sb. with sth. Synonyms: encounter, face

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anguish: n. very great pain and suffering, esp. of the mind
e.g. Lear, a broken, confused old man, died in anguish. 李尔王,这位身心交瘁、精神恍惚的老人在痛苦中死去。 Derivations: anguished: adj. anguish: vt. Synonyms: pain, suffering

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Exercise: Choose the proper word to fill in each blank in the following sentences.
anguish anguished

(1) Outsiders will find it hard to imagine the mental anguish we had to go through. _______ (2) An anguished _________ look appeared on her face. anguish over her missing child. (3) She was in _______

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gracefully: adv. 1)in an attractively and effortlessly fine and smooth manner
e.g. Already in her fifties, she danced gracefully on the stage last night, attracting a large audience. The figure skater glided gracefully on the ice. 花样滑冰者在冰上优雅地滑行。 2) in a way that shows willingness to behave fairly and honorably e.g. The request was gracefully refused. 这个请求被有礼貌地回绝了。

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Derivations: graceful: adj. grace n.
Comparison: gracious, graceful graceful: moving in a smooth and attractive way, or having an attractive shape or form gracious: behaving in a polite, kind, and generous way, especially to people of a lower rank. gracious hospitality. Thank you for your _______ The lady of small waist is elegant and graceful _______ .

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touch: vt.& vi. 1) put one’s hand onto sth. or sb. else e.g. Visitors are requested not to touch the paintings. 2) have an effect on one’s feelings; cause one to feel pity, sympathy, etc. e.g. Her plight has touched the hearts of people around the world. 她所处的困境牵动着全世界人民的心。 The environmental problems touch us all. 这些环境问题与我们所有人都有关。

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Collocation: be touched with e.g. Her hair is touched with grey. 她有些灰发了。 Derivations: touched: adj. touching: adj.

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shudder: vi. shake uncontrollably for a moment, esp. from fear, cold, or dislike shudder at/with e.g. She shuddered at the sight of the dead body. 她一看到那具尸体就不寒而栗。 Comparison: shudder, shake shudder: vi. It suggests a more intense shaking, which is less noticeable to an onlooker. shake: vt.& vi. It suggests sth. that is done to as well as by a person or object.

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People still shudder _______ at the thought of that terrible earthquake. shaking in that sudden gust The tree branches were _______ of wind.

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well: vi. flow or start to flow (outflow)

e.g. Strong emotions welled up.
Collocation:

well out/up/forth
e.g. She was so moved that her tears welled out(up/forth) from her eyes. 她感动得泪如泉涌。

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rest on/upon 1) lean on; to be supported by

e.g. She sat down and rested her feet on the chair.
2)(esp. of a proof, argument, etc.) be based on; be grounded on; depend on e.g. His hopes rest on the leader. 他的希望全寄托在领导者的身上。 e.g. Our policy should rest on the basis of self-reliance. 我们的政策要建立在自力更生的基础之上。

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Paragraph 4 Question Why did his grandfather advise him not to use the word “goodbye” to friends? Because the word “goodbye” seemed too final, too cold, for friends to use and it implied sadness. His grandfather wanted him to recall the joy and happy events of the life instead of feeling sad and miserable.

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through: prep. (1) in at one side, end, or surface of something and out at the other e.g. We couldn’t see through the mist. Is it quicker to drive straight through the center? (2) among or between the parts or members of e.g. The monkeys swung through the trees. I searched through my papers for the missing documents.

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stare: vi. (1) look steadily for a long time, e.g. in great surprise or shock e.g. The child stared the stranger up and down. 这个孩子上上下下地打量着这个陌生人。 He was staring, thinking. (2) be very plain to see; be obvious e.g. The lies in the report stared out at us from every paragraph.

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Collocations: stare stare stare stare sb. sb. sb. sb. down/out 盯得某人局促不安 into silence 瞪得某人哑口无言 up and down 上下打量某人 in the face 近在眼前

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Activity: Role Play Directions: A grandchild is going to say goodbye to his beloved grandfather/grandmother because he is leaving for college next day and will be away for several months. Work in groups and role play the child, his mother and his grandfather. You are supposed to use the following words and phrases as many as possible. confront anguish gracefully touched with the laughter and tears, shudder well up rest on through ones’ tears stare have sth. in common

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My whole life, brief as it was, had been spent in that big old house, gracefully touched with the laughter and tears of four generations. Paraphrase: I spent my whole life, although it was so brief, in that big old house, in which four generations of our family had lived harmoniously and experienced both happiness and sadness. Explanation: “brief as it was”: In a formal style, as can be used in a special word order to mean although. The construction suggests a very emphatic contrast.

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Frosty as it was, they still went out. (Although it was very extremely cold, they still went out.) Bravely as they fought, they had no chance of winning. (Although they fought so bravely, they had no chance of winning.) Translation: 我这一辈子都是在这旧的大宅子中度过的,尽管生命非 常短暂,我却深深地体会到了一家四代人的欢笑与泪水。

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I felt a hand rest on my shoulder. Explanation: The word feel can be followed by the “object + infinitive (without to )” structure. Did you feel the earth move? He felt her hand tense up in his. Question: Do you know some other words which can be followed by the “object + infinitive (without to )” structure? Hear, listen, let, make, have, notice, watch, etc.

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Translation: 我感到有只手搭在我的肩上。

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Paragraphs 5-13 Question
Why did the author’s grandfather take him to see the rosebush in the front yard? The author’s grandfather wanted to tell him the story about the planting of the roses and explain to him the reason not to say goodbye to one’s relatives and friends.

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Paragraph 10 Question
Why did the author’s grandfather plant those roses?

To thank God for his good fortune of having his first son by planting those roses.

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Paragraph 13 Question What kind of advice did the author’s grandfather offer in Paragraph 13? Never give in to the sadness and the loneliness evoked by that word goodbye and remember instead the joy and the happiness of those times sharing with a friend.

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pick: vt. vi. 1) take what one likes or considers best, or most suitable from a group e.g. One of my sisters has been picked for the Olympic team. The police asked him if he could pick (out) the killer from a series of photos. 2) gather; pull or break off (part of a plant) from a tree or plant e.g. Machines pick the fruit from/off the trees. They spent the summer picking strawberries.

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3) take up or remove sth. separately or bit by bit using the fingers, a beak, a pointed instrument, etc. e.g. He was on his knees picking crumbs off the carpet. Comparison: choose, select, pick choose: It stresses a choice of the best suited between or among things under consideration, which is the result of one’s judgment. e.g. She said she had chosen the skirt because its color was just right for the season.

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select: It stresses a choice of sth. best to one’s liking or desire among many things present through careful examination and discrimination, with a view to a given purpose.

e.g. You may select whatever you like as the birthday gift.
pick: It is an informal word and a synonym to select. e.g. Mary picked a red skirt because she liked red.

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Exercise: Choose the proper word to fill each blank in the following sentences.
choose select pick

picked a piece of fluff off my shiny black suit. (1) I ______ (2) After careful comparison, Beijing was selected _______ as the city where the 2008 Olympic Games were to be held. (3) Mr. Johnson was chosen ______ to participate in the project

because of his being a fully qualified engineer.

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hoarse adj. (of a voice) rough-sounding, as though the surface of the throat is rougher than usual, e.g. when the speaker has a sore throat e.g. You’ll make yourself hoarse if you keep shouting like that! Comparison: husky, harsh, thick husky: (of a person’s voice) low and rough, often in an attractive way, or because of illness e.g. She’s got a nice husky voice — very sexy. You sound husky — do you have a cold?

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harsh: unpleasant to listen to e.g. “There is no alternative,” she said in a harsh voice.

thick: not as clear or high as usual, for example because someone has been crying
e.g. Bill’s voice was thick and gruff.

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Activity: Act It Out
Please say sth. in the following voices: in a harsh voice in a high-pitched voice in falsetto in a strident voice in a choking voice in a hoarse

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evil 1) n. a great wickedness or misfortune e.g. Drug-addiction is one of today’s great social evils. There’s always a conflict between good and evil in his plays.
2) adj. immoral, cruel, or very unpleasant e.g. It’s a battle against the country’s most evil terrorists. Synonyms:

corrupt, vicious, wicked, malicious Antonyms:
good, honest, moral, sinless

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tiny adj. extremely small; very small e.g. Though she was tiny, she had a very loud voice. Synonyms:

mini, small, little, puny, slight
Antonyms: big, enormous, great, huge, large, vast

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Comparison: small, little, tiny small: It refers to size and is the usual opposite of “big” or “large”. e.g. Could I have a hamburger and a small Coke please? little: It refers to size but it also expresses the speaker’s feelings.

e.g. They live in a beautiful little village.

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part vt. (to cause to) separate or be no longer together e.g. To be parted from him even for only two days made her sad. Tony bent to look out of the window, parting the curtains with one hand. Derivations: parted adj. parting n./adj. e.g. On his wall he has a poster of Marilyn Monroe, her lips forever parted (= separated) in anticipation. The pain of parting had lessened over the years.

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Translation: 结婚这三十年间他们几乎从未分开过。

They were hardly ever parted in thirty years of marriage.
The sunlight flooded the room when he parted the curtains. 他拉开窗帘,屋里顿时充满了阳光。

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bring back 1) cause to return e.g. All library books must be brought back before the end of the term. 2) obtain and return with e.g. He always brings me back something nice when he goes abroad. Travellers brought back news of the outside world. 3) cause to return to the mind e.g. The photos brought back some wonderful memories. Seeing her again brought all the sweet memories back.

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4) start to do or use something that was done or used in the past e.g. Few politicians are in favour of bringing back the death penalty. He wants to bring back the glamour of the old Hollywood films. Exercise:Fill in the blanks with one of the following prepositions.

in on away up with back into
1. People arrived at the site of the fire and began away the debris. clearing _____

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

in on away up with back into He threw himself wholeheartedly ____ into the fight against fascism. The storekeeper knew exactly where everything was and could lay his hands on __ what he wanted in the dark. up within minutes. The fire heats the room ___ I wrote to Donna several months ago, but she hasn’t back yet. written _____ This cake’s very light compared ____ with the last one you made. I’ve got a pain __ in my back.

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... before your mother was even a dream. Paraphrase: ... before your grandma and I could think about having a daughter/long before your mother was born.

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I used to watch him pick roses for his mother.
Translation: 过去,我常看到他为他母亲采摘玫瑰花。 Explanation: The word watch can be followed by the “object + infinitive (without to)” or “object + -ing” structure, but there is often a difference in meaning. The use of an infinitive indicates the whole of an action or event, and that of an -ing form suggests part of an action or event. I watched her cross the road. (from one side to the other) I watched her crossing the road. (in the middle of the road, on her way across)

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Take that special hello and lock it away within you — in that place in your heart where summer is an always time.
Paraphrase: Bear that special hello in your mind and never forget it so that you will be always filled with the joy and happiness of summer.

Explanation:
Note that the word “always” is usually an adverb, rarely used as an adjective. However, it is used as an adjective in this sentence by the writer in the meaning of “everlasting.”

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Translation: 请将那特别的问候深藏于心 —— 珍藏在你内心那充满永 恒夏日阳光之处。

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When you and your friends must part, I want you to reach deep within you and bring back that first hello.
Paraphrase: When you and your friends must separate, I hope that you can recall the joy and happiness you got when you first greeted each other.

Translation:
在你必须与你朋友分别时,希望你能于内心深处找回初 次问候时的喜悦。

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Paragraph 14 Question Why did the author’s grandfather want his bed to be next to the window? Because he wanted to see his beloved rosebush through the window and the sight of the rosebush would remind him of the joy and happiness of life he had experienced.

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Paragraph 15 Question
Why was the family summoned to the old house? Because it was decided that the oldest grandchildren would be allowed to say their goodbyes to their dying grandfather.

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Paragraphs 16-19 Question What do you think of the parting between the author and his grandfather? The parting between the author and his grandfather was calm and pleasant as if they were old friends greeting each other, which showed that his grandfather adopted an optimistic attitude towards death and that the author became so strong-willed as not to give in to the sadness.

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gravely adv. in a way showing great seriousness; (of manner) in a state of being serious and solemn
e.g. “The situation poses a serious threat to peace,” said the ambassador gravely. 大使严肃地说:“这样的局势对和平形成严重的威胁。” Synonym: seriously

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Derivation:
grave adj. gravity n.

e.g. His face was grave as he told them about the accident. He doesn’t seem to understand the gravity of the situation.

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beloved adj./n. (a person who is) dearly loved e.g. His beloved wife died. It is a gift from my beloved. (=from my wife, husband, etc.)

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summon vt. 1) order officially to come

e.g. The guards were summoned into the presence of the Queen.
2) tell or request people to come to; convene

e.g. At the critical moment, the army commander summoned all the officers to a meeting to work out new strategies and tactics which would make it possible to conquer the enemy. 在紧急关头,军长召集全体军官开会,制定新的克敌 战略战术。

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Collocation: summon sth. up
1) bring (a quality) out of oneself, esp. with an effort e.g. She had to summon up all her strength to lift the rock. I can’t summon up much enthusiasm for the project. 2) cause sth. to come into the mind; evoke sth. e.g. He summoned up his memory of his former neighbour. Derivation: summoner n.

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turn: n. 1) an act of turning; a single movement completely round a fixed point e.g. Don’t pull the handle; give it a turn. Give the key a turn, and the lock will open. 2) a point of change in time e.g. Young people at the turn of the century must draw up a mighty blueprint. 世纪之交的年轻人必须绘制一幅宏伟的蓝图。

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Collocations:
at every turn: everywhere or all the time by turns: (of people or their actions) one after the other; in rotation in turn: afterwards; in the correct or expected order on the turn: about to turn or change out of turn: at an unsuitable time or in an unsuitable way

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note vt. 1) notice and remember; observe
e.g. Note the way this writer uses the present tense for dramatic effect. Please note that this bill must be paid within 10 days. Note how he operates the machine and try to copy with him. 2) remark; call attention to e.g. The report notes with approval the government’s efforts to resolve this problem. 这份报告以赞同的口吻特别提到政府为解决这个问题 所作的努力。

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Derivations:
noted; notable

Comparison: note, notice
note: v. notice and remember e.g. Note how he operates the machine and try to copy with him. notice: v. pay attention (to) with the eyes, other senses, or mind e.g. She was wearing a new dress, but he didn’t even notice (it). Did you notice whether I locked the door?

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breathe vt. 1) take air, gas, etc. into the lungs and send it out again e.g. The doctor told me to breathe in deeply and then to breathe out slowly. I will remember the day as long as I breathe. 2) whisper; say softly
e.g. He breathed words of love into her ear. She breathed a sigh of relief when she heard that she had passed the exam. Derivation:

breather n. e.g. We’ve been working quite a long time now; let’s have/take a breather.

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Activity: Rumor Goes Sit in rows or lines of five. The students in the first row / line are given one sentence, which they should recite to the next students. The sentences will be passed on until the last students, who come to the blackboard to write down the sentences. His face was grave as he told them about the accident. He doesn’t seem to understand the gravity of the situation. She had to summon up all her strength to lift the rock. I can’t summon up much enthusiasm for the project. He tried to summon up his memory what he knew of his former neighbour.

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Note how he operates the machine and try to copy with him. She was wearing a new dress, but he didn’t even notice (it). She breathed a sigh of relief when she heard that she had passed the exam. The president stopped off briefly in London on his way to Geneva.

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Remembering Grandpa’s words, I reached deep within me for those special feelings that had made up our friendship. Paraphrase: Remembering Grandpa’s words, I tried to bring back to my mind the joy and the happiness that I had shared with him. Translation: 忆起爷爷的嘱咐时,我在内心深处找回了那些建立起 我们友谊的特别情感。

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Phrase practice Word comparison Synonym / Antonym

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Tenses Verbs of perception
Special word order with as and though

Present participle phrases used as adverbials

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Use of simple past tense:
1) The simple past tense is used to talk about completed actions and habits in the past. e.g. Shakespeare died in 1616. We used to walk a mile in the morning when we were in London. 2) Past tense of verbs such as want, wonder, hope is used for polite inquiries.

e.g. I wondered how you liked the film.

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Use of past progressive:
1) The past progressive indicates a limited duration of time and is thus a convenient way to indicate that something took place (in the simple past) while something else was happening. e.g. Carlos lost his watch while he was running. 2) The past progressive can express incomplete action. e.g. I was sleeping on the couch when Bertie smashed through the door.

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※ as opposed to the simple past, which suggests a completed action e.g. I slept on the couch last night.
3) The past progressive is also used to poke fun at or criticize an action that is sporadic but habitual in nature. e.g. Tashonda was always handing in late papers. 4) We use the past progressive of verbs such as wonder to show politeness. e.g. I was wondering if you could give me a lift. ※ This use is even more polite and tentative than the simple past.

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Use of past perfect tense: 1) The past perfect tense expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past. e.g. I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.

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2) If the past perfect tense is not referring to an action at a specific time, it is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here the past perfect tense is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, the past perfect tense cannot be used. e.g. She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. × She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. √

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Practice: Complete the following sentences using the simple past, past progressive or past perfect tense. 1. He watched the children for a moment. Some of them were bathing (bathe) in the sea, others ___________ were looking (look) for shells, still others were playing ___________ ___________ (play) in the sand. leaving (leave) at 14:33, and 2. I thought my train was __________ was (be) very disappointed when I arrived ____ ______(arrive) at 14:30 and _______ learned (learn) that it ___ had just ___ left (leave). I _____ found (find) later that I ________ had used (use) an out-of-date timetable.

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was cycling (cycle) home yesterday when suddenly 3. I __________ stepped (step) into the road in front of me. I a man _______ was going (go) quite fast but luckily I managed ________ _________ (manage) to stop in time and _________ didn’t hit (not hit) him. playing (play) the guitar while her sister 4. She was __________ was singing (sing). __________

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5. I tried ____ (try) to fill out the form, but I couldn’t answer half of the questions. They wanted ______ (want) me to include references, but I didn’t want to list my had had (have) some previous landlord because I _______ problems with him in the past and I knew he wouldn't recommend me. I ended ______ (end) up listing my father as a reference. recognize 6. When Jack entered _______ (enter) the room, I didn’t ______________ had lost (lose) so (recognize, not) him because he _______ grown (grow) a beard. He looked much weight and ______ totally different!

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The past progressive refers to an event in progress.

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We use the simple past tense to express a short action that happens in the middle of the long action. We can join the two ideas with when or while.

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Verbs of perception are a set of verbs denoting the use of one of the physical senses. Some verbs of perception see, look at, hear, listen, and feel, along with watch and sense can be used with objects followed by verbs in -ing form, -ed form and infinitive form. e.g. We heard you leave. (Emphasis on our hearing.) We heard you leaving. (Emphasis on your leaving.) John has never heard the piece played before. (Emphasis on the passive voice of play.)

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Practice: Fill in the blanks with the proper form of the verbs in the brackets. 1. The instructor watched the student take ____ (take) the test. barking (bark), but it didn’t keep me 2. I heard the dog _______ awake. 3. She felt herself _____ lifted (lift) up by the wind and ______ (throw) to the ground. thrown 4. The missing boy was last seen playing ______ (play) near the river. 5. They knew her very well. They had seen her grow ____ (grow) up from childhood.

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In a concessive clause introduced by though or although, the complement or the adverbial can be placed at the beginning of the sentence. The formula for the inversion is:
complement / adverbial + as / though + subject + predicate verb e.g. Old as / though he is, he works hard as a young man. Hard as / though he studied, he did not pass the examination.

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Practice: Rewrite the following sentences according to the model.
Model: Though it was brief, it had been spent in that big old house. ? Brief as it was, it had been spent in that big old house. 1. Though he was poor, he was honest. Poor as / though he was, he was honest.

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2. Though I admire him much as a writer, I do not like him as a man. Much as / though I admire him as a writer, I do not like him as a man.

3. Although he is a child, he knows a lot.
Child as / though he is, he knows a lot. 4. Though he worked hard, he didn’t finish the work satisfactorily. Hard as / though he worked, he didn’t finish the work satisfactorily.

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Present participle phrases can be used as adverbials to express reason, condition, time, result and attending circumstances.
e.g. Turning around, she saw an ambulance driving up. ( time ) Knowing English well, he can read Shakespeare. ( reason) Working still harder, you will succeed. ( condition) Their car was caught in a traffic jam, thus causing the delay. ( result ) He sat at the window eating. ( attending circumstances )

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Practice: Fill in each blank with the proper form of the verb in the brackets and decide what it expresses. 1. He put the big box down on the floor, breathing (breathe) ________ looking _______ heavily and (look) exhausted. 2. Considering __________ (consider) the importance of the experiment, they checked the result again and again. 3. This same thing, happening _________ (happen) in the peacetime, would be a great disaster.

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4. We introduced a lot of advanced devices, thus saving ______ (save) much time and labor. Hearing (hear) the news, they all jumped with joy. 5. _______


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